In some works, the feasibility of the use of fixed and
variable electromagnetic fields of different frequencies
and tension in the production technology of sunflower
oil are shown, but there is no theoretical justification.
The possibility of electromagnetic effects is associated
with the presence of polar molecules specific to organic
systems. Without prejudice to the role of polar groups
of terrestrial circuits, this work tries to address this
challenge more comprehensively. The reason for this is
the distinctive feature of the behavior of sunflower
during its flowering. This characteristic is that the
sunflower hat during the day changes its direction in
accordance with the direction of movement of the Sun
across the sky; so called "magnetism" of their
attraction. To justify this effect, we have analyzed the
essence of emitted photons, the Sun chemical
composition and structure arrangement of seeds in a
sunflower hat. Particles of light from the Sun represent
a stream of photons - a wide range of electromagnetic
waves of frequencies that exhibit and magnetic
properties. The article shows principal macro- and
micronutrients of sunflower raw materials and divides
them into groups of para- , dia- , and ferromagnetic
materials. In sunflower seeds, there are chemical
elements: diamagnetism-C, H, N, P, S, B, Cu, Zn, J;
paramagnetism-O, K, Ca, Mg, Mo, As and
ferromagnetic-iron (Fe). As there is resultant force of
the magnetic attraction between the sunflower hat and
magnetic flow of photons from the Sun, this effect
dominates the action of paramagnetics K2O ( -28.4
24.5%), CaO (7.6-17.0)%, MgO (12.3-17.9%),
magnetized in an external magnetic field in the
direction of the field. The presence of evident effect
demonstrates that it is possible to improve a number of
technological operations in the manufacture of
sunflower oil using electrical, magnetic or
electromagnetic fields

In this work, a model is developed that describes the
formation of a stepped lightning leader in a conducting
medium. To describe the contribution of the conductivity
currents, we modified the standard electrostatic equation
taking into account the vortex component of the electric
field. As a result of this generalization, a system of
parabolic-type nonlinear equations is formulated that
describes the formation of streamers and the lightning
channel. Numerical simulation of the propagation of
ionization waves in a region with a ratio of 1/100, 1/200
allows us to identify two types of stepped streamers in
the form of waves of compression and rarefaction,
respectively. It was previously established that there are
three streamer branching mechanisms. The first
mechanism is related to the instability of the front, which
leads to the separation of the head of the streamer into
two parts. The second mechanism is associated with the
instability of the streamer in the base region, which leads
to the branching of the streamer with the formation of a
large number of lateral streamers closing the main
channel of the streamer to the cathode. In numerical
experiments, the third branching mechanism observed in
experiments connected with closing the space charge to
the anode through the streamer system was observed.
These branching mechanisms are also revealed when the
leader is propagated. The obtained results, as well as the
data of numerical experiments confirm the hypothesis of
the universality of the minimal model of the streamer, as
well as its expansion in the form proposed by the author.
Known phenomena of nature associated with the
electrical discharge - streamer, plasmoid, ball lightning
and stepped leader can be described within the
framework of the minimal model

Nonparametric estimates of the probability
distribution density in spaces of arbitrary nature are
one of the main tools of non-numerical statistics.
Their particular cases are considered - kernel density
estimates in spaces of arbitrary nature, histogram
estimations and Fix-Hodges-type estimates. The
purpose of this article is the completion of a series
of papers devoted to the mathematical study of the
asymptotic properties of various types of
nonparametric estimates of the probability
distribution density in spaces of general nature.
Thus, a mathematical foundation is applied to the
application of such estimates in non-numerical
statistics. We begin by considering the mean square
error of the kernel density estimate and, in order to
maximize the order of its decrease, the choice of the
kernel function and the sequence of the blur
indicators. The basic concepts are the circular
distribution function and the circular density. The
order of convergence in the general case is the same
as in estimating the density of a numerical random
variable, but the main conditions are imposed not on
the density of a random variable, but on the circular
density. Next, we consider other types of
nonparametric density estimates - histogram
estimates and Fix-Hodges-type estimates. Then we
study nonparametric regression estimates and their
application to solve discriminant analysis problems
in a general nature space

It is known that not every finite group can be
realized over the field of rational numbers as a
Galois group of some binomial. In this connection,
a more general question arises: suppose that there
is given a finite transitive subgroup G of the
symmetric group S on n symbols; Can this group G
be realized as a Galois group of some trinomial of
degree n over the field of rational numbers? In this
paper we prove that every transitive subgroup of
the group S can be realized in the form of the
Galois group of a certain trinomial of the degree n,
for the values n = 2, 3, 4. For n = 5 , 6 we give
examples that realize concrete Galois groups. In the
case n = 7, all the transitive subgroups of the group
S are realized, except possibly one group of the
isomorphic dihedral group D. Further calculations
will be directed to the realization of specific Galois
groups for n = 8, 9 ..., however, the number of
transitive subgroups of the group S for n = 8, 9 ...
grows very fast, so the larger the value of n, the
more difficult it is to realize not just everything but
the specific subgroup of the group S in the form of
a trinomial over Q

Surface energy of polymers determines such
important properties of polymers like wetability,
adhesion, ability adsorption of low molecular weight
substances. Inner organization, the structure of the
polymer and the dynamics of interaction between
macromolecular chains are shown at last. At the same
time, the micro-defects (inhomogeneity) of polymers,
which is an integral part of the structure are changed
during deformation and must contribute to changing
of the surface energy and its components.
This article solves the task of detecting changes in the
parameters of surface energy of polymers under
uniaxial deformation. Data for the quantitative
indicators of the surface properties total surface
energy and its dispersive and polar components are
presented. The calculations showed that the disperse
and polar components of all the samples of polymer
materials are about 98% of the total and, therefore, is
crucial. For the first time experimental data,
illustrating the change of surface energy of polymeric
materials had been obtained, including elastomeric
compositions, when uniaxial deformation. The
relative changes of the surface energy vary from 54.5
per cent to 125 %. A decrease of total surface energy
and its dispersion component is observed during
deformation of polymer samples of different structure
and chemical nature

The article presents the results of studies of changes in
the atomic radii of the elements of the periodic table,
depending on their atomic masses. It is shown that the
appearance of p- and d-orbitals introduces a significant
contribution to the value of the atomic radius, and the
appearance of f-orbitals makes a significantly smaller
contribution to the given value. A radial-mass model of
calculations of atomic radii for the elements of the
Periodic Table was developed. Optimal conditions for
making calculations were chosen. For the first time the
values of atomic radii for elements with the order
number 103-120 are calculated. It is shown that the
values of atomic radii for elements with the order
number 103-120 are in the range from 140 to 335
picometers and regularly change in the period

The article presents the results of studies of changes in
the atomic radii of isotopes of the elements of the
periodic table. With using the mass-radial model of
calculations, the values of atomic radii for isotopes of
chemical elements were obtained. It is shown that the
atomic radius of different isotopes of one element is
different and depends on the mass and radius of the
nucleus. To study the changes in ∆Rav values in the
groups and periods of the Periodic Table of Chemical
Elements, the ∆Rav dependences on the period number
and group number are constructed. It is found that the
values depending on the number ∆Rav period / group
for the d-elements lie in the low ∆Rav values for selements
- in high ∆Rav values, and p-elements - in
average values ∆Rav. It is shown that when the atomic
nucleus is increased by 1 neutron, the atomic radius
increases from 0.01 to 4.76 pm, which is due to the
physical effect inside the atom

The phenomenon of fasciation on the example of a higher plant called “Taraxacum officinale Wigg” has been considered. The effect of fasciation on the various particularities of plants has been shown. There are numerous examples of the different fasciation types of present plant’s type which are growing in different ecological areas. We have demonstrated that the phenomenon of fasciation exists in natural populations and in areas with development pressures, and it may occur after mechanical damage to plants of Taraxacum officinale. In most cases, fasciation is regarded as an exceptional phenomenon. A number of authors have distinguished fasciation to non-inheritable and inheritable. The first is the influence of external factors such as insect damage, injury, weather conditions. The second is caused by internal reasons. The number of regularities was installed that the reproductive bodies of plants are more often fascinated, and thermophilic forms are more likely to have fasciation. Photographic images of various types of fasciation, patterns and diagrams are given. Fasciation can be considered as a marker because of the connection of this phenomenon with the violation of the ecological situation. Plants with morphoses including ones with fasciation of individual organs, can act as indicators of pollution of the natural environment. Thus, the phenomenon of fasciation affects many areas of science, such as ecology, morphogenesis, genetic monitoring. The possibility of studying the phenomenon of fasciation on a model object of dandelion is shown. As a methodical approach to the study of this phenomenon, it is proposed to create a database of images, in this way it would be cataloging the image

The article presents the results of the genetic analysis of the trait ‘plant height’ for six crosses involving the forms related to different subspecies of rice. There have been estimated the types of inheritance and a number of genes, which assist to determine this quantitative trait. We have found out that the variance of the trait ‘plant height’ is determined by 3-5 pairs of genes having additive and dominant activities and the degree of dominance reduces in case the variance among parental forms increases. The non-allelic interaction of the genes of the initial forms produces transgressive dwarf and tall forms. The cross ‘Lampo’x’Virazh’ showed the highest degree of transgression in ‘plant height’ due to short height of both parental forms (61.7%), but the frequency of transgression was larger than that of the cross ‘Lampo’x’Komandor’(17.6%). This combination (‘Lampo’x’Komandor’) produced more tall forms (up to 135 cm). The segregation of a great number of tall forms into F2 testifies that the parental forms of these hybrids vary in the allelic state of several pairs of genes, whose various combinations form phenotypes with a longer stem. Thus, the semi-dwarf feature of the varieties ‘Lampo’, ‘Komandor’ and ‘Virazh’ is determined by various non-allelic genes

In the Southern Federal University on the genetic basis
of sunflower inbred line 3629, a collection of plastid
mutants with varying degrees of chlorophyll
deficiency was created by inducing Nnitrosomethylurea.
Chlorophyll content was associated
with their photosynthetic activity. It was found that the
lower the chlorophylls content in mutant plastids, the
lower the sugar concentration in plant tissues. For
example, during the entire period of plant growth for
whites (1.0-3.0 % chlorophylls a+b from control) var-
10, var-17 and yellows (6.0-9.5 % chlorophylls a+b
from control) var-29, var-33 leaf areas of variegated
mutants depending on the development phase and the
content of green pigments are characterized by a low
(2-7 fold) sugar content. Yellow-green (75.5%
chlorophylls a + b from control) leaves of en:chlorina-
7 contain a higher level of carbohydrates, although it is
1.5-2 fold lower than at line 3629. Monosaccharides
are products of hydrolytic reactions catalyzed by β-
glycosidases. It was shown, that the activity level of β-
galactosidase and β-glucosidase exceeded the
corresponding indicators of the control at 1.5-2 and 2-7
fold, respectively. Similarly to enzymes from the
water-soluble fraction, membrane-bound β-
glycosidases also showed increased activity in the
leaves of the investigated mutants, compared to the
control green plants of 3629. Consequently, the
activity of β-glycosidases increases dramatically in
leaf tissues with deficiency of photosynthetic. Thus,
chlorophyll mutations can lead to a change in the
expression of nuclear genes, resulting in a significant
increase in the activity of β-glycosidases in the mutant organelles themselves