Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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240 kb

OPPORTUNITIES TO REDUCE OPERATING COSTS IN THE PRODUCTION OF LEGUMINOUS CROPS

abstract 1501906001 issue 150 pp. 0 – 0 28.06.2019 ru 20
The article considers the possibility of reducing the cost of tillage in the production of grain crops. The most important economic characteristic of production is operating costs. In terms of agricultural production, they represent the amount of contributions to wages, depreciation, repairs, and the cost of fuel, lubricants and other consumables. In this regard, the aim of the research was to determine the dynamics of operating costs in the production of legumes. Determination of the dynamics of operating costs was carried out on the basis of the results of studies of energy-saving technologies in a stationary experience. Variants of processing of the soil on the conventional technology was layered subsurface tillage combined unit, UNS-3, the layered subsurface tillage unit CUO-2 and conventional tillage (PN-5-35). No provision was made for zero tillage technology. As a result of the research it was found that on pre-sowing tillage and sowing, the value of operating costs varies for the crops under consideration, but has almost the same values (within each crop) for the methods of the main tillage. More preferable for this type of work is zero tillage, as it provides 21-29% lower operating costs due to direct sowing of crops. The highest operating costs for all the crops under consideration are observed in the main tillage. In the same technological period of work operating costs are the most variable. Thus, depending on the technology of the tillage when growing winter wheat, they change within 117,2-5229,2, the production of spring barley - to 167,8-4517,4 and in the production of peas – to 136,6-4517,4 thousand rubles
1437 kb

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND MEANS OF CULTIVATION

abstract 1501906002 issue 150 pp. 0 – 0 28.06.2019 ru 20
Due to the disconnectedness of production processes, prevention of soil degradation and plant diseases, as well as the difficult establishment of functional dependencies between the parameters of the working bodies and the physicomechanical properties of the soil, the richness of foreign technology, there is the problem of creating innovative structural and technological solutions for basic soil tillage including for the purpose of import substitution. To solve it, KubGAU has developed: “Multifunctional plow” (patent of the Russian Federation No. 2618342); “Plow with rotary bar” (utility model RF patent No. 184196); “Multifunctional plow with a rotary bruce” (positive decision on the patent application of the Russian Federation). Formal models, schemes and descriptions are given
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EFFICACY OF SUPRANOL AND UTEROTON IN PREVENTION OF ACUTE POSTPARTUM ENDOMETRITIS IN COWS

abstract 1501906003 issue 150 pp. 0 – 0 28.06.2019 ru 23
The article reflects information characterizing the significance of mastitis and endometritis in the indicator of premature disposal of cows from herds of large farms in the western regions of the Krasnodar region: an average of 30% of the total culling of cows. The effectiveness of veterinary measures in Pravoberezhny JSC of the Temryuk district for mastitis and endometritis in cows was assessed: 81-95%; fertilization index value ‒ 1.8; the duration of the service period exceeds the requirements by 20 days. The studies the nature of the influence of the drugs called Sepranol and Uteroton on the calving process and the occurrence of postpartum complications in cows from the herd, which was formed with violation of breeding principles. The use of the drugs Uteroton and Sepranol contributed to a 50% decrease in the calving index in calving cows by 50% compared with the results of the combined use of estrophan and oxytocin. The use of Uteroton reduced the damage from the lack of milk by 87880 rubles, and the use of Sepranol - by 171164 rubles. We have given practical recommendation on the use of Uteroton and Sepranol for veterinary effects on the body of cows in the early postpartum period in order to reduce the occurrence of complications
136 kb

EVALUATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF MINERAL FERTILIZERS ON AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS OF ORDINARY BLACK SOIL

abstract 1501906012 issue 150 pp. 0 – 0 28.06.2019 ru 24
As a result of the study of the influence of different forms, doses and timing of mineral fertilizers on the content of heavy metals in soils of different areas of the agricultural landscape, in the conditions of the relief of the Timashevsky district, there was no excess of MPC values for both gross and mobile forms in the arable and subsurface horizons of ordinary black soil. It is noted that mineral fertilizers do not have a negative impact on the agroecological indicators of ordinary black soil
536 kb

DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS TO PROTECT FLOODPLAIN LAND FROM FLOODING AND WATERLOGGING

abstract 1501906013 issue 150 pp. 0 – 0 28.06.2019 ru 16
Due to the fact that in floodplain lands there is instability in the yield of agricultural crops because of flooding and waterlogging, protection of the territories is necessary. The area of the foothills of the Kuban River, where the reclaimed field is located, was chosen as the object of study. Since this territory is subjected to periodic flooding, and in order to preserve the fertility of this soil, a set of measures has been taken. Hydrometeorological and hydrogeological studies are used as the main method. The parameters of the dam and drainage system were determined, the locations of the regulatory structure and the location of the observation wells were substantiated. To assess the measures taken, soybean was grown on the field during the period of greatest rainfall. After sowing, soil samples were collected at three points and conducted research aimed at the influence of the drainage system. It has been established that the complex of measures influences the meliorative state of the field for the better. In the area near the main collector, the soil is most depressed after the processes of flooding and waterlogging, the seedlings of the soybean plants are sparse, and by the middle of the field the plants developed evenly and had almost identical morphometric indicators. Were obtained biometric indicators in different parts of the soil, which are confirmed by experiment
13469 kb

Automated system-cognitive analysis of the strength and the direction of the influence of morphological properties of tomatoes on the quantitative, qualitative, financial and economic results of their cultivation and the degree of determinism of these results in the conditions of unheated greenhouses in the South of Russia

abstract 1501906015 issue 150 pp. 0 – 0 28.06.2019 ru 12
The aim of this work is to study the strength and the direction of the influence of morphological and biochemical properties of tomatoes on the quantitative, qualitative, financial and economic results of their cultivation and the degree of determinism of these results. Achieving this goal is of great scientific and practical interest for scientists, breeders and vegetable growers-practitioners. This allows breeders to obtain new high-performance varieties of tomato hybrids, and farms to choose hybrids, the cultivation of which is most effective from a financial and economic point of view. To achieve this goal, we use automated system-cognitive analysis (ASC-analysis) and its software tool which is the intelligent system called "Eidos". A numerical example based on real data on tomato hybrids has been considered in detail
182 kb

STUDY OF THE COLLECTION OF HYBRIDS OF TOMATO F1 WITH RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW FOR GROWING IN WINTER GLASS GREENHOUSES

abstract 1501906016 issue 150 pp. 0 – 0 28.06.2019 ru 10
Modern domestic tomato hybrid should be competitive with tomato hybrids of foreign selection. To create a model of a future hybrid, a collection of modern tomato hybrids of domestic and foreign selection presented on the seed market was investigated. During the study, a modern method of genetic study of the genotype of tomato Real-Time PCR was used. As a result of the study, a model of a modern tomato hybrid with tolerance to powdery mildew of tomato was described. In the future, it is planned to carry out breeding work to create such a hybrid. In the course of studying the F1 collection of tomato hybrids, it was found that the modern model of a tomato hybrid should have the following characteristics: a semi-vegetative type of growth with closely spaced internodes, early and medium ripening, a simple type of inflorescence with 4–5 fruits if the average weight of fruit is more than 200 grams; with 6–7 fruits weighing up to 150 grams for collection by tassels. High strength of fruits with the absence of concentric and radial cracking, suitable for long-distance transportation, is required. In the genotype of the modern hybrid model, in addition to tomato powdery mildew resistance (Oidiun lycopersici), it is necessary to have a complex of resistance genes to such diseases as tobacco mosaic virus (Tomato mosaic tobamovirus), Fusarium oxysporum, verticillosis wilt of the tomato; ), brown spot of tomato (Cladosporium fulvum). It is also desirable the presence of a gene of resistance to the yellow leaf curl virus of tomato (Tomato yellow leaf curl virus) and the gall nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)
203 kb

INNOVATIVE RESOURCE-SAVING BIOLOGICAL AND AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES OF GROWING CEREAL CROPS

abstract 1501906017 issue 150 pp. 0 – 0 28.06.2019 ru 10
Modern precision agricultural technologies such as No-Till lead to increasing of pathogens populations in the soil and frequency of application of chemical plant protection products. The production of biological agents directly in the farms, as well as the use of other low-risk agro-practices, among which methods for reducing herbicides from the group of glyphosates, is an effective way to resolve these problems. Such methods can reduce the cost of production and reduce the number of applied plant protection products. The use of the tank mixture Bacillus subtilis + complex aminoamides was very effective in the treatment of wheat seeds. Biological protection against root rot of crops of cereal crops by their treatment with Crocus and Pseudomonas fluorescens tank mixture is also effective. This treatment not only reduces the infection of plants with root rot, but also develops their biometric characteristics, the amount of chlorophyll in plants in the tillering stage. To reduce the likelihood of epiphytoty and epizootic diseases in agrobiocenoses, it is necessary to introduce, in addition to early spring treatment, the application of biological agents’comp-lex: (which can be carried out simultaneously with the addition of glyphosates under the No-Till conditions) Trichoderma viride. In a number of regions of Russia, an innovative method of enhancing the action of glyphosates in this technology has been applied. It is based on the introduction of the drug Crocus glyphosate into the tank mixture, which accelerates the penetration of glyphosate and its transport through the phloem to the root system. In this case, predominantly violated chiquimous (phenolic) exchange. Experiments have shown that the use of this method effective and leads to a change in the concentration of aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine and tyrosine), their number drops sharply compared with the benchmark on the 7th day after the plants are treated with this tank mixture
179 kb

YIELD AND SEEDS QUALITY OF RICE VARI-ETIES UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MIN-ERAL NUTRITION IN CONDITIONS OF THE PRIAZOVIE MARSHES

abstract 1501906018 issue 150 pp. 0 – 0 28.06.2019 ru 8
CJSC Priazovskoye located in the Slavyansk district is in the area of the Priazovie marshes. Soil and climatic conditions make it possible to grow many heat-loving crops including rice. The farm specializes in the cultivation of rice and the production of meat and cattle dairy products. The rice system is divided into 8-crop rotations, where, in addition to rice, animal feed is grown. Livestock waste is used as organic fertilizer in the fields of crop rotation. In the field experiment with perennial grasses (alfalfa) as predecessor, the change in yield and seed quality of three rice varieties Rapan, Diamant and Flagman was studied. The rates of the applied fertilizers were: phosphorus 100 kg/ha, potassium 60 kg/ha and increasing rates of nitrogen from 30 to 120 kg/ha. It has been established that the optimal rates of nitrogen fertilizers after alfalfa are 90 kg/ha (a.i.) for Rapan and Diamant varieties and 60 kg/ha (a.i.) for Flagman. At the same time, the maximum grain yield was obtained for Rapan - 7.45 t/ha, Diamant - 8.27 t/ha, Flagman - 7.62 t/ha , and the best seeds were formed in terms of germination and emergence. Analysis of the crop structure of rice varieties showed that with increasing rates of nitrogen the productive tillering and grain mass per panicle increased. With the nitrogen rate higher than the optimum, the number of unfilled grains per panicle and the grain /straw ratio have increased. Based on this analysis, it can be considered that the number of unfilled grains per panicle and the grain /straw ratio can serve as indicators of the response of rice plants of these varieties to an excess of the optimal level of mineral nutritions
169 kb

INFLUENCE OF BASIC TREATMENT ON AGROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL IN SUNFLOWER CROPS

abstract 1501906019 issue 150 pp. 0 – 0 28.06.2019 ru 7
The article presents the results of studies on the influence of the main tillage in the technology of cultivation of sunflower on its agrophysical properties. The object of the research was sunflower, the Vulkan variety, the predecessor was winter wheat. The soil was superpowerful low-humus typical leached chernozem. The studies were carried out in a stationary experiment on the basis of the experimental field of the department of general and irrigated agriculture of KubGAU in accordance with generally accepted methods for experiments with grain crops. Variants of experience (basic tillage): Option 1 (A0) - dump plowing to a depth of 25-27 cm (control); option 2 (A1) - chiseling 25-27 cm; option 3 (A2) - disc peeling at 8-10 cm; option 4 (A3) - zero treatment (direct seeding). On the basis of the conducted research, a general trend of agrophysical soil deterioration during the entire vegetation period of sunflower development and with a decrease in the intensity of the main tillage in the technology of its cultivation is revealed. So, the soil density was minimal, and the total porosity and soil moisture, as well as the reserves of productive moisture were maximal when carrying out land plowing at a depth of 25-27 cm to the main tillage. 25-27 cm) slightly worsened these figures. Conducting in the main tillage only surface disc peeling to a depth of 8-10 cm led to a further deterioration in these indicators. And in the last place there was the option where the soil was left without primary treatment under direct sowing of the crop (the variant of zero tillage). And just before harvesting sunflower (September), zero tillage provided the highest levels of soil moisture and reserves of productive moisture
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