Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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177 kb

ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF MAN-MADE OBJECTS ON THE SPECIFIC OF HEAVY METALS ACCUMULATION IN THE AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE

abstract 1471903017 issue 147 pp. 0 – 0 29.03.2019 ru 79
As a result of the researching of anthropogenic influence on the agricultural landscape of Public Corporation "Agrofirma "Niva" from human economic activities with are related to: the pesticides and mineral fertilizers using; the work of agricultural machinery, and the movement of vehicles on the highway. The experimental material on the formation of dust masses and the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil. On the researching territory was found out three times excess of zinc MPC* (23 mg/kg, including background) and four times more of lead MPC (6,0 mg/kg, including background) *maximum permissible concentration
314 kb

INFLUENCE OF PREDECESSORS AND TECH-NOLOGIES OF PROCESSING ON DEVELOP-MENT OF WEEDS

abstract 1471903018 issue 147 pp. 0 – 0 29.03.2019 ru 59
Issues related to the contamination of crops are topical and very relevant. All this fully applies to the main crop produced in the South of Russia – winter wheat. In this regard, the presented results of studies of the influence of predecessors and tillage technologies on the development of weeds in the cultivation of winter wheat are relevant. Experimental studies were carried out in conditions of many years of experience located in the FEDERAL state scientific institution «ANTS «Donskoy». The influence of different methods of sowing (ordinary, scattered, belt) and technologies of tillage (dumping, non-dumping, surface, small) on infestation of winter wheat is considered. It is established that the least amount of weed plants is provided at scattered sowing on the background of deep tillage. The main treatment at a depth of 18-20 cm reduces the number of weeds by 47% in comparison with the surface (8-10 cm), and the scattered sowing reduces their number by 80%, since weeds are in more severe conditions compared to winter wheat, the rapid development of which contributes to the optimal nutrition area. Of the predecessors, the most acceptable is the steam with the number of weeds 7-25 PCs / m2, which is several times less than after peas, or corn after silage
1107 kb

RICE VARIETY CALLED LEADER: BIOLOGI-CAL BASIS OF AGROTECHNICAL ELEMENTS

abstract 1471903019 issue 147 pp. 0 – 0 29.03.2019 ru 28
Russian rice variety called Leader is widely cultivated in the Kyzylorda region of Kazakhstan. Elite seeds of the variety are produced in the Krasnodar region. Leader possesses field resistance to blast disease. One of the mechanisms for the formation of rice plant resistance to the causative agent of the fungus Pyricularia oryzae Cav is an increased accumulation of silicon (SiO2). Biochemistry studies have shown that pathogen-resistant varieties accumulate up to 19% silicon in flowering scales, and susceptible - less than 14%. The article presents the study materials of rice plants of the rice variety Leader with sowing rates of 700 and 350 seeds per m2 in the field trials. As a result, a correlation has been established between the plant density of the rice variety Leader, the silica content in the flowering scales of the kernels and the damage to the plants by blast disease. Shoots of rice were obtained when wet, so field germination reached 69-70%. In the first variant, the number of sprouting exceeded 490 pcs/m2 with single-stem plants having poorly developed panicles and partially infected by P. oryzae. The yield of rice was 5.75 t/ha. In the second variant, the density of seedlings was 244 pcs/m2. The plants were well developed, they formed 2 and more shoots at tillering and had large panicles without signs of disease. The yield was 8.10 t/ha. Biochemical analysis showed that in the first variant, the flower scales of single-stem plants contained 13.8% SiO2, and in the second 19.5%. The conclusion was made that for such varieties as Leader, the high density of plant stand is unacceptable. Under conditions of increased competition, rice plants form a weak root system, accumulate little silicon, and therefore can be affected by blast disease. When studying the reaction of the plants of rice variety Leader to different levels of mineral nutrition, it has been defined that the optimal development of plants occurs at the plant density of 240-250 pcs/m2 and the level of mineral nutrition N120P100K50
100 kb

COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF DI-AGNOSTIC LABORATORY TESTS FOR THE VIRUS PERITONITIS OF CATS

abstract 1471903031 issue 147 pp. 0 – 0 29.03.2019 ru 29
This article is devoted to the study of various laboratory tests for the diagnosis of viral peritonitis of cats, conducted in 2014-2018. The study was subjected to 278 cats of both sexes, different breeds and mongrel, of different ages, which were taken to the veterinary clinic «Vita» and the veterinary clinic «Noah's Ark» in Krasnodar. Analysis of the results showed that in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of viral peritonitis of cats, the most resultant is a combination of studies of Globulin in serum and a test for antibodies to coronavirus, or a solid enzyme immunoassay (tIFA) on IgG to coronavirus. In addition to clinical symptoms, routine laboratory studies, instrumental studies for the diagnosis of viral cat peritonitis, it is necessary to use additional research methods, although many of them have a number of shortcomings in sensitivity and specificity
590 kb

ALLELE-SPECIFIC PCR FOR TYPING OMPH-TYPES OF PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA AND SEARCING FOR NEW APPROACHES TO STUDYING OF PATHOGENICITY OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES

abstract 1471903033 issue 147 pp. 0 – 0 29.03.2019 ru 46
Pasteurella multocida is an important respiratory pathogen of cattle. OmpH Protein is a major protective antigen of bacteria has been well studied in avian strains. In the literature there are no data available for the study of a variety of sequence of this protein among isolates with cattle respiratory pathology. There have been described several genes associated with the virulence of the bacterium in respiratory disease of cattle, but none of the authors compared the frequency of detection of these genes with the pathogenicity for laboratory animals. The aim of our study was the development of allele-specific PCR to determine Omph-types of Pasteurella multocida and the search for new approaches to assess the pathogenicity of isolates of bacteria. Total amount of 83 isolates allocated from the lungs of calves with respiratory pathology was investigated. All isolates belonged to groups A or D (isolates 63 and 20, respectively). Among isolates of capsular serogroup A we revealed 6 types, most propagation types were A1 and A2. All isolates of capsular serogroup D were one omph- type. In 16 out of 23 farms there were identified isolates of only one omph-type, 4 - 2 types, 3 - three types. The frequency of gene hgbb - hemoglobin binding protein correlated with pathogenicity of isolates for white mice. The developed allele-specific PCR along with hgbb gene detection can be used for screening and studying the properties of antigen and circulating pathogenic isolates and selecting a candidate vaccine strains
255 kb

INFLUENCE OF THE METHOD OF TREATMENT BEFORE STORAGE AND STORAGE PARAMETERS ON THE VALUE OF GENERAL LOSSES OF CARROTS

abstract 1461902001 issue 146 pp. 0 – 0 28.02.2019 ru 51
The article presents the results of studying the influence of the method of treatment before storage and storage parameters, including the relative air humidity, on the value of general losses of carrots. The taproots treatment before putting into storage was carried out with electromagnetic fields of extremely low frequency and the bio-preparation Vitaplan. After treatment, the taproots were kept at a temperature of +2±1°С for 56 days and +25±1°С for 21 days. In the process, the relative air humidity was changed from 40 to 90%. At a storage temperature of +2±1°C, the lowest total loss was observed at a relative humidity of 90%. At a storage temperature of +25±1°С, the optimal, from the point of view of decreasing the general losses, turned out to be the relative air humidity of 70%: with decreasing relative air humidity to 40%, significant increase of natural losses was observed, because the taproots were losing water intensively, and with increasing relative air humidity to 90%, favorable conditions were created for the growth of pathogenic microflora, which caused significant losses from the microbiological decay. The method of pretreatment of carrot taproots, providing the lowest general loss during storage in all the studied conditions, was joint treatment with ELF EMF and the bio-preparation called Vitaplan
213 kb

FEATURES OF TECHNICAL RISK ASSESSMENT UNDER NON-DETERMINISTIC STOCHASTIC PARAMETERS

abstract 1461902002 issue 146 pp. 0 – 0 28.02.2019 ru 33
The article considers a variant of parametric representation of a complex product of single use in the process of its creation during tests, when structural failures of the product or its components in one or more parameters specified in the technical specification require modifications leading to a change in the general amount and repeating of the tests, but it is possible to reduce the volume of tests by taking into account a priori information. This is especially up-to-date while ensuring the reliability of complex single – use products, the components of which are first stages of ground tests, and only then as part of complex products-the stages of flight tests. Structural failure of any component of such a product at the stage of ground tests does not lead to such consequences as if it occurred during flight tests as part of the product. Meanwhile, the refinement of the component element of a single-use product, the structural failure of which occurred at the stage of flight tests as part of the product, and the assessment of its effectiveness, can be carried out at the stage of ground tests, in the case of consideration of a complex product in parametric form. This can significantly reduce the cost of flight testing of a complex product, in the case of effective completion of the component element of the product at the stage of ground tests, without a significant (temporary) decrease in the overall reliability of a complex single-use product
832 kb

EFFECTIVE WAYS TO REDUCE SOIL COM-PACTION TO PRESERVE ITS FERTILITY

abstract 1461902003 issue 146 pp. 0 – 0 28.02.2019 ru 60
New ways of solving reducing soil compaction problem are substantiated. Soil compaction destroys its structure, violates its water-air regime, and leads to erosion and reduced yield. The effectiveness of the presented directions, based on the analysis of the issue and the results of own research is confirmed by practical use in the crop production processes mechanization of intellectual engineering authors' developments, based on their inventions and well-known serial technology selected from Automated reference system "agricultural machinery". It was the synthesis of own research results and modern agricultural machinery best samples analysis that allowed us to form an effective system of machines that reduce the harmful soil compaction. This ensures soil fertility preservation and crop yield increase. The set of machines proposed in the system for soil processing, sowing, fertilizing, spraying and harvesting not only reduces soil compaction but also improves work quality, labor productivity and complexity of the work performed, harvest and reduces costs of all types (energy, money, labor). The basis of the problem solution consists of a combination of technological operations for one pass of the unit across the field, multifunctional units application in the system that performs tillage and seeding, fertilization and tillage, additional fertilizing of spike crops with simultaneous harrowing, harvesting with simultaneous stubbling or straw pressing etc., refusal to use heavy machinery in the fields, trucks, conversion tracked system on tractors, front and rear hydraulics for making multi-functional units, the use of fundamentally new machines and adaptations to them according to the inventions of the authors
155 kb

THE STUDY OF THE RANGE OF TECHNICAL GRADES OF GRAPES IN THE ALUSHTA VALLEY

abstract 1461902011 issue 146 pp. 0 – 0 28.02.2019 ru 56
The analysis of varietal and age structure of vineyards occupied by 29 varieties and clones of the technical direction of use in the "Alushta" branch of FSUE "PJSC "Massandra". Taking into account the ecological and climatic conditions of the Alushta valley and the specialization of the economy, the largest share in the assortment of technical varieties is occupied by red grape varieties: Cabernet Sauvignon and clones of Cabernet Sauvignon R5, R8, VCR8, No. 169 including (26.68%), Bastardo Magarachsky and Bastardo clone VCR1 (12.06%), Saperavi (7.33%), Krasnostop zolotovsky (5.69%), Merlot and clone Merlot R3 (4.62 %). White varieties are in a smaller percentage: white Muscat and white Muscat clone R3 (8.47 %), white Kokur (7.1%), Aligote (3.82%), Semillon and clones Semillon № 173 and № 299 (3.68%), Gars level (2.99%). Plantings in the most productive age of 6-10 and 11-15 years are 57.5 % of the total area. At the same time, the share of introduced clones of varieties accounts for 26.65 %. In general, the age structure of the vineyards is favorable. The company produces high quality wine materials for production of traditional Federal state unitary enterprise "PJSC "Massandra" wines: white Port Alushta, Alushta red Port, pink Port Alushta, Alushta red Table, Pinot Gris, Massandra, Madera Crimean Alushta Tokay, white Muscat, Massandra Kokur, Semillon Alushta and sherry wine. In addition, there are new brands of semi-sweet white and red wines Pearl Massandra, as well as varietal wine materials Aligote, Cabernet, Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi, Chardonnay, Bastardo and Semillon. Analysis of the assortment shows that in the production plantings of "Alushta" branch of FSUE "PJSC "Massandra" there are varieties of medium and late ripening, which does not create peaks during harvesting and processing, ensuring uniform flow of raw materials for winemaking. It is necessary to expand the assortment of the economy due to a number of promising varieties of Syrah, Petit Verdot, Malbec, Sangiovese and others with a complex of economically valuable properties introduced from other regions
244 kb

TEMPERATURE REGIME OF THE TREATED SOIL LAYER

abstract 1461902012 issue 146 pp. 0 – 0 28.02.2019 ru 62
The article discusses the influence on the thermal regime of soil by agricultural activities, as well as the results of studies on determination of temperature in different soil layers under conditions of insufficient and unstable moistening of southern Russia. Experiments were performed in the experimental field in FSRI of the «ASC «Donskoy» (Zernograd, Rostov oblast) in terms of long-term stationary experience in the cultivation of soybeans with different technologies (traditional, zero). We performed the soil temperature checking at a depth of 30 and 60 cm using the temperature sensors with a measurement range from -40S to + 85S with a measuring accuracy of ±0,6S. For accumulation of data were used in the logger (weather station) Watch Dog 1400 series Micro. The purpose of the research was to determine and compare the influence of technologies of processing of soil on the temperature of the soil at different levels. On the basis of the conducted researches it is established that the average value of the ambient temperature stood at 23,8S a standard deviation of 3,1S. These figures are higher than the temperature of the soil at the background processed by traditional technology, and the raw background. The lowest average soil temperature at a depth of 30 cm (21,2S) recorded at zero background, obviously due to the presence on the soil surface of plant residues that protect the soil from solar radiation. Thus, the soil as a dynamic system converts the input signal (the ambient temperature) so that it is reduced in size and the rate of change (dynamic). These soil characteristics are determined by the technologies of soil processing
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