Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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1107 kb

RICE VARIETY CALLED LEADER: BIOLOGI-CAL BASIS OF AGROTECHNICAL ELEMENTS

abstract 1471903019 issue 147 pp. 160 – 173 29.03.2019 ru 32
Russian rice variety called Leader is widely cultivated in the Kyzylorda region of Kazakhstan. Elite seeds of the variety are produced in the Krasnodar region. Leader possesses field resistance to blast disease. One of the mechanisms for the formation of rice plant resistance to the causative agent of the fungus Pyricularia oryzae Cav is an increased accumulation of silicon (SiO2). Biochemistry studies have shown that pathogen-resistant varieties accumulate up to 19% silicon in flowering scales, and susceptible - less than 14%. The article presents the study materials of rice plants of the rice variety Leader with sowing rates of 700 and 350 seeds per m2 in the field trials. As a result, a correlation has been established between the plant density of the rice variety Leader, the silica content in the flowering scales of the kernels and the damage to the plants by blast disease. Shoots of rice were obtained when wet, so field germination reached 69-70%. In the first variant, the number of sprouting exceeded 490 pcs/m2 with single-stem plants having poorly developed panicles and partially infected by P. oryzae. The yield of rice was 5.75 t/ha. In the second variant, the density of seedlings was 244 pcs/m2. The plants were well developed, they formed 2 and more shoots at tillering and had large panicles without signs of disease. The yield was 8.10 t/ha. Biochemical analysis showed that in the first variant, the flower scales of single-stem plants contained 13.8% SiO2, and in the second 19.5%. The conclusion was made that for such varieties as Leader, the high density of plant stand is unacceptable. Under conditions of increased competition, rice plants form a weak root system, accumulate little silicon, and therefore can be affected by blast disease. When studying the reaction of the plants of rice variety Leader to different levels of mineral nutrition, it has been defined that the optimal development of plants occurs at the plant density of 240-250 pcs/m2 and the level of mineral nutrition N120P100K50
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COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF DI-AGNOSTIC LABORATORY TESTS FOR THE VIRUS PERITONITIS OF CATS

abstract 1471903031 issue 147 pp. 174 – 179 29.03.2019 ru 37
This article is devoted to the study of various laboratory tests for the diagnosis of viral peritonitis of cats, conducted in 2014-2018. The study was subjected to 278 cats of both sexes, different breeds and mongrel, of different ages, which were taken to the veterinary clinic «Vita» and the veterinary clinic «Noah's Ark» in Krasnodar. Analysis of the results showed that in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of viral peritonitis of cats, the most resultant is a combination of studies of Globulin in serum and a test for antibodies to coronavirus, or a solid enzyme immunoassay (tIFA) on IgG to coronavirus. In addition to clinical symptoms, routine laboratory studies, instrumental studies for the diagnosis of viral cat peritonitis, it is necessary to use additional research methods, although many of them have a number of shortcomings in sensitivity and specificity
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ALLELE-SPECIFIC PCR FOR TYPING OMPH-TYPES OF PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA AND SEARCING FOR NEW APPROACHES TO STUDYING OF PATHOGENICITY OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES

abstract 1471903033 issue 147 pp. 180 – 197 29.03.2019 ru 58
Pasteurella multocida is an important respiratory pathogen of cattle. OmpH Protein is a major protective antigen of bacteria has been well studied in avian strains. In the literature there are no data available for the study of a variety of sequence of this protein among isolates with cattle respiratory pathology. There have been described several genes associated with the virulence of the bacterium in respiratory disease of cattle, but none of the authors compared the frequency of detection of these genes with the pathogenicity for laboratory animals. The aim of our study was the development of allele-specific PCR to determine Omph-types of Pasteurella multocida and the search for new approaches to assess the pathogenicity of isolates of bacteria. Total amount of 83 isolates allocated from the lungs of calves with respiratory pathology was investigated. All isolates belonged to groups A or D (isolates 63 and 20, respectively). Among isolates of capsular serogroup A we revealed 6 types, most propagation types were A1 and A2. All isolates of capsular serogroup D were one omph- type. In 16 out of 23 farms there were identified isolates of only one omph-type, 4 - 2 types, 3 - three types. The frequency of gene hgbb - hemoglobin binding protein correlated with pathogenicity of isolates for white mice. The developed allele-specific PCR along with hgbb gene detection can be used for screening and studying the properties of antigen and circulating pathogenic isolates and selecting a candidate vaccine strains
585 kb

THE DEVELOPMENT AND TEST RESULTS OF AN AUTOMATIC GEAR BOX FOR A TRACTOR OF CLASS 5 WITH AN ELASTIC DAMPER MECHANISM IN TRANSMISSION

abstract 1481904001 issue 148 pp. 1 – 15 30.04.2019 ru 69
The aim of the work is to establish rational parameters on the basis of analytical and experimental research, in terms of obtaining the maximum performance of the unit based on a class 5 tractor, an automatic gear shift system. We have proposed a device for automatic gear shifting, in which the pressure of the working fluid in the pneumatic-hydraulic accumulator installed in the power transmission of the tractor of the elastic-damping mechanism, equivalent to the engine torque, was used as an input signal. The task of optimizing the tracking device and the actuator of the automatic shift system is the definition based on the theory of automatic regulation of the rational flow cross section of the damper throttle and the time delay of the system response to ensure the input signal with the necessary filtering in frequency and phase. The study presents the results of the tests carried out under laboratory conditions, which showed that the automatic gear shift system provides gear shifting at an external load frequency in the range from 0 to 0.24 s-1, direct assessments of the quality of the automatic gear shift system: oscillation (0), overshoot (0%) and time of the transition process (2...4 s), meet the requirements for their work. The analysis of the results obtained in experimental studies showed that the productivity of the machine-tractor plowing unit with a class 5 tractor-model equipped with the developed system of automatic gear change is higher by 10.6%, and the specific fuel consumption is 8.1% lower compared to the serial version
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PRODUCTION PROSPECTS FOR PROTEIN FEEDS MADE FROM SUNFLOWER SEEDS IN SMALL FARMING ENTERPRISES

abstract 1481904002 issue 148 pp. 16 – 30 30.04.2019 ru 67
The quality of feed is one of the main factors determining the development of industries necessary for the country. In this regard, extrusion technologies for processing raw materials of plant origin are of great interest. The prospect of processing plant raw materials using thermoplastic extrusion is due to two main reasons: first, the large volume and variety of products produced using this technology, and, secondly, the economic effect that gives the production of extrusion products by expanding the consumer properties of the feed produced. Extrusion equipment not only expands the range of feed, but also increases the employment of the rural population during the off-season. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to assess the prospects for the introduction of protein feed production by extruders from sunflower seeds in small agricultural enterprises. The study used an analytical review and analysis of published and patent information on technical means – extruders used for the production of protein feed from oilseeds, such as sunflower. The analysis of literature sources on the work of the existing forage preparation equipment showed that serial machines are metal-consuming, energy-consuming, used with low efficiency, due to technical and technological shortcomings. The analytical review of patent sources of extruders for preparation of compound feeds for the purpose of identification of the direction of their development and elimination of shortcomings of the existing is given. Modernization of extruders for the preparation of feed in the patent information goes in different ways, depending on the goal, which will improve their productivity and quality of protein feed. Serial production of technical equipment for the preparation of protein feed allows you to compete with foreign technology. Therefore, the development and improvement of serial domestic equipment for the preparation of protein feed from sunflower seeds for functional purposes are competitive and significantly cheaper and can reduce energy costs for their extrusion, which is an urgent task
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OPTIMIZATION OF THE PROCESS OF MIXING FEED

abstract 1481904003 issue 148 pp. 31 – 39 30.04.2019 ru 60
Based on the analysis of the designs of feed mixers for farm animals, the option of using a two-stage mixer is being investigated. The proposed design of the mixer allows you to improve the quality of the feed mixture and reduce energy costs per process. To optimize the mixing workflow, the design parameters of the machine and their influence on the technological process under various working conditions are determined. It has been established that the design of the mixer and the initial physical and mechanical properties of the components of the feed mixture directly affect the most important technological characteristic of the installation, its performance. Therefore, the study aims to optimize the process of mixing feed
113 kb

NEW SOURCE MATERIAL FOR BREEDING WINTER WHEAT IN THE CENTRAL CHERNOZEM REGION

abstract 1481904011 issue 148 pp. 40 – 48 30.04.2019 ru 61
The article describes the methods, specific researches on the analysis of source material for breeding work on winter soft wheat in the Belgorod region. The main purpose of our research was to study the economic and biological traits and properties of varieties in collective nursery and the creation of new initial material of winter wheat by the method of intraspecific hybridization for breeding in Belgorod state agricultural University. In 2016, the scheme of crossing promising lines recommended competitive trials of self-selection D9, D15, D19, variety Belgorod 16
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RESOURCE CONSERVATION IN THE PRODUCTION OF SPRING BARLEY

abstract 1481904012 issue 148 pp. 49 – 56 30.04.2019 ru 39
The article discusses the possibilities and presents the results of research on the cultivation of spring barley with different production technologies in conditions of insufficient and unstable wetting of the south of Russia. Experimental studies were carried out in a stationary experiment with a four-field crop rotation with different variants of tillage (dump, flat-cut, layered, without tillage – no-till). It is established that the most expensive is the waste treatment of the soil (PN-5-35), and the least expensive is the technology excluding the impact on the soil. At the same time, the operating costs of labor and fuel consumption at no-till are lower, respectively, by 82-107, 23-48, 131-188% in comparison with traditional types of technology. Hectare fuel consumption with zero technology is 131-188% less than with traditional technologies and amounted to 22.8 kg / ha. The cost of production of spring barley using no-till is 8-41% lower compared to flat-cut, layer-by-layer, and dump technology and amounts to 285 rubles per cent. Calculated per 1 hectare, labor costs, fuel consumption, wages, fuel costs, deductions for renovation and repairs, as well as total operating costs for traditional basic tillage technologies increase, respectively, 1,23-1,48; 2,31-2,88; 1,30-1,56; 3,1-3,81; 1,65-1,85; 1,81-1,96; 1,83-2,09 times compared with no-till. The use of spring barley cultivation technology that excludes impact on the soil provides a fairly high efficiency even at lower yields
438 kb

ASSESSMENT OF WEATHER CHANGES EFFECT ON PEACH CROP IN HUMID SUBTROPICS OF RUSSIA

abstract 1481904014 issue 148 pp. 57 – 67 30.04.2019 ru 39
The close dependence of peach yield on the weather factors in the humid subtropical zone has been established. The observed climate changes in recent years (2000–2018) significantly affected the production potential of peach cultivars. An increase in temperature and precipitation in February-March negatively affected morphogenesis of the flower buds, which reduces the yield of most cultivars. The significant variability of precipitation (the main constraint of peach production) in the winter and early spring, the low weather predictability, characterize the onset of flowering by the “critical” phase. Weather conditions were changed during ripening. In July and August, the amount of precipitation decreased, the temperature increased, which led to moisture deficit and fruits quality deterioration. Local climate change in humid subtropics actualizes the development of adaptive cultivars with a high ecological and adaptive plasticity. Selected clones of the Red Heaven, Krasnaya Zarya and Larisa are the most adapted to the local conditions and can be successfully used in the low mountain area of the subtropics
12293 kb

AUTOMATED SYSTEM-COGNITIVE ANALYSIS OF NATURAL CLIMATIC PHENOMENA DANGEROUS FOR AGRICULTURE OF RUSSIA

abstract 1481904015 issue 148 pp. 68 – 117 30.04.2019 ru 40
At present, databases of 27-year observations of various adverse weather conditions and dangerous hydrometeorological phenomena leading to social and economic losses on the territory of Russia are in full open free access. Some of these natural hazards also cause significant damage to agriculture, especially crop production, horticulture and viticulture. Therefore, a great scientific and practical interest is the intellectual analysis of these data, which will create more favorable conditions for the prediction of such adverse events and decision-making, taking into account their possible negative impact on human activity. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to solve the following tasks, which are obtained by decomposition of the goal and are the stages of its achievement: Task 1: cognitive structuring of the subject area. Task 2: preparation of initial data and formalization of the subject area. Task 3: synthesis and verification of statistical and system-cognitive models and selection of the most reliable model. Task 4: solving problems in the most reliable model: - subtask 4.1. Forecasting (diagnostics, classification, recognition, identification); - subtask 4.2. Support decision-making; - sub-task 4.3. Study of the simulated subject area by studying its model (cognitive diagrams of classes and values of factors, agglomerative cognitive clustering of classes and values of factors, nonlocal neurons and neural networks, 3d-integral cognitive maps, cognitive functions). It is proposed to use automated system-cognitive analysis (ASC-analysis) to solve the tasks. The article provides a detailed numerical example illustrating the solution of all these problems
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