Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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abstract 1481904016 issue 148 pp. 118 – 129 30.04.2019 ru 59
An organizational and economic mechanism for managing functional stability has been developed, the components of which are optimal structural and regulatory decisions, as well as a calculated and reasonable regulatory framework as tools for ensuring the sustainability of reproduction processes in a mode that ensures achievement of output parameters guaranteeing a given level of efficiency. The dimension of regulators is calculated based on ensuring the sustainability of reproduction processes in industry production
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abstract 1481904018 issue 148 pp. 130 – 141 30.04.2019 ru 64
For the first time results of researches on potential productivity and environmental role of hayfields in the Indigirka river basin (Momskiy district) are presented. Researches proved that feeding meadow plants in conditions of the Indigirka river basin, depending on the type of vegetation, location and features of root systems, provide maximum crop productivity – up to 18,5 dt/ha of hay with productivity of 1 ha for harvesting exchange energy up to 16,1 gigajoule, fodder units 1130 and crude protein up to 209 kg maximal underground mass accumulation of meadow plants was formatted in the region of Indigirka and Khonuu – mixed and squirreltail barley (hordeum jubatum) hayfield up to 193,6 dt/ha, dry matter and carex duriuscula and squirreltail barley hayfield up to 252,2 dt/ha with the majority of roots in layer 0-10 cm. up to 76-88%. Field of Khonuu, with mixed and squirreltail barley hayfield, contained underground nitrogen – up to 33 kg/ha and labile phosphorus – up to 71 kg/ha. Increased accumulation of labile phosphorus root mass provides enhancement of cold resistance ability in conditions of the subarctic zones of Yakutia
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abstract 1481904019 issue 148 pp. 142 – 152 30.04.2019 ru 66
The article reveals analysis of varietal and age structure of vineyards occupied by 29 varieties and clones of the technical direction of use in the branch "Alushta" of FSUE "PJSC "Massandra". Taking into account the ecological and climatic conditions of the Alushta valley and the specialization of the economy, the largest share in the assortment of technical varieties is occupied by red grape varieties: Cabernet Sauvignon and clones of Cabernet Sauvignon R5, R8, VCR8, No. 169 including (26.68%), Bastardo Magarachsky and Bastardo clone VCR1 (12.06%), Saperavi (7.33%), Krasnostop zolotovsky (5.69%), Merlot and clone Merlot R3 (4.62 %). White varieties are in a smaller percentage: white Muscat and white Muscat clone R3 (8.47 %), white Kokur (7.1%), Aligote (3.82%), Semillon and clones Semillon № 173 and № 299 (3.68%), Gars level (2.99%). Plantings in the most productive age of 6-10 and 11-15 years are 57.5 % of the total area. At the same time, the share of introduced clones of varieties accounts for 26.65 %. In General, the age structure of the vineyards is acceptable. The company produces high quality wine materials for production of traditional Federal state unitary enterprise "PJSC "Massandra" wines: white Port Alushta, Alushta red Port, pink Port Alushta, Alushta red Table, Pinot Gris, Massandra, Madera Crimean Alushta Tokay, white Muscat, Massandra Kokur, Semillon Alushta and sherry wine. In addition, there are new brands of semi-sweet white and red wines Pearl Massandra, as well as varietal wine materials Aligote, Cabernet, Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi, Chardonnay, Bastardo and Semillon. Analysis of the assortment shows that in the production plantings of "Alushta" branch of FSUE "PJSC "Massandra" there are varieties of medium and late ripening, which does not create peaks during harvesting and processing, ensuring uniform flow of raw materials for winemaking. It is necessary to expand the assortment of the economy due to a number of promising varieties of Syrah, Petit Verdot, Malbec, Sangiovese and others with a complex of economically valuable properties introduced from other regions
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abstract 1481904032 issue 148 pp. 153 – 160 30.04.2019 ru 98
Providing the population with basic foodstuffs, sources of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and other essential nutrients is one of the main issues of ensuring the security of the country, while the requirement for food safety is paramount. Production of feed additives (concentrates), which improve feed conversion, while being natural and safe for animal health, acquires the greatest importance in the conditions of intensification of agriculture and increasing the competitiveness of livestock farms. Probiotic microflora, which, in competition with pathogenic, displaces the latter from the gastrointestinal tract, can be considered as one of the effective methods of controlling undesirable microflora in the digestive tract. In world science, research is actively conducted in the direction of searching for effective probiotic cultures. A promising way to increase the effectiveness of the use of probiotic feed additives is their addition to prebiotics, for example, including vitamins (antioxidants) and mineral substances (selenium). The purpose of this work was to determine the optimal ratio of biologically active substances contained in the feed vitamin-mineral concentrate, and probiotic microflora contained in the feed probiotic additive Bacell-M, for the development of complex feed concentrate. Using the Harrington's desirability function, the optimum ratio of biologically active substances and probiotic microflora in the recipe of the complex feed concentrate is determined, ensuring the maximum reduction in the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase in the blood serum of experimental animals, which characterizes the normalization of barrier organs
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abstract 1481904033 issue 148 pp. 161 – 199 30.04.2019 ru 115
The article presents a factorial model for determining the needs of lactating cows in essential amino acids. The algorithm of the model uses fragments from the NRC – 2001 models [39], CNCPS – 200 [60], and research materials published in the world literature. Instead of the transformation coefficients of the metabolizable lysine and methionine for milk production equal to 0.85 and 1.00, respectively, by the CNCPS, the coefficients 0.68 and 0.66 were used according to Doepel et al., 2004 [49] and the authors' own data [69]. Norms obtained using this model in lysine and methionine in milk production and maintenance in percentage of metabolizable protein (MP) were 7.28 and 2.4%, which is identical to the NRC – 2001 standards, equal to 7.2 and 2.4 % respectively, obtained by dose – response method based on dozens of experiments. The norm of histidine was 3.5%, which closely corresponds to the indicator of 2.4 and 2.7 % MP [74], obtained by the incremental addition method. This indicates that the presented model is distinguished by sufficiently high accuracy and is comparable with the models developed by the dose – response method. However, the determination of the need of cows for amino acids in this model is much less expensive than the dose – response method. The need for the absolute amount of metabolizable essential amino acids (MEAA) for milk production (35 kg/d, yield milk protein 1103 gytt6) and maintenance cow - 600 kg, g/d: lysine - 178, methionine - 59, arginine - 119, histidine - 60, isoleucine - 138, leucine - 248, phenylalanine - 152, threonine - 134, tryptophan - 38, valine - 174; the need for only milk production, g/d: 130; 42; 81; 42; 95; 175; 98; 74; 25; 112; the need for only maintenance, g/d: 50; 16; 38; 20; 43; 73; 54; 60; 14; 64; the need for 1 kg of milk (31.5 g of protein) g/kg: 3.7; 1.2; 2.3; 1.2; 2.7; 5.0; 2.8; 2.1; 0.7; 3.2; need to maintain, g / kg 0.75: 0.41; 0.14; 0.31; 0.16; 0.35; 0.60; 0.44; 0.50; 0.11; 0.53. In addition, the article presents the norms of amino acids per 1 kg of dry matter (DM) ration. However, the proposed standards need a comprehensive assessment in the research and practice of dairy farming. Research is needed to improve the models and predict the MEAA in the rations in the following areas: studying the metabolism of amino acids in the body of cows and determining their costs for maintaining the digestive tract, tissues and organs, refining, on this basis, the utilization of amino acids for milk protein production and maintenance; the development of ideal amino-acid profile of low-protein diets, both due to the adjustment of natural ingredients, and through the use of amino acid preparations that are protected from disintegration in the rumen
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abstract 1491905001 issue 149 pp. 1 – 13 31.05.2019 ru 162
The urgency of the task in creating a reliable plant protection system is the improvement and development of new technologies for spraying crops on the basis of fundamentally new agricultural requirements at a higher quality level, increasing productivity, reducing energy costs and greening protective measures. Pneumatic slotted sprayers have great design capabilities allowing obtaining operating parameters necessary for the specific task of the sprayer. In this regard, we have proposed a technological scheme of the sprayer in the garden-vineyard version. To do this, the sprayers are placed in pneumatic ducts of the fans mounted on the sprayers. It is possible to reduce energy and resource costs, to achieve high quality indicators of the process and to increase the level of environmental friendliness by developing technical means for ultra-low-volume spraying. The principal novelty in solving the problem of ultra-low volume spraying is the use of KubSAU design pneumatic sprayers on the sprayer, and the scheme of the technological process, allowing the reduction of the working fluid and pesticides doses rate, resulting in reduced operating costs to support operations: preparation of working fluids and filling the sprayers. To process two rows simultaneously, it is possible to use sprayers equipped with two centrifugal fans with the installation of pneumatic slit sprayers with fixation in the ducts that they overlap, forcing the air from the fan to pass through the atomizer body, mixing with drops of working fluid. In this case, the speed of the air-droplet jets increases and more efficient use of the air jet from the fan occur. Along with the use of sprayers, equipped with KubSAU design pneumatic sprayers, to combat pests and diseases, we propose to use a sprayer to combat weeds in the trunk area of perennial plantations. Thus we have a family of ultra-low volume sprayers with pneumatic slotted sprayers of the Kuban State Agrarian University design
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abstract 1491905002 issue 149 pp. 14 – 22 31.05.2019 ru 89
The article presents the results of a study of the influence of the processing method before storage on the commercial quality of carrot roots during storage. The object of the research was carrot of the Abaco variety. Objects of study were stored for 21 days at + (25 ± 1) ° C and 56 days at + (2 ± 1) ° C. Roots were treated with extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF ELF) and Vitaplan biopreparation separately and in combination. As a result of the research, it was established that the complex treatment of EMF ELF and biopreparation allows increasing the yield of standard carrot products compared to the control: 11.8% at storage temperature + (2 ± 1) ° C, 24.1% at storage temperature + (25 ± 1) ° C. A reduction in the total losses of carrots, treated with complex EMF ELF and biological product, was found by 5.8% at storage temperature + (2 ± 1) ° C and by 12.4% at storage temperature + (25 ± 1) ° C
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abstract 1491905011 issue 149 pp. 23 – 30 31.05.2019 ru 85
One of the most important state tasks in the world is the production of grain in the most profitable way. The use of biological products in the cultivation of grain is very important in our time. Identification of the effectiveness of the use of biological products will allow enterprises growing winter wheat to determine the need for their use. The study was conducted in 2015-2018 in the field areas of the peasant farm called "Yurchenko", located in the Alexanderovsky district of the Stavropol region, in the area of unstable moisture on dark chestnut soils. Winter wheat is cultivated using biological products on the farm, using biopreparation Vimpel with drugs of fungicidal action of Alirin B and Alirin C - 522 plants per 1m2. The use of biological products of fungicidal action allowed to reduce the activity of fungal diseases, and Vimpel biopreparation increased plant nutrition. After that, this processing scheme allowed to obtain a higher mass of grains in the ear -1.01 g, which contributed to a higher yield. The processing plan of Vimpel and biological product a biological product of fungicidal activity Gliocladium is slightly lower than Vimpel + Alirin B + Alirin With, the number of productive stems before harvesting – 518 plants per m2 and weight of grains - 1.0 g. The study used field and laboratory methods. Cultivation of winter wheat using biological products is unprofitable in comparison with the control. Despite the increase in the yield and quality of grain, the cost of production is much higher than in the control sowing, which is due to the high cost of drugs and additional costs for their use
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abstract 1491905012 issue 149 pp. 31 – 38 31.05.2019 ru 50
Issues associated with the use of combined units in the preparation of the soil are relevant and of scientific and practical interest. Relevance increases when it comes to the cultivation of the main crop - winter wheat. In this regard, the presented results on the effectiveness of the use of combined units in the preparation of soil for winter crops are important. They are important primarily from a practical point of view. Experimental studies were conducted in the conditions of many years of stationary experience in the FSUE "ANC" Donskoy ", Zernograd, Rostov Region and in the Krasnodar region, LLC "Step". The efficiency of the use of combined units KUM-4, APK-4, developed at SKNIIMESH, now FSUE “ANC “Donskoy” in the cultivation of winter barley and winter wheat is considered. The technological process of tillage using combined units consists of several technological operations performed simultaneously. Disk working bodies chop plant residues and destroy weeds. At the same time, a network of cracks in the underlying soil horizons is laid. Next are flat-cutting working bodies that loosen the soil already at the set depth. There is a cutting of the root system of weeds, loosening the remaining non-loosened soil layer to the required depth, the formation of a flat bottom of the “furrow”, the separation of erosion-hazardous soil particles to the bottom of the furrow. Next, a roller - a compactor - compactor enters the work, which provides regrinding of soil lumps on the surface and subcompaction of the treated layer. The last in the process chain is a mulch roller, which ensures the formation of a compacted seed bed for seeds with simultaneous mulching of the compacted soil layer. The use of combined units in the technologies of cultivation of winter barley and wheat allowed to achieve a reduction in the number of technological operations by 1,5-2,5 times, an increase in the productivity of winter wheat by 0,4 t / ha (9%), a reduction in fuel consumption by 40%, operating costs 1,4 times with the economic effect of 1500 rubles / ha and the profitability of production of 140%
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abstract 1491905015 issue 149 pp. 39 – 80 31.05.2019 ru 46
Sommelier evaluates the quality of wine on the basis of their subjective feelings. At the same time, what the sommelier says when evaluating wine, it is difficult or impossible to rationally understand for the uninitiated to this art. The process of assessing the quality of wine by sommelier can not be formalized and is carried out entirely at the sensual level. Sometimes, different sommeliers differently evaluate the same wine poured from the same barrel into bottles of different prestige, with stickers differing in the number of stars. This raises at least two legitimate and natural questions. The first question is whether any subjective sommelier evaluations of the quality of wine are connected with its objective physical and chemical properties? The second question arises in the case of a positive answer to the first one: is it possible to analyze the objective methods of physical and chemical properties of wine to predict its subjective assessment by various sommeliers or some "generalized sommelier", generalizing many such subjective assessments? This article is devoted to obtaining reasoned answers to these questions. The purpose of this work, which is of great scientific and practical interest, is to create a model that provides an automated assessment of the quality of wine based on the analysis of its objective physical and chemical properties, coinciding with its sommelier-evaluation. To achieve this goal, we use Automated system-cognitive analysis (ASC-analysis) and its software tools – the intelligent system called "Eidos". A detailed numerical example based on 1599 real-world examples of sommelier evaluation of wine quality with known physical and chemical properties is considered. In addition to the answer to the two questions in the article, there is a study of the created system-cognitive model