Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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abstract 1501906020 issue 150 pp. 195 – 235 28.06.2019 ru 136
The article presents a factorial model for determining the needs of lactating cows in essential amino acids. The algorithm of the model uses fragments from the NRC – 2001 models [39], CNCPS – 200 [60], and research materials published in the world literature. Instead of the transformation coefficients of the metabolizable lysine and methionine for milk production equal to 0.85 and 1.00, respectively, by the CNCPS, the coefficients 0.68 and 0.66 were used according to Doepel et al., 2004 [49] and the authors' own data [69]. Norms obtained using this model in lysine and methionine in milk production and maintenance in percentage of metabolizable protein (MP) were 7.28 and 2.4%, which is identical to the NRC – 2001 standards, equal to 7.2 and 2.4 % respectively, obtained by dose – response method based on dozens of experiments. The norm of histidine was 3.5%, which closely corresponds to the indicator of 2.4 and 2.7 % MP [74], obtained by the incremental addition method. This indicates that the presented model is distinguished by sufficiently high accuracy and is comparable with the models developed by the dose – response method. However, the determination of the need of cows for amino acids in this model is much less expensive than the dose – response method. The need for the absolute amount of metabolizable essential amino acids (MEAA) for milk production (35 kg/d, yield milk protein 1103 gytt6) and maintenance cow - 600 kg, g/d: lysine - 178, methionine - 59, arginine - 119, histidine - 60, isoleucine - 138, leucine - 248, phenylalanine - 152, threonine - 134, tryptophan - 38, valine - 174; the need for only milk production, g/d: 130; 42; 81; 42; 95; 175; 98; 74; 25; 112; the need for only maintenance, g/d: 50; 16; 38; 20; 43; 73; 54; 60; 14; 64; the need for 1 kg of milk (31.5 g of protein) g/kg: 3.7; 1.2; 2.3; 1.2; 2.7; 5.0; 2.8; 2.1; 0.7; 3.2; need to maintain, g / kg 0.75: 0.41; 0.14; 0.31; 0.16; 0.35; 0.60; 0.44; 0.50; 0.11; 0.53. In addition, the article presents the norms of amino acids per 1 kg of dry matter (DM) ration. However, the proposed standards need a comprehensive assessment in the research and practice of dairy farming. Research is needed to improve the models and predict the MEAA in the rations in the following areas: studying the metabolism of amino acids in the body of cows and determining their costs for maintaining the digestive tract, tissues and organs, refining, on this basis, the utilization of amino acids for milk protein production and maintenance; the development of ideal amino-acid profile of low-protein diets, both due to the adjustment of natural ingredients, and through the use of amino acid preparations that are protected from disintegration in the rumen
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abstract 1501906021 issue 150 pp. 236 – 245 28.06.2019 ru 138
The article deals with angiogenesis of squamous papillomas of dogs, which is a process of formation of blood vessels, providing neovascularization of tumors with their progression. The differentiation of papillomas depending on morphological and histological features was carried out, progressive and hyperkeratinized types were identified, which determine the stage of development and transition from one to another in the process of tumor growth. It is noted that with the progression of papillomas, the area of the constituent elements of the tumor increases, both due to the stroma and due to the parenchyma, but the stromal-parenchymal ratio changes in the direction of increasing the parenchymal component. Analysis of angiogenesis showed heterogeneity of the isolated vessels, both within the stromal component of papillomas, and depending on the type of tumors. There are three types of vessels – small, medium and large, there is a similar ratio of different types of vessels, regardless of the type of papillomas. Localization of vessels in the stroma depending on belonging to the selected species was studied. The total area of the section of blood vessels with cancer increases, and the ratio of the total area of the section of blood vessels to the area of the stroma is almost at the same level, which determines the dependence of the increase in the stromal component of papillomas from angiogenesis
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abstract 1501906027 issue 150 pp. 246 – 256 28.06.2019 ru 48
The experiment has examined the effect of various agricultural technologies on the yield of winter wheat, depending on the factors studied. The studies were conducted at the experimental station of the Kuban State Agrarian University under the conditions of multifactor multi-year monitoring. The experiment was carried out in a typical for the zone 11-field grain-grass-tilled crop rotation. In this paper, we considered some of the elements of the winter wheat cultivation technology, the Brigade variety using different doses of fertilizers (N50P50K120 and N100P100K240) on four tillage options (plowing, chisel loosening, disc peeling and zero tillage). On the basis of the conducted research, it has been established that in order to obtain a stable harvest of winter wheat grain, higher doses of mineral fertilizers should be applied, which also ensures high indicators of grain quality. The considered agrotechnical methods led to a positive change in crop structure and grain quality
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abstract 1501906028 issue 150 pp. 257 – 267 28.06.2019 ru 73
Smallpox of turkey is a viral, slowly extending disease. It pathogenetically proceeds in a dermatotropic way, skin lesions are characterized primarily by two signs or focal necrotic focus centers or diphtheritic inflammation of mucous membranes, often of the upper respiratory tract. Etiological factor in smallpox are dermatotropic epitheliogenic viruses, the family of Avipoxvirus of Poxviridae. The purpose of this work was studying the features of clinic and the pathomorphological changes at smallpox at turkeys in the context of diagnostics methods and also generalization of treatment-and-prophylactic actions at this pathology. The diseased bird is the main source of infection. In addition, the smallpox virus particles can be spread by people providing care for the birds, indoor air, food, bedding material, excrement. Diagnosis of smallpox takes into account the symptoms; if an autopsy was performed, the result of a pathological pattern as well. Additionally, we can conduct a research of histological sections. Confirmation of diagnosis can be performed by a virological study and the blood serum. In accordance with the pathogenesis of smallpox, there is a classic skin form and diphtheritic. There may be a combination of the above manifestations of smallpox, therefore we can record the mixed form, in some cases, it may be atypical. Pathoanatomical changes come down to defeat a respiratory system of bodies, the upper airways, at the complicated forms there may be noted lesions in the internal organs. Laboratory methods include identification of the virus in the pathological material, as well as additional histological and virological studies using chicken embryos and bioassays. Treatment is difficult and not always effective. The main preventive measure against smallpox in turkey is vaccination, basic applied biologics are: Avivac-pox" strain "K", "Ospovat, Vectorman FP-MG". Prevention of smallpox includes the implementation of general veterinary and sanitary rules in conjunction with the mandatory special prevention. When planning measures to prevent the spread of smallpox, conditions are created to eliminate pathways of transmission of the pathogen – disinfection, disinsection and deratization, as well as vaccination of all susceptible livestock
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abstract 1501906004 issue 150 pp. 56 – 68 28.06.2019 ru
This article discusses some elements of the Brigade cultivating winter wheat varieties using different doses of fertilizers (N50P50K120 and N100P100K240) in four tillage options (plowing, chisel loosening, disc chopping and zero treatment). The experiment was conducted in a multifactorial stationary conditions. The considered agrotechnical techniques have led to a change in the density, hardness and structural composition of the soil. The most optimal values of these parameters have been obtained by using plowing and chiseling
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abstract 1511907001 issue 151 pp. 1 – 14 30.09.2019 ru 0
The main subject spotted in this article is a calculation method which helps to depict optimal temperature conditions for seeds stimulation by infrared radiation useful for electromagnetic processing and seed-pelleting with perlit next. The analysis helped to depict that the convenient technical aspects of shortwave infrared radiation is in range 0,76-1,4 mcm. This kind of infrared radiation has the greatest penetrating power into the grain to stimulate. According to the methodology a rapid increase of the temperature of seeds after the critical point reaching during IR treatment leads to the properties deterioration of the of thermolabile materials. The temperature gradient during the IR treatment of seeds has the opposite direction of moisture content and depends on the preliminary humidity of the material. This affects the pre-planting cultivation quality of seeds. To avoid overheating and seeds damage there was a mathematical model of the optimal temperature of the IR radiation calculated. As the result of this method there was obtained the calculation of temperature conditions for IR treatment and heating rate depending on seeds humidity. This calculation method helps to define optimal temperature conditions to avoid harmful influence on seeds due to heating. There was data fitting during this method creation and evaluation which defines the effectiveness and perspective of this elaboration
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abstract 1511907002 issue 151 pp. 15 – 23 30.09.2019 ru 0
Rice is a crop with high yields guaranteed by nature itself. In recent years, huge changes have occurred in the domestic rice cultivation, but despite this, there are still a lot of unsolved relevant problems. One of such problems is the development of high yielding varieties. The success of breeding largely depends on the availability of genetically diverse starting material with a wide response to changing environmental conditions, its knowledge and proper selection; as well as the identification of new sources of valuable traits and properties, among ecologically remote agro-types that enrich the genetic potential of domestic varieties. Development of a high-yielding variety is greatly influenced by economically important traits: plant height, total and productive tillering, the number of spikelets and grains in the panicle, grain size, weight of 1000 grains, etc. In modern biological science of heredity, there is still the question of the inheritance of quantitative traits. The study of inheritance of quantitative traits constituting the main elements of the yield structure is one of the most important tasks, the solution of which is necessary to speed up the breeding process. Inheritance of any trait is often determined by researchers by the magnitude of the dominance coefficient
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abstract 1511907003 issue 151 pp. 24 – 32 30.09.2019 ru 0
Planetary mechanisms are used to create the working movement of the Executive bodies of metallurgical and mining machines. Roller working bodies, for the drive of which planetary mechanisms are used, are increasingly being used in the designs of harvesting machines. The processes occurring in the differential threshing devices of harvesting machines are poorly understood, due to the lack of information about the properties of the material in the event of rapidly changing stresses in them. This work is the result of the analysis of previous theoretical as well as experimental studies in the field of threshing. We describe the technological scheme of the shock-vibration threshing device and the principle of its operation. The possible variants of arrangement of drum rolls and drumming are considered. The relationship between the angular velocities of the drum, the drum rolls and the sub-drum is elucidated. Installation of three-sided rollers on the threshing device according to the scheme proposed by us allows additional shaking of the whole threshed rice mass from 75 to 110 times per second
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abstract 1511907004 issue 151 pp. 33 – 45 30.09.2019 ru 0
In this work we have given the analysis of the literary data confirming positive experience of impact of the hydrocarbon substance of growth (HSG) on viability of seeds, resilience, growth of plants, and productivity of various crops. It is shown that the basic experimental data belong to the 60th of the XX century. At the same time, works on application of HSG have been generalized for the first time in the collection of works of the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijani SSR by Institute of soil science and agrochemistry. HSG represents the by-product of petro processing received at sulphuric acid cleaning of diesel fuel with further processing with alkaline solution of NaOH. It includes mainly mixture of sodium salts of naphthenic acids. On the basis of literary data and own probes it is established that for each culture there is optimum very small concentration of HSG (0.005-0.01%), processing by solution of which makes positive impact on viability, growth and development of crops. The results of probes of blood formation of animals [8] and growth of mass of birds allow considering HSG ecologically safe. We have also presented the results of pilot study of impact of pre-seeding processing of seeds of wheat and peas by water solutions of the hydrocarbon growth substance (HSG) on their morpho-physiological parameters. The most effective concentration of HSG for processing of seeds of spring wheat of grade "Saratov" and grade peas "Alpha" is revealed. It is shown that the stimulator in concentration of 0.005-0.01% proves as stimulator of crop growth. It follows that degree of efficiency of action of HSG on improvement of development and increase in productivity of agricultural products from use of this drug is quite high. Considering that the stimulator can be received at insignificant expenses as a waste product of the purified diesel fuels, its application in agriculture is economically justified
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abstract 1511907005 issue 151 pp. 46 – 55 30.09.2019 ru 0
The article presents the results of a study of the features of growth and development of young bulls in the conditions of Central Yakutia when mineral feed additives are included in their rations. The scientific experience was carried out on the basis of the cattle-breeding farm "Churapcha". For the experiment were selected bullhead Hereford breed at the age of 7 months. Experimental groups of animals were formed by the method of analogues. Such indicators as age, live weight, fatness, physiological state were taken into account. The control group of bulls received the main ration. In comparison with the control group, analogs with I experimental group, in addition to the basic ration, received zeolite 0.5 g / kg body weight, 150 g sapropel and 0.04 g potassium iodide. The animals of the II experimental group received, in addition to the basic ration of zeolite hongurin, at a dose of 0.7 g / kg body weight, 200 g of sapropel with 10 g of copper sulphate. The duration of scientific experience - 7 months. Studies have shown that the addition to the diet of mineral feed additives has influenced the growth and development of bulls. So, when the age of 15 months was reached, according to the compactness index, the bulls of the control group were slightly inferior to their peers by 0.9 % compared to the first experimental group and 5.8 % to the second experimental group. According to the massiveness index, gobies of the I and II experimental groups exceeded the gobies of the control group by 0.5 % and 0.3 %. Upon reaching the age of 15 months on the index of compactness, the bulls of the experimental groups had the best indicators