Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Коnоnеnко Sergey Ivanovich

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Kuban State Agrarian University
    North-Caucasus Research Institute of Animal

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Articles count: 32

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abstract 1361802030 issue 136 pp. 189 – 200 28.02.2018 ru 141
The main diseases of lactating cows occur in the first two months of lactation, i.e. during the production peak of productivity. They are caused by the changes in metabolism during the transition period, which are not supported by adequate changes in the organization of feeding, or rather sufficient to ensure cows with nutrients, which causes a number of closely related diseases. To allocate any of them is not possible, as their manifestation depends on a number of reasons, and depending on situation may prevail one or the other. Among the most common diseases, there are ketosis, milk fever (paresis of maternity), dysplasia of the abomasum, acidosis, mastitis, endometritis, laminitis and leukemia. These diseases cause the greatest problems in herds with high productivity, and are caused by changes in metabolism in cows in the transition period and the inability to properly feed the animals at this time. To identify the causes of these diseases we do not need to study each of them individually - it is enough to deal with the peculiarities of metabolism. This period includes the month before calving and the first or second month of lactation, but the most important are 3 weeks before calving and 3 weeks later. In order to prevent metabolic disorders there were developed and tested feed for feeding cows before calving and immediately after calving. Their effect was studied on milk production and health status
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abstract 1191605021 issue 119 pp. 293 – 312 31.05.2016 ru 147
The successful development of livestock requires maintaining and further increasing of the genetic potential, the basis for the manifestation of which is the adequite balanced feeding. Currently, one of the most urgent problems of livestock breeding is to find ways for reduction of the negative impact of various feeding factors on the animals. In industrial conditions, it is difficult to exclude various feed stresses, which lead to a decrease in productivity, survival rate and ill health of animals and poultry. The work summarizes the research in this direction, taking into account the achievements of domestic and foreign authors. A serious problem of feed producing companies and livestock farms is the grain and compound feed affection with fungi and their metabolic products - mycotoxins. Based on the results of the research of several authors, the ways of solving this problem were identified and recommendations on the reduction of the negative effect on the body were provided. It is noted, that one of the best and effective ways to reduce the negative effect of mycotoxins on the body is a method of administration of adsorbents in animal feed. But it should be taken into consideration that in order to maximize the protection against mycotoxins and minimize their harmful effects on the body of animals it is necessary to use preparations, which include adsorbents of organic and inorganic nature, as well as to comply with the dosage of their introduction into the diets of animals and poultry.The progressive forms of preparations of a new generation, solving problems of the negative impact of feeding factors, include probiotics, which contain some bacteria, immobilized on the solid particles, so that they inhabit the intestine faster. Modern biological complexes have immune correcting properties, increase non-specific resistance of the organism, normalize microbiocenosis of gastrointestinal tract, and stimulate the functional activity of the digestive system. Therefore, it is necessary to use feed additives with detoxification properties as part of animal compound feed, according to recommendations on their application in appropriate dosages
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abstract 1171603016 issue 117 pp. 284 – 304 31.03.2016 ru 160
In the current economic conditions of the import substitution, special importance is given to the search for new feed sources, methods of preparing them for feeding, the use of biologically active substances and enzymes. At the forefront of feed production is rape as breeding work with this culture has showed positive results. Currently, selectionists have bred yellow double-zero "00" varieties of rapeseeds free of erucic acid of "Canole" type, that have low glucosinolate level. The development of new and modern technology standards are required for preparation them for feeding, since they are fundamentally different from the previously used rapeseed varieties and have fewer restrictions for feeding to different types of farm animals and poultry. The article presents a fairly lengthy and reasoned review of the literature of a large number of authors on the topic, as well as given rapeseed market analysis, rational and advanced methods of preparing rapeseed processed products for feeding to young and adult animals. Much attention is paid to the use of a variety of biologically active substances and enzymes, which improve digestion and absorption of nutrients from rations with rapeseed processingproducts, increase productivity and reduce feed costs per unit of production. The use of processing products of rapeseed improves the profitability of livestock production. Feeding of rapeseedcake to cattle increases the protein content and volatile fatty acids in the rumen content, increases the number of infusoria and decreases ammonia levels. The inclusion of rape forage in diets of farm animals and poultry improves hematological parameters. Products of rapeseed processing of the varieties with low glucosinolatesa1re recommended for the rations of farm animals and poultry depending on the species, age and physiological state
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abstract 1201606062 issue 120 pp. 914 – 923 30.06.2016 ru 218
The aim of the research was to study the impact of starter complete feed (CF) with different levels of crude fat on the chemical composition of muscle tissue and liver of young geese. During days 5-28 the poultry was fed CF with 5.1-8.1 % crude fat, from 29- to 60- day age – with 5.4 %. By increasing the level of crude fat in starter CF there was a trend to an increase of the phosphorus content in muscle samples of geese hip and thigh - by 4.4-9.6 %, in the liver - by 27.2-53.5 % (P≤0,05). The chest muscles of the young geese fed high-calorie CF had 2.8-6.0 % higher fat content, than that of counterparts in the first group. At the same time, there was a tendency to a decrease in the concentration of fat in the muscles of the hip and thigh - by 1.9-5.0 % (P˃0,05). Increased level of crude fat in CF did not have a negative impact on the accumulation of heavy metals in the muscle and liver of geese, the concentration of the studied elements was within the permissible level established for food products
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abstract 1271703036 issue 127 pp. 527 – 545 31.03.2017 ru 242
To improve the quality, safety and competitiveness of the domestic raw materials of animal origin the use of probiotics in the poultry industry is a priority and promising direction of the development of organic agriculture. One of the key problems of the production of probiotics is to provide actively stable preparations. Biocompatibility of the indigenous microflora with probiotics, medical form and individual range of antibacterial activity of probiotics have a significant impact on the introduction of probiotics in new habitat conditions and its effectiveness. Consideration of these factors can enhance the effectiveness of probiotics. Currently, the available literature has insufficient justification of certain doses of administration and methods of using different probiotic preparations. The materials present and summarize the results of the research concerning the use of probiotics in the poultry industry, based on the achievements of Russian and foreign scientists. In addition, based on the analysis of various sources of scientific literature, we suggest ways to solve the problem of probiotic therapy and give some recommendations on the organization of the technological process of selection and application of different probiotics in poultryfeeding. Raw meat from poultry reared with the use of probiotic preparations is safe, because metabolites of probiotic microorganisms are not accumulate in the body tissues. Researches of biosynthesis regularities of probiotics were made at the cellular level, including genetic aspects, features of regulation of secretion, dependence on the cultivation conditions, interaction with binding sites on the cell surface, participation in the vital activity of the population of individual cells. The use of probiotics contributes to normalization of the intestinal microflora, activation of protein metabolism, productivity increase, reduction of feed costs per unit of production and increasing of poultry industry economic efficiency as a whole
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abstract 1331709063 issue 133 pp. 823 – 850 30.11.2017 ru 344
In the review, the stages of designing therapeutic cocktails of T4 type bacteriophages based on works by Harald Brüssow from Nestlé S.A. (Switzerland) are considered. The main stages of this process are identified: analysis of existing cocktails, selection of phages; creating a collection; cultivation of the host bacterium, multiplication of viruses; purification of the preparation; contamination testing; preservation, stabilization and storage; preclinical and clinical trials. H. Brüssow first studied the Russian drug " Coli-Proteus bacteriophage " of "Microgen" with the help of metagenomic analysis, electron microscopy and conducted its clinical studies. Prof. Brüssow considered the advantages of T4 bacteriophages for the treatment of Escherichia coli infections. Researchers studied methods of cultivation in Erlenmeyer flasks, in a bioreactor, in disposable sack cultivators for the propagation of viruses. For its purification the chromatography, centrifugation, filtration and polyethylene glycol precipitation were studied. To quickly check the contamination of phage cocktails, a mass spectrometry method is proposed. Researchers considered basic strategies, such as lyophilization, spray drying, the formation of microcrystals and microspheres to stabilize the preparations. They also reviewed the results of clinical trials of phage cocktails. We have listed the problems of selecting T4 bacteriophages from the point of view of modern knowledge. H. Brüssow and his colleagues carried out an interesting work on the construction of phage cocktails based on T4 type bacteriophages, and also revealed the problems of the current state of phage therapy
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abstract 1231609029 issue 123 pp. 421 – 432 30.11.2016 ru 356
This work considers the needs and methods of phage therapy of two bacterial infections in poultry. The review examines the use of bacteriophages, from the moment of their discovery to the present day. We discuss the relevance of such diseases as compilobacteriosis and colibacteriosis transmitted from birds to humans, we show how to use bacteriophages and their efficacy in models of adult birds and chickens, including information provided on the pilot study of phage therapy at a poultry farm. The reported study was partially supported by RFBR, research projects No. 16-44-230855 and No. 13-04- 00991 and № 16-44-230855-р_а
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abstract 1151601004 issue 115 pp. 76 – 86 27.01.2016 ru 372
Under the current conditions, it is very important to boost the production of pork and improve its sanitary and hygienic quality for the successful handling of problems subjected to import substitution of meat products. This can be reached by means of strengthening of food reserve. For that purposes, in the frame of two experiments yacon tubers in combination with enzymatic agent protosubtilin GZx have been introduced in the intakes of fattening pork stores instead of fodder beat, and various doses of carbitox adsorbent have been additionally added when superfluous background of heavy metals was observed. During the 1st experiment, the substitution of fodder beet with the similar quantity of yacon tubers has allowed the animals of experimental group to outweigh the ones from the control group on 7,5% in the terms of gross formation of body weight, and to gain 100 kg of body weight for 7 days ahead of the animals from control group as well. Additionally, fodder costs per product have been reduced and the morphological and biochemical values of animals blood have been optimized. Based on the data from 2 nd experiment, it has been defined that the better dose for feeding of adsorbent carbitox was 2,0 kg per tonne of concentrates thereby the animals of 3rd experimental group had reasonably higher body weight gain and thereby higher feed-conversion ratio by products. Therewith, the animals intermediary metabolism has been speeded up due to optimization of morphological and biochemical values of blood and reduction of heavy metals content in blood serum, in other words level of zinc, lead and cadmium was not exceeding maximum allowable concentration
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abstract 1181604045 issue 118 pp. 783 – 793 29.04.2016 ru 380
For further increasing pork production and to increase its quality it is necessary to provide complete and balanced feeding of young pigs for fattening. The special place takes the issue of satisfying their physiological needs in macro and micronutrients. The most cost-effective step in these circumstances is using bentonite clays as natural mineral supplements. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the addition of bentonite of Zamankulskaya field on the energy growth, digestibility and the digestibility of nutrients of the diet of young pigs. According to the results of the survey, the best productive effect was when ensuring free access to the bentonite, so that the young pigs of the 3rd experimental group vs control group had significant superiority according to gross and average daily live weight gain and feed products. According to the results of scientific and economic experience, it was found that with free access to the bentonite best economic and useful indicators were observed in the animals of the 3rd experimental group against the control analogs, as they had significant superiority in terms of absolute live weight gain and feed consumption per unit of production. During the physiological exchange of experience the most beneficial effect on the hydrolysis of complex organic compounds had bentonite feeding with free access of pigs. The result was a significant superiority of the experimental animals over the control ones in coefficients of digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fat and NFE. To improve the digestibility and absorption of nutrients in the diet of young pigs it is advisable to feed them with bentonite clay as natural mineral supplements with free access
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abstract 1181604044 issue 118 pp. 773 – 782 29.04.2016 ru 388
In our country, great influence is given to the production and consumption of agricultural animals' meat with high consumer qualities. In this regard, the livestock producers, particularly pigs, are to increase production and improve product quality. Works on using some natural mineral complexes - bentonite and zeolites as a source of macro - and trace elements are performed. The aim of the research is to study the effects of bentonite feeding with free access on the meat productivity and hygienic meat quality of young pigs for fattening. Best effect on the slaughter indexes of fattening gilts had bentonite feeding with free access that resulted in significant superiority of the animals in the experimental group over the control counterparts on pre-slaughter live weight, slaughter weight, chilled carcass weight, slaughter yield, carcass length, the "muscle" eye area and the backgammon weight. More favorable effect in the longest muscle on the dry matter and protein synthesis was provided by bentonite feeding with free access. Due to this, the gilts of the experimental group were in significant advance of their control counterparts in concentration of dry matter and protein in meat. Along with this, the longest muscle of young pigs on fattening in the experimental group had the highest protein value, as according to the protein-qualitative indicator the animals of this group were in significant advance of the control counterparts. Feeding bentonite clay with free access had a strong detoxifying effect that is against control counterparts of gilts in the experimental group showed the significant reduce of lead, zinc and cadmium concentrations in the meat