Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Name

Maslov Gennady Georgiyevich

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Academic rank

professor

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Kuban State Agrarian University
   

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Articles count: 16

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583 kb

A MULTILEVEL SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO INTEGRATED OPTIMIZATION OF HARVESTING PROCESSES, TRANSPORTATION AND CLEANING OF GRAIN

abstract 1241610072 issue 124 pp. 1123 – 1146 30.12.2016 ru 134
A methodology for a multilevel system approach to integrated optimization of processes of harvest, transportation and cleaning of the grain during the harvest by the method of «Neveyka» has been developed. The main method of research - is a queuing theory of all components of the yield except straw. The System consists of 6 interconnected subsystems with their inputs and outputs, and its own optimality criteria. On the first level of optimization, the most efficient way of wheat harvest «Neveyka» has been proved. On the second level - the total duration of the harvest with allowance for 4-5 cultivated wheat sorts, each of which is harvested within 5 calendar days, was optimized. The third level proves the requirement of combine harvesters and transport vehicle. On the fourth level - the combinations of harvesting and transport units are optimized on the criterion of the minimum amount of the loss on the mutual expectations of harvesters and vehicles. The fifth optimization level proves the capacity of the reception station of the grain storage, where the main criterion for optimality is the least amount of losses on the mutual waiting time of the transportation vehicles, and the additional criterion is the minimum waiting time of vehicles in the queue. On the sixth and the final stage the specific annual economic effect (rub/ha or rub/t) from the implementation of the proposed technology is determined. It is established, that during the grain harvesting, transporting and processing of heap there are elementary or Poisson probability flows of requirements for service. The Representation of harvesting - transport link in the form of closed queuing system of independent harvesting unit. An approach to the justification of failure-free operation of a station for cleaning grain heap and storage of grain and chaff is presented
300 kb

DESIGN FEATURES OF THE NEW CHISEL COMBINED AND CALCULATION NEEDS OF THE ENGINE POWER AT HIS WORK

abstract 1091505013 issue 109 pp. 195 – 207 29.05.2015 ru 822
The article presents technologies and design features of the proposed chisel combined unit, combining in a single pass over the field 3 operations: deep loosening, crumbling additional topsoil and alignment, fertilizing. Design features of such a subsoiller as the basis of the unit include a chisel on each rack, fixed at an angle of 15-25 degrees to the horizontal and lessons along the center line of the rack feet, and flat cutting fun-leveling, consisting of two coaxially bred drums equipped with ripper teeth securely fastened according to our patents and placed in 5-9 rows on the surface of the drums on the helix, with rows of teeth on both drums have the opposite direction. The teeth of the first drum are long by 5-9 cm than the second, the clearance between the teeth of the first and second drum does not exceed 1.5 cm, and the ends of the teeth between the first reel and the cylindrical surface of the second - 1 cm. Front legs each provided with a divider soil laid down by its center and related to the lower of its parts - the bit. The first reel is mounted to 5 cm clearance between it and the cylindrical surface of the soil, which improves process reliability. We have got analytical dependences of the required power for the engine of the tractor unit with the proposed change of the working speed and width at the optimum utilization traction tractor plowing 0.9. We have justified a preferred brand of domestic and foreign tractors for this purpose
832 kb

EFFECTIVE WAYS TO REDUCE SOIL COM-PACTION TO PRESERVE ITS FERTILITY

abstract 1461902003 issue 146 pp. 0 – 0 28.02.2019 ru 9
New ways of solving reducing soil compaction problem are substantiated. Soil compaction destroys its structure, violates its water-air regime, and leads to erosion and reduced yield. The effectiveness of the presented directions, based on the analysis of the issue and the results of own research is confirmed by practical use in the crop production processes mechanization of intellectual engineering authors' developments, based on their inventions and well-known serial technology selected from Automated reference system "agricultural machinery". It was the synthesis of own research results and modern agricultural machinery best samples analysis that allowed us to form an effective system of machines that reduce the harmful soil compaction. This ensures soil fertility preservation and crop yield increase. The set of machines proposed in the system for soil processing, sowing, fertilizing, spraying and harvesting not only reduces soil compaction but also improves work quality, labor productivity and complexity of the work performed, harvest and reduces costs of all types (energy, money, labor). The basis of the problem solution consists of a combination of technological operations for one pass of the unit across the field, multifunctional units application in the system that performs tillage and seeding, fertilization and tillage, additional fertilizing of spike crops with simultaneous harrowing, harvesting with simultaneous stubbling or straw pressing etc., refusal to use heavy machinery in the fields, trucks, conversion tracked system on tractors, front and rear hydraulics for making multi-functional units, the use of fundamentally new machines and adaptations to them according to the inventions of the authors
187 kb

IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF MECHANIZED OPERATIONS

abstract 1071503021 issue 107 pp. 318 – 332 31.03.2015 ru 457
The article presents analysis of the problem of increasing the quality of the implementation of mechanized operations to harvest crops and seed dressing chemicals. The quality of grain harvesting combine harvesters was considered for the new modern harvesters in terms of crop losses, grain crushing and microdamages. The quality of seed treatment is considered on the basis of the ejection slot-spraying nozzles at ultra low seed coming down with a conical distribution surface, ending rounded shape logisticians. The problem of improving the quality of the grain harvest is mainly due to its losses for the combine and injury. By the way, the amount of grain crushing almost half its losses determines the percentage of the combine. The greatest fragmentation occurs in the threshing and separating device (LSG) combines with a hammer drums and several times lower - in the axial rotor LSG. At last there is a big advantage - high performance combines that preference when replacing obsolete machines with a hammer apparatus. Quality depends on the etching uniformity of distribution of atomized liquid droplets and completeness of etching. The proposed new flowsheet Dressers fixed flow distribution and ejection-slotted spray solution of the working fluid has significant advantages: reliable processing of seeds, completeness (not less than 97%) and uniformity (98%) of dressing material. Optimal duty cycle flow of seeds created by a fixed cone with an angle of 45 degrees, the spatial arrangement of ejection nozzles relative to the flow of processed seeds provide good quality of work
1629 kb

INNOVATIVE-TECHNOLOGICAL PREREQUISITES OF GRAIN COMPETITIVENESS IMPROVEMENT

abstract 1321708020 issue 132 pp. 249 – 264 31.10.2017 ru 187
The systemic links that depend on mechanization, which affect the growth of the cost price of field crop production were proposed and their analysis was made. Three main blocks of the basic reasons for production costs growth (machinery and materials cost rise, agroecological potential underutilization, agrotechnologies non-observance) disclose agricultural machinery and agrotechnologies of field crops negative aspects that are being used, and also explain agro-potential underutilization causes on the example of the Krasnodar region. The irrational nomenclative list of machines in the current system was analyzed, which not only raises field crop production cost price, but also negatively affects the soil fertility due to its reconsolidation and spraying. Requirements for production processes mechanization means, taking into account their cost price reduction, were formulated. The possibilities for optimizing of the field works timing performed by the proposed agricultural machinery, their quality improving and product damage reducing, as well as work complexity with coinciding terms, streamlining and rhythmicity of processes were formulated. Taking into account the system approach, the imbalance between the agro-industrial complex and management forms was reflected in the weak interrelation of their interests with state interests, which also affects the cost price of production. The negative aspects of the machine system for the mechanization of field crop cultivation were revealed. A special effect should be expected from the proposed combination of technological operations in one pass of the machine across the field due to full-scale adaptations to machines, the ratio of the park of caterpillar and wheel tractors and the work complexity. On the basis of these studies, proposals for traumatization reducing of grain by harvesting equipment and the cost of crop losses from trauma, as well as the regularities of the area of damage to grain from grain vitality have been substantiated. The reasons of production cost price increase are connected with attracting investment issues and managing innovative activities of introducing priority means of mechanization (concessional lending, subsidies, etc.)
1942 kb

MECHANIZATION PRODUCTION PROCESSES STRATEGY OF HIGH QUALITY WHEAT GRAIN

abstract 1371803001 issue 137 pp. 1 – 12 30.03.2018 ru 61
The article presents a production system analysis of high-quality winter wheat grain and the problem solution methods based on mechanization production processes strategy through a new generation of equipment and innovative improvement of machine technologies were outlined. Deterioration of grain quality indicators in the country was marked: the proportion of strong wheat is not more than 0.5% of commodity grain resources, and about 80% of exportable parties is wheat of 4...5 classes. Thus, it is possible due to the process mechanization to raise the grain quality. A well-known method of functional-cost analysis was applied to ground machine technological operations, which are the first to be developed in order to improve the wheat quality in the entire technological system, the demand for which is reduced abroad. The basic technological principles of production of high-quality grain were designed. They have three subsystems: the structure of the wheat varieties for the agricultural producer, the previous crops for wheat, features of cultivation technology of valuable varieties on the basis of intelligent manufacturing systems machines. The mechanization of high quality grain production processes was proposed. It can provide engine technology improvement due to rational composition machine-tractor units of new generation. They allow to abandon the outdated usual items of machinery used in their system and dramatically raise labor productivity due to the combination of operations, quality of work, yield and reduce costs. The features of mechanization on harvesting and post-harvest grain refinement are reflected with the aim of improving its quality. Applied to various forms of management, intellectual grain sorting means of mechanization recommended, which contribute to an increase in wheat quality. The impact of "neveika" technology with the completion of the heap at the stationary place on the grain quality improvement was marked
1932 kb

MECHANIZATION PRODUCTION PROCESSES STRATEGY OF HIGH QUALITY WHEAT GRAIN +)

abstract 1351801007 issue 135 pp. 80 – 91 31.01.2018 ru 62
The production system analysis of high-quality winter wheat grain was done and the problem solution methods based on mechanization production processes strategy through a new generation of equipment and innovative improvement of machine technologies were outlined. Deterioration of grain quality indicators in the country was marked: the proportion of strong wheat is not more than 0.5% of commodity grain resources, and about 80% of exportable parties is wheat of 4...5 classes. Thus, it is possible due to the process mechanization to raise the grain quality. A well-known method of functional-cost analysis was applied to ground machine technological operations, which are the first to be developed in order to improve the wheat quality in the entire technological system, the demand for which is reduced abroad. The basic technological principles of production of high-quality grain were designed. They have three subsystems: the structure of the wheat varieties for the agricultural producer, the previous crops for wheat, features of cultivation technology of valuable varieties on the basis of intelligent manufacturing systems machines. The mechanization of high quality grain production processes was proposed. It can provide engine technology improvement due to rational composition machine-tractor units of new generation. They allow abandoning the outdated usual items of machinery used in their system and dramatically raise labor productivity due to the combination of operations, quality of work, yield and reduce costs. The features of mechanization on harvesting and post-harvest grain refinement are reflected with the aim of improving its quality. Applied to various forms of management, intellectual grain sorting means of mechanization recommended, which contribute to an increase in wheat quality. The impact of "neveika" technology with the completion of a heap at the stationary place on the grain quality improvement was marked
305 kb

OPTIMIZATION OF THE MAINTENANCE SYSTEM OF STATION AND HARVESTING UNITS WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF TECHNOLOGY OF «NEVEYKA»

abstract 1241610073 issue 124 pp. 1147 – 1161 30.12.2016 ru 78
Using queuing theory (QT) for the new technology of harvesting of grain crops by the method of «Neveyka», the method of optimal designing of maintenance system and elimination of failures of units used in cleaning technology and post-harvest processing of grain has been considered. On the basis of a systematic approach, taking into account the probabilistic nature of the change of operating factors the methodical directions of validity test of the adoption of the Poisson distribution in the calculation of operating modes were substantiated to optimize maintenance level units and eliminate failures in the operation of the machines, the probability of failure-free operation of harvesting and transport aggregates. The probability of failure-free operation of each type of units used in the cleaning of grain depends on their number and intensity of service. According to the numerical value the probability of failure-free operation of units is equal to the probability of idle units for maintenance and elimination of failures. Since it is impossible to determine separately the value of the probability of failure-free operation for all types of units and all kinds of services at different operating conditions the generalized solution has been offered, this solution is applicable to any serviced unit during both the technical inspection and elimination of failures. By specifying the desired value of the probability of failure-free operation of harvesting units, according to their number we can determine the appropriate ratio between the average length of service and the average period of time between incoming service requirements (technical inspection and elimination of failures) from one unit
183 kb

REDUCTION OF TRACTOR DEMAND BY THE USE OF FULL-DRIVE COMBINES IN FIELD WORK

abstract 0701106044 issue 70 pp. 618 – 632 30.06.2011 ru 1424
The use of grain-harvesters in field work and their influence on the reduction of machinery demand are given on an example of a typical farm
139 kb

STRATEGIC TRENDS IN CEREALS HARVESTING IN KUBAN REGION

abstract 0701106020 issue 70 pp. 296 – 306 30.06.2011 ru 1627
Improvement trends of methodical approaches in complex cereals harvesting in optimal terms with technical support substantiation are considered. Structure and technical equipment are considered as well
.