Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Sheudghen Askhad Hazretovich

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Kuban State Agrarian University

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Articles count: 30

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abstract 1531909005 issue 153 pp. 52 – 65 29.11.2019 ru 682
The article studies current state of fertility and productivity of leached chernozem used in the 11-field grain-grass-row crop rotation. Under the conditions of a stationary field experiment, a soil section was laid, a morphological description of the soil was carried out, its magnetic susceptibility χ was measured, soil samples were selected from soil-genetic horizons, in which the particle size distribution, physical and chemical parameters were determined. Studies have shown that leached chernozem is characterized by an addition density of 1.30 g/cm3, a solid phase density of 2.67 g/cm3, a total porosity of 51.9 %, χ = 1,045 × 10-3 units SI, pHwat. 6.5 units, humus content 3.2 %, its stock in the layer A + B = 468.2 t/ha, the sum of the exchange Ca2+ and Mg2+ 42.8 mg.eq./100 g. The use of mineral fertilizers increases the productivity of leached chernozem: the yield of sunflower of 11-field grain-grass-row cultivated crop rotation exceeds the control without fertilizers by 1.02-1.62 t/ha
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abstract 1121508124 issue 112 pp. 1717 – 1727 30.10.2015 ru 698
The article presents the results of the study on the magnesium mode of leached chernozem of Western Ciscaucasia at three rotation of grain-grass-tilled crop rotation. Magnesium in the soil is represented mainly by non-exchangeable form, the number of which is estimated at 90,18 and 91,29 % of gross reserves. Exchange forms of magnesium are 8,68 and 7,71 % respectively in arable and the subsurface layer. The share of water-soluble and organic forms account for less than 1 % - of 0.62 and 0.68 and 0.46 and 0.38% respectively. For three rotation 11-full rotation of gross stocks of magnesium in the soil in which crops were grown without fertilizers has decreased by 0.02 % (200 mg/kg), with fertilizers of 0.03 and 0.02 % (300 and 200 mg/kg). Intense magnesium has been leached from the topsoil. There was a change of the soil content of the forms of magnesium. In the rotation without fertilizer, the share of non-exchangeable magnesium in the General Fund item increased from baseline by 0.27 % in arable and 0.11% of the subsurface layer of soil that the absolute content decreased. The amount of water-soluble, exchangeable and organic magnesium of the soil decreased. Reducing the amount of water-soluble (0.05 and 0.06 %) and metabolic (0.18 and 0.02 %) of magnesium was due to its consumption of the plants. The proportion of magnesium organic part of the soil is reduced as a result of steadily declining yields, and, therefore, the amount of organic residues. In crop rotation, use of mineral fertilizers we have observed different behavior of magnesium compounds in the soil. The number of non-exchangeable magnesium decreased from baseline by 0.13 % in arable and 0,58 % of the subsurface layer of soil. The content of the exchange of magnesium increased respectively 0.43 and 0.41 %, water soluble - 0.13 and 0.10 %, and the organic part of the soil - 0.02 and 0.02 %
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abstract 1121508125 issue 112 pp. 1728 – 1739 30.10.2015 ru 759
The article presents results of studying the total content and the forms of Nickel in the Western Caucasus leached Chernozem at three rotations of 11-fild grain-grass-arable crop rotation. The Nickel content in the soil is close to its Clark (40 mg/kg) and significantly lower than UEC (80 mg/kg). Scientifically based system for fertilizing crop rotation does not lead to the accumulation of Nickel in the soil, but creates the conditions for increasing its mobility. In the future, we may experience the need of the inclusion of Nickel into the system of fertilization of crops grown on leached Chernozem. The Nickel content in the leached Chernozem before development of crop rotation was generally close to Clark soils of the world (40 mg/kg) and significantly lower than UEC (80 mg/kg), which favors the production of high quality produce. After three rotations of the crop rotation without using fertilizers, the total content of Nickel and acid-insoluble form in the soil decreased slightly, but the number of the element extracted with both buffer and acid extractor, increased insignificantly. The decrease of the total content of Nickel and its reserve (acid-insoluble) fund in the soil we explain with the annual exclusion of the element with harvests crops from the fields, and the trend of increasing mobile and acid-soluble - mineralization of humus followed by acidification of the soil. Systematic mineral fertilization on field crop rotation was slightly up for the Nickel fund of the soil, but did not ensure the recovery of the initial level. At the same time, at fertilize crop rotation we observed a clear trend of increasing the number of rolling and acid-soluble Nickel. If we consider that the value of the MPC for moving Nickel is equal to 6 mg/kg, these changes may not have any negative environmental impacts, but rather will encourage the use of this ultra-microelement by plants
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abstract 1131509065 issue 113 pp. 876 – 902 30.11.2015 ru 763
The article shows a possibility of using neutralized phosphogypsum as multicomponent fertilizer for rice crops. In the system of rice fertilization replace of 150kg/ha of ammophos during main application with 40 kg/ha of carbamide and 4 tons/ha of phosphogypsum applied in spring provides the same content of available forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in soil and plants as with application of N120P80K60. Application of phosphogypsum in spring before sowing is less effective than application in autumn before plowing. When applicating phosphogypsum in spring 2013 with a rate of 4 t / ha the obtained yield was 0.57 t / ha or 8.98% higher than in the control, and in 2014 it was not different from that obtained with the application of solid mineral fertilizers with a rate of N120P80K60. With autumn application of phosphogypsum increase in yield in 2014 was 0.98 t / ha or 12.6%. Yield growth is the result of increasing the survival of plants, grain content in panicle and grain weight per plant. Use of neutralized phosphogypsum is economically feasible. Relative benefits of using phosphogypsum instead of phosphorus fertilizer (ammonium phosphate) on rice crops in the Federal State Unitary Enterprise SRSF "Krasnoarmeyskiy" named after A.I.Maystrenko, Krasnoarmeyskiy district of Krasnodar region at the optimal rate amounted to 13139.7 rubles per 1 ha
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abstract 1051501035 issue 105 pp. 603 – 614 30.01.2015 ru 855
Great practical and theoretical interest comes with a study of the transformation of calcium agrobiogeochemical in agro-ecosystems. The basis of the stability of the soil, as an element of the structure and functioning of the biosphere, constitutes historically approved biochemical cycles and flows of matter and energy, which remain unchanged under anthropogenic impact. Comparative analysis of the total content of calcium leached black soil allowed us to establish its decline after three rotations of grain and grass-tilled crop rotation. Without the use of fertilizers its reduction from baseline was 5.25% in the layer 0-20 cm and 3.87% in the 20-40 cm layer, with their introduction - 9.14 and 9.35%, respectively. This trend suggests a decrease in calcium reserves in the root zone of leached black soil in its agricultural use; this process is more active when using mineral fertilizers. This is obviously due to a large outflow of elements in the fertilizer background with harvest crops, and partly due to the influence of mineral fertilizers as chemical reagents on mineral soils, resulting in the release of calcium and moving it into the lower soil horizons. Along with the total content of calcium and its forms, we have analyzed the activity of calcium ions and calcium potential
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abstract 1131509020 issue 113 pp. 244 – 262 30.11.2015 ru 868
Over the past 15 years due to removal with crops of rice crop rotation, as well as with field waste and seepage water content of mobile forms of boron in soils of rice irrigation systems in the Krasnodar region decreased by 10 %, cobalt by 14 %, manganese by 10 %, copper by 7 %, molybdenum by 15 % zinc by 6 %. Impoverishment of soil with calcium and sulfur is observable. Need of using micronutrients for this crop is also determined by lowering mobility of most microelements in flooded soils. Partly this problem can be solved by use of neutralized phosphogypsum – waste product of wet-process phosphoric acid. With its application in dose of 1 t/ha, field receives 265 kg of Ca, 215 kg of S (general) 20 kg of P2O5 and 9.8 kg of SiO2, so it compensates for the loss of calcium from the rice soil, as well as solves the problem of sulfur, silicon and partly phosphorus fertilizers. Data showing possibility of use of neutralized phosphogypsum as multicomponent fertilizer for rice crops are given. Phosphogypsum reduces sparseness of rice plants in ontogeny, thus forming a dense agrocenosis: plant density is 24-25 pcs./m2 that is higher than on application of N120P80K60. Plants with such agricultural background by their height and leaf area did not differ from control ones (N120P80K60), and their dry weight was higher by 2-6 %. With fertilizer system N120P80K60 application of 4 t/ha of phosphogypsum during main fertilizer treatment provides the same level of phosphorus content in the soil and plants, as application of 100 kg/ha of ammophos. Rice yield increases by 0,57 t/ha or 8,98 %. Yield growth is the result of increasing survival capacity of plants, seed setting of panicle and weight of grain per plant
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abstract 1071503073 issue 107 pp. 1092 – 1115 31.03.2015 ru 997
This article is a review work where the role of microelements in life of plants is observed and theoretical and practical issues concerning application of complex microfertilizers enhancing productivity, quality of seeds and grain on rice crops are highlighted. The complexions of the metals used as micronutrients, are an effective form of trace elements and means of regulation of the production process of agricultural crops as seed treatment before sowing, and when conducting foliar vegetating plants. Their inclusion in the system of fertilizer rice to balance mineral nutrients necessary for plant life, providing increased productivity, quality seeds and grains
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abstract 1061502034 issue 106 pp. 550 – 567 28.02.2015 ru 1003
The article shows prospects of the use of growth regulators on the nature of humic culture of rice in the first place due to the low field germination of seeds, rice crops lodging. Effect of humate on the growth, development and photosynthetic activity of plants, as well as the consumption of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium results in increased grain yield of rice. Depending on the type of humate yield increased by 5,0-6,4 с/ha. Seed treatment caused a change humates biochemical and technological indicators of the quality of grain. Beans with these options contain more than in the control of protein per 0,13-0,44 % starch - 0,36-1,2 %, decreased membranous grain by 0,2 % and 1 % fracture, raised on vitreousness 1,46-2,0% and the yield of cereals on 1,06-2,0 %
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abstract 1071503039 issue 107 pp. 563 – 577 31.03.2015 ru 1058
The obtained experimental data show that the incorporation of trace elements into the system of the sunflower crop has a positive impact on the mineral nutrition of plants, the number and quality of the crop. Foliar feeding of sunflower crops with micronutrients improves nutrition of plants with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, thus creating the preconditions for the formation of highly agrocenosis. The seed yield of sunflower increased by variants with application of micronutrients 1.2-3.5 t/ha or 4.4-12.9 percent. The greatest impact of treatment with boron and copper, exceeding the background option 3.1-3.5 t/ha or 11.5-12.9% respectively. The crop is least influenced by manganese and molybdenum. The examined elements positively influenced the structure of the sunflower crop. The greatest influence on the diameter of the basket, the number of seeds, weight of seeds in the basket, the weight of 1000 seeds was provided by the zinc and copper. Trace elements contributed to the improvement of quality indicators of sunflower. For husk content, the greatest positive effect was cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper, increasing the background option 10.1, 10.4, 10.5 and 10, and 6%, respectively, on the oil content of sunflower seeds had cobalt, copper and zinc. The oil content on these options amounted 55,0, with 55.1 and 55.2%, respectively, increasing this figure by 1.5 to 1.7 %. The acid number at variants with boron, manganese and zinc was the same with the background option and amounted to 1.8. The greatest influence on iodine number provided molybdenum, zinc and copper, which accounted for 170,5, 171,2 and 171,4, exceeding the background option 10.2 and 11.1
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abstract 1121508126 issue 112 pp. 1740 – 1749 30.10.2015 ru 1081
The article presents results of studying total content of titanium in both not fertilized and systematically fertilized black leached soil. Science-based system of fertilizer crop rotation allows solving problems of sufficient balance of nutrients in the system of "soilplant-fertilizer", increasing the quantity and improving the quality of the crop. At the same time, their application is active influence on the natural environment. In the soil, there is an input of a large set of chemical elements come along with fertilizers. In addition, due to their physiological pH or alkalinity, fertilizers are capable to affect the physical and chemical properties of the soil. The use of mineral fertilizers in scientifically based doses on the fields of crop rotation for 33 years virtually has no impact on the content of titanium in leached Chernozem. In the arable layer its number increased only by 2.1 %, and in subsurface - it is the same as in the crop without fertilizer. Enrichment of topsoil with titanium is due to desilication of rocks during weathering. Due to the low solubility of titanium minerals, they remain in the place longer, and therefore, the content of the element in the soil increases. As you know, fertilizers applied to the fields of crop rotation, increase the intensity of the biological cycle of substances and thereby enhance the process of destruction of the parent rocks