Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Ladatko Valeriy Alexandrovich

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Kuban State Agrarian University

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Articles count: 2

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abstract 1341710051 issue 134 pp. 650 – 660 29.12.2017 ru 293
In the conditions of the two-factor field experiment, the influence of four methods of incorporating straw in the soil on the rice yield was studied: plowing, one-, two- and three-time discs and three ways of "processing" the straw: embedding in the soil of the chopped straw in its pure form, together with compensating nitrogen fertilizer and inoculated stubble biodestructor Stemix ® Niva. It is shown that the lowest yield is formed when straw is plowed, while surface tillage of soil by one-, two- and three-fold discs significantly increases the grain yield in comparison with the plow by 2.4, 4.2 and 5.2 c / ha, respectively. Taking into account that the double disking provided an almost twice increase in the yield of the crop and the absence of statistically significant differences with the triple disking; it is this method of incorporating the straw that should be considered the most expedient. The introduction of a compensating nitrogen fertilizer ensured a reliable increase in yield by 5.1 and 3.7 centners per hectare in comparison with the variants with the introduction of straw in pure form and treatment with biopreparation. Calculation of the share of the influence of the factors studied on the rice yield showed that the method for embedding straw provides 29.9% of the variability of the trait under study, the method of straw treatment is 36.7%, and the residual dispersion accounts for 33.4%. Incorporation of chopped rice straw in the soil together with compensating nitrogen fertilizer in the amount of 1% of the mass of straw, by double discing, ensured the receipt of a conventionally net income of 6940 rubles / ha, the rate of return - 70.4% and the cost recovery - 1.7 rubles / rub
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abstract 1201606083 issue 120 pp. 1250 – 1265 30.06.2016 ru 527
The article presents the analysis of variation of daily mean temperatures for the period 1977-2015. Clear tendency for their increasing in pre-sowing and especially in growing period is found. Heat supply of separate months in pre-sowing period increased in the row: April-February-January-December-March, and that of growing period – in a row: May-Juny-JulySeptember-August. Presence of slight correlation (from -0,256 to 0,268) of temperatures in winter-spring months with heat supply of coming spring summer months is found. It is shown that correlation of rice yield with temperatures of pre-sowing (DecemberApril) and growing (May-September) periods varies from weak to average (from 0,016 to 0,524) with a tendency to increasing from winter months to summer ones. Use of analog method made it possible to estimate roughly the nature of t upcoming growing season of rice in the current 2016: after the abnormally warm winter one should expect the value of heat supply of summer months to be close to normal. In the physiological sense, such distribution of summer temperatures is favorable for rice. Use of one of the most effective forecast methods – smoothing the time series (method of «moving decades») – made it possible to evaluate medium-term rhythms of heat supply of rice growing season and yields. It was found that after an abnormally high level of heat supply of the growing season, marked during last decade, we should expect a decrease in spring and summer temperatures - the next attack of the "cold" cycle. If this hypothesis is confirmed, then up to 2020, and later a natural tendency for decrease in rice yields, arising from the adverse factors of temperature, will continue which should also affect the economic efficiency of the industry as a whole