Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Naydenov Aleksandr Semenovich

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professor

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Kuban State Agrarian University
   

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Articles count: 7

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340 kb

DYNAMICS OF MOISTURE IN SOIL AND EFFICIENCY OF ITS USE BY SOY BEANS UNDER DIFFERENT WAYS OF MAIN SOIL TREATMENT AND DOSES OF MINERAL FERTILIZERS

abstract 1191605040 issue 119 pp. 553 – 566 31.05.2016 ru 209
In the article there were given the results of researches for 20110–2012 obtained of many years stationary experience of the chair of general and irrigated land management of Kuban State Agrarian University on study of main soil treatment influence and doses of mineral fertilizers under soy beans on dynamics of moisture in soil and efficiency of its use by this cultivar. There was determined that from all studied variants the ploughing on 20–22 cm led to the higher accumulation of moisture for autumn-winter period. The decrease of productive moisture reserves on 6-9 % was observed on the types with surface treatment and direct sowing. The increase of soil treatment depth and doses of mineral fertilizers promoted to the better accessibility of moisture during vegetation period and correspondently to their greater expenses. Moreover, there was revealed the more rational use of water by soy beans under mouldboard soil treatment and introduction of mineral fertilizers in the dose of N90P120, it discovers the high effectiveness of present agricultural methods. The highest productivity of soy beans in the experience was achieved by means of ploughing on 20–22 cm and introduction of mineral fertilizers as a main type of soil treatment
178 kb

EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES OF SUNFLOWER CULTIVATION

abstract 0591005015 issue 59 pp. 244 – 254 31.05.2010 ru 1862
In the article results of a comparative study of technologies of cultivation of sunflower with application and without application of herbicides are resulted, and also their economic assessment is given
157 kb

INFLUENCE OF TILLAGE AND CHEMICAL WAY TO CONTROL WEEDS ON WINTER WHEAT PRODUCTIVITY UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE PLAIN-EROSIVE AGROLANDSCAPE

abstract 1341710002 issue 134 pp. 14 – 26 29.12.2017 ru 112
This article discusses the results of the study to determine the impact of different primary tillage and herbicide against weeds in winter wheat agrocenosis. The task of the research was to determine the impact of primary tillage (moldboard plowing and surface treatment) factor A and herbicide (Lancelot) factor B on the agro-physical and agrochemical soil properties. It has been established that the content of productive moisture during the growing period of winter wheat in 0-100 cm of soil layer didn’t depend on the method of tillage. Introduction of herbicide Lancelot boosted the moisture reserves in soil compared to the control type, in the herbicide-free type the weeds absorb the large amounts of moisture. Surface soil treatment did not have negative effects on soil agro-physical properties and its structure in comparison with moldboard plowing. Number of agronomically valuable aggregates on moldboard plowing is 85.2 - 87.5%, on surface one is - 86.2 87.5%. Density of composition and waterproof aggregates under surface treatment didn’t defer to tillage. Accumulation of wet and dry mass by weeds regardless to the way of soil tillage declined to a minimum when introducing the herbicide Lancelot. The high yield of winter wheat was obtained on this type. Mathematical processing results have shown that due to factor A (main soil tillage) to moldboard plowing the average productivity is 57.5 kg/ha, on surface one is 56.0 kg/ha, i.e. the difference between treatments is 1.5 t/ha (with NSR05 on factor - 2.9 t/ha) is insignificant. To factor B (herbicides) on control the productivity is 54.5 kg/ha, introduction of Lancelot increased the productivity to 59.5 t/ha, i.e. the increase was 5.5 kg/ha at NSR05-by the factor B-2.9 t/ha, i.e. is significant. Thus, the present soil treatments had no effect on yield of winter wheat in ordinary black soil. The use of herbicide Lancelot has produced the harvest increase in 0.5 t/ha on average for 2 years
173 kb

INFLUENCE OF WAYS OF MAIN SOIL TREATMENT UNDER SOYA BEANS ON CHANGE OF AGROPHYSICAL INDEXES OF LEACHED BLACK SOIL

abstract 1091505057 issue 109 pp. 837 – 847 29.05.2015 ru 498
There were cited the results of researches for 2010-2012 obtained in the stationary experiment of the chair of general and irrigated land management of Kuban State Agrarian University on the study of influence of the system of main soil processing under soya beans on the dynamics of main agrophysical indexes of leached black soil: on density of composition, solidity, general porosity, coefficient of structural properties in the article. There was stated that in the beginning of vegetation on the background of direct sowing of soya beans, the soil layer in 0-30 cm was characterized by values of density and solidity and in the result of it we observed the weak development of the root system. The worsening of air regime led to the decrease of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, it negatively affected on the growth and development of a cultivar. Agrophysical indexes brought nearer to optimal on variants with disposal tip on 20-22 cm and disk-shaped hulling on 8-10 cm. The worsening of investigated agrophysical soil indexes has been happened since the phase of florescence – soya bean formation till the harvesting. But the variant with disposal tip where we observed the high content of agronomically valuable fraction at the coefficient of structural property 2,42 was the closest to optimal ones. The minimization of soil treatment and especially the denial from its implementation significantly made worse the main agrophysical indexes of soil on variants with direct sowing to critical values for soya beans
147 kb

MINIMIZING TILLAGE AND ITS EFFECT ON AGRO-PHYSICAL INDEXES OF LEACHED CHERNOZEM AND PRODUCTIVITY OF FIELD CROPS

abstract 1401806026 issue 140 pp. 112 – 122 29.06.2018 ru 20
This article discusses the results of research on the effect of soil treatment on agro-physical performance and productivity of major field crops. The task of the research was to determine the impact of primary tillage (moldboard plowing), surface treatment (minimum) and zero (direct seeding) is factor A, fertilizers – B, and herbicides as factor C for agro-physical properties of soil. We have found that high density led to a significant increase in the proportion of the stone faction in the structural composition of the soil. Deterioration of the agro-physical properties while minimizing soil tillage has negatively affected water, air and food regimes under crops rotation. When all methods of soil tillage are applied, the moisture reserves in the 0-200 cm layer in early spring had the lowest values of moisture-holding capacity (230-272 mm) and were defined by the features of weather conditions and past cultures. At the time of sowing, their number decreased by 12% (203-241 mm). The most economical way of spending moisture was shown by plants on the moldboard tillage. In autumn, fewer weeds (7-11 PCs/m2) there were in the options for ploughing. When the surface and zero ways of soil treatments were applied, their number for 1 m2 was 1.2-1.9 times bigger. We effectively eliminated weeds only when applying herbicides. Different crop cultures reacted differently to minimizing the tillage. The greatest reduction in yield was observed when applied surface and zero tillage in cultivated crops. Thus, studies have shown that in order to obtain maximum yields of field crops of crop rotation, reducing production costs, there must be a rational combination of deep or conventional plough tillage for surface or zero tilled for grain crops
197 kb

THE DYNAMICS OF AGROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BLACK SOIL DURING LONG-TERM AGRICULTURAL USE AND THE WAYS OF THEIR OPTIMIZATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1421808020 issue 142 pp. 41 – 56 31.10.2018 ru 2
The article describes experimental material obtained in two long-term experiments of Kubsau on the impact of certain agricultural practices on the basic agrophysical and water indicators of leached black humus, heavy duty. The study was conducted in two agricultural landscapes of lowland rainfed and irrigated lowland-basin. The state of the agrophysical properties of the arable land in two districts of the region was given by Institute "Kuban Niigiprozems". We have established that during prolonged agricultural use, the biggest change of the parameters of the agrophysical properties occurred in the arable layer 0-20 cm. Particularly noticeable compaction was observed on meadow-black soils of lowland-basin agricultural landscapes. The condition of soil structure and the density of the composition influence of level of soil fertility and the system of primary tillage. With the increase in the level of fertility, the coefficient of structure increases. The density of the composition of the studied cultures are much more dependent on tillage to the end of vegetation, especially high is 1,31-1,36 g/cm, it was given by direct sowing. The most destructive effect on soil structure was made by a surface treatment system. Organic fertilizers encourage soil compaction. Manure has a positive impact on the stock of productive moisture in two-meter layer on the background of deep processing
332 kb

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS SOIL TREATMENTS AND HERBICIDE ON YIELD OF WINTER WHEAT UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF TERRAIN-EROSIVE AGROLANDSCAPE

abstract 1381804019 issue 138 pp. 91 – 105 30.04.2018 ru 45
Plants of winter wheat suppress weeds quite well, however, the use of herbicides is required, which prevents the new clogging up of soil. Under surface tillage it was observed a greater spread of weeds than under mold-board plowing. Introduction of the herbicide Lancelot regardless of ways of tillage has reduced this rate in 5.8 times. An important means of regulating of vital functions of soil microflora is tillage. 40% of all expenses ac-counted for the soil treatment required for cultivation of crops. Therefore it is important to study the effect of tillage on the course of microbiological processes in the upper 0-30 cm layer. The intensity of the decomposition of plant material by linen cloths method objectively reflects the status and activity of soil microflora. One of the signs of cultural soil condition is its ability of nitrification. Nitrification process is particularly slow in early spring, because this time the microbiological activity is weak because of low soil temperature. When the soil is progressing the number of nitrates increases and reaches its peak in summer, after that the process is fading. Studies have shown that under surface tillage, microbiological processes of decomposition of cellulose and the ability of soil nitrification compared with moldboard plowing are higher. The components of yield structure show features of yield formation. Tillage did not have an essential effect on crop structure elements. Application of herbicide Lancelot has significantly increased the number of productive stalks (7.3-10%) and mass of 1000 grains on 1.8 g or 4.5%. Grain yield of winter wheat did not depend on the primary tillage (57.5-56.5 kg/ha). Application of herbicide Lance-lot has allowed to receive allowance (on average for 2 years) 5.0 kg/ha. Grain quality indicators of winter wheat depend both on the hereditary traits and preferred growing conditions. The amount of gluten is not dependent on the main tillage, while the introduction of herbicide has increased gluten to 1.4%. Calculation of economic and bio-energy efficiency showed that the use of surface treatment in the cultivation of winter wheat on soil ordinarily is worthwhile
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