Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Khrustalev Oleg Evgenievich

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Honorary rank

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Central Economics and Mathematics Institute Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow

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Articles count: 8

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abstract 1291705070 issue 129 pp. 972 – 989 31.05.2017 ru 342
Methods and models for assessing the effectiveness of management of innovative activities of enterprises allow to calculate its indicators for each individual innovation project that can potentially be included in the developed version of the plan, and for a version of the plan (program) of innovation development in general. In the existing practice, this problem is usually solved means of an assessment of the socioeconomic efficiency of their implementation. The objects of this assessment are commercial and budgetary efficiency. The output data of the specified process is: the payback period of investments (the period of their return) and the profitability index (return on investment) - when calculating commercial efficiency; the net discounted income of the state (budgetary effect), the profitability index and the period of return of budget funds - when determining budgetary efficiency. Within existing practice of assessing the effectiveness of the implementation of innovative plans and programs, enterprises usually only determine the financial results of the implementation, without linking them with the planned specific results of scientific and innovation activities. This practice is a consequence of the long dominance of the so-called "monetary" approach to solving this problem. Of course, it is important for the enterprise to reduce the costs of implementing the innovation project, and to increase the return on assets. However, it is also important for the enterprise to ensure that its innovative activity provides the maximum saving of not only production resources, but also labor resources (labor productivity) and material resources (material-output). It allows the enterprise to increase the efficiency of its innovation activities and ensure the achievement of the planned target indicators and indicators of its development program. In order to solve this problem, the main elements of innovative activities of enterprises and the trends of their development in modern conditions are identified in the article. A systematic analysis of this activity is carried out. The organizationaleconomic mechanism of innovative activity of enterprises is formalized, structured and investigated. The theoretical bases of the organizational and economic mechanism of innovative planning are considered. The economic-mathematical tools for adjusting short-term plans and a long-term program for the innovative development of enterprises are proposed
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abstract 1311707080 issue 131 pp. 976 – 989 29.09.2017 ru 179
Mathematical modeling is one of the leading places among methods of research of economic systems and processes. The article considers the main management problem of the rocket-space complex in modern conditions and gives a brief description of this problem in conjunction with the tasks of innovative modernization and financial sustainability of enterprises of the complex. We have considered a common situation where the enterprises of the rocket-space complex in implementation of its development is carrying out an investment project, the financing of which is taken from a loan. It is proved that the implementation of this project can be appropriate, if as a result of the implementation the net present value of the enterprise increases. We have developed a model, which provides optimization of financial providing of high-tech enterprises of the rocket-space complex in the implementation of their modernization project taking into account the specifics of the use of own and borrowed funds
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abstract 1281704078 issue 128 pp. 1115 – 1129 28.04.2017 ru 189
In this work, the authors investigate practice of application of a program and a target method in planning and management of the space industry. The carried-out analysis has shown that modern methods of formation of programs in space activity do not correspond to the basic principles of program and target planning. Programs of the leading organizations of Roskosmos represent a set of actions, which are poorly coordinated among themselves. The purposes of the program are washed away or not designated absolutely. Lack of definite purposes of the program leads to problems in a result assessment, to decrease in efficiency of use of resources and lag in development from world technological level. The country has already lost leadership in the market of starting services, problems with rendering communication services and broadcasting are observed, the share of the domestic space-rocket industry in the world market of space services decreases. The authors suggest considering a main objective of the program of innovative development growth of competitiveness of the domestic space-rocket industry measured in increase in a share of the Russian production and services in the world space market. The authors believe that the country has the sufficient innovative potential for reduction of lag from leaders of the world space market
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abstract 1531909026 issue 153 pp. 257 – 270 29.11.2019 ru 7
Unfavorable changes in exchange rates, sanctions restrictions on the supply to Russia of spare parts necessary for the repair and maintenance of previously imported equipment have led to a significant reduction in the service life of imported machinery and equipment. For the solution, the authors propose to implement the strategy of retro-innovations providing the development of new technologies maintaining in working condition of machinery and equipment in conditions of shortage of spare parts and consumables. To do this, it is necessary to develop technologies for the restoration of complex technical devices in order to extend their service life under the restrictions created by the financial market and sanctions policy. The study of the problem was carried out on the example of the operation of trucks of foreign production, the evaluation of engine life and analyzed the structure of the market. On the basis of the obtained results, a model was proposed, on the basis of which it is possible to form a plan for the production of spare parts for high-quality engine repair by domestic enterprises. The strategy of retro-innovations does not solve all the problems of import substitution, but it allows to increase the level of economic security of strategically important economic activities, it creates jobs and provides an opportunity to significantly extend the life of expensive and complex technical devices
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abstract 1271703053 issue 127 pp. 767 – 780 31.03.2017 ru 199
Introduction of sector and financial sanction restrictions started by west countries in March 2014 at present time has become a tangible blow to the Russian economy. If the first sanctions packages were mainly directed against certain individuals and legal entities, the following sanctions restrictions have become a kind of acupressure on the most advanced sectors of the Russian economy and its focus on the most vulnerable places. These circumstances determined the relevance of subjects of this article - namely, the identification of the results of the system analysis of the main threats to Russia's economic security in times of sectoral and financial sanctions restrictions on the example of the oil and gas complex. Oil and gas industry has always been and continues to be one of the most important part of the Russian economy. Mining and the subsequent marketing of hydrocarbons in the world markets for more than half of the federal budget. Therefore, the primary importance is the evaluation of both the threats to the security of the country's economy and the negative impact of sanctions restrictions on the dynamics of the industry. The article reveals the most significant sectoral and financial sanctions and restrictions determined by the degree of their influence on the development of the oil and gas industry and the security of the Russian economy as a whole. The necessity of introduction of import arrangements to reduce dependence on oil and gas companies of purchases of imported components, equipment and technology. Evaluation of the effect of sanctions limitations on the dynamics of changes in the rate of debt load oil and gas companies for its calculation in rubles and foreign currency terms. The conclusion is that the oil and gas sector of the Russian economy has demonstrated its resilience to the effects of the most severe restrictions and sanctions and for its further development we need more support through the development of large-scale program of import substitution, involving the variability of the joint efforts of the government and the oil and gas industry companies
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abstract 1261702029 issue 126 pp. 386 – 402 28.02.2017 ru 223
In the article we consider problems of transition of an economic system to the new technological way. Success depends on degree of readiness of system for institutional changes and availability of necessary resources. Assessment of a condition of system plays an important role in the choice of management decisions on its upgrade. Delay with transition to new technological way or, on the contrary, its stimulation in system, not ready to changes, leads to serious, negative consequences for the reformed economy. Change of technological way leads to the release of capital which goes to the financial markets, entering crisis chaos into the system. The task of the state consists in timely reaction on developed, during transition to new way, a situation and the direction of financial flows in key technologies of new way. The new system of assessment of a condition of system and a stabilization effort is offered during the change of technological way
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abstract 1331709072 issue 133 pp. 960 – 982 30.11.2017 ru 221
In the article, we have considered indicators for assessing import dependency by key characteristics of industrial production (technology, raw materials, equipment). The work shows necessity of the transition from determining the level of import dependence for individual characteristics to determine its overall (integrated) assessment. It presents the criteria of evaluation of technical, technological, raw material import dependence of production. We have developed a model of calculation of the generalized indicators of evaluation of level of import dependency of production. The proposed Toolkit allows using an expert way to assess the level of import dependence of production of various types of products. In this comprehensive assessment, it takes into account the dependence of the acquired import of components, raw materials and borrowed technologies, and the extent of use of imported equipment. The use of indicators characterizing the degree of dependence of production on foreign technology and equipment is very important in the conditions of modernization and technical re-equipment of production
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abstract 1301706058 issue 130 pp. 819 – 832 30.06.2017 ru 439
The practice of separate financing of projects of civil and defensive nature, which has been developed in Russia, requires, in the conditions of an aggravation of an international situation, increase in costs for carrying out researches and developments what to go a heavy burden on the federal budget. The analysis of international experience shows that industrially developed countries successfully solved this problem by means of distribution of dual-use technologies. The special effect is reached in space activities where dual-use technologies are widely used in the organization of communication, broadcasting and monitoring of the land surface. In the article, policy of usage of military technologies in civil sector of economy of the USA, Germany and China is analyzed. The policy of distribution of dual-use technologies leads to decrease in load of the budget and promotes attraction of a private equity in researches and developments. The main directions are conversion, sale of information from military companions to the commercial organizations and acquisition by military of information from commercial companions here. Backwardness of the market relations, impracticality of controlling mechanisms, developments and carrying out scientific and technical policy and other problems can become the main obstacle in a way to distribution of dual-use technologies in Russia. However, instability of the revenues of the Russian budget caused by volatility of the prices of energy resources and other external factors puts the most important priority of national economic policy development and distribution of double technologies