Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Rykov Viktor Borisovich

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Northern-Caucasian Scientific Research Institute of Mechanization and Electrification of Agriculture
    FSBSI Agricultural Research center «Donskoу»

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Articles count: 12

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abstract 1331709039 issue 133 pp. 498 – 504 30.11.2017 ru 188
Winter wheat is very demanding on the nutrient regime of the soil. Like many winter crops, it consumes the nutrients unevenly distributed during the vegetation period, which must be considered when making them. Modern varieties of winter wheat are very demanding to soil fertility. For the formation of 4,0-4,5 t/ha requires about 140 kg of nitrogen, 50 kg phosphorus and 120 kg potassium. Therefore, without the use of fertilizers, it is not possible to obtain such a crop with high grain quality. In addition, in the cultivation of winter wheat in the high and intensive technologies simply need using large amounts of fertilizer to compensate for the removal of nutrients. This is especially important when having partial or complete reduction of application of organic fertilizers. Therefore, we consider the possibility and the results of studies using different doses, combinations and types of fertilizers in technology of winter wheat cultivation. Experimental studies were carried out in the conditions of insufficient and unstable moistening of southern zone of Rostov region, on experimental fields of the federal state scientific institution «ASС «Donskoy». For research, we have chosen the most common varieties of winter wheat (Tanais, Granite, Axinite, Terra, Donskoy prostor, Motto) and various combinations and combinations of mineral and organic fertilizers. The experiments were conducted on two predecessors: couples and peas. As the controllable parameters we had the productivity and quality of winter wheat. We have found a positive impact of the in-change of fertilizer on the studied parameters with a share of the variance of 96% and a high degree of correlation of 0,98. The marked increase in the productivity of winter wheat is up to 22% when using different versions of the experiment. We have identified rational combination doses of mineral and organic nutrition for predecessors: peas N40P60K40+2N30 and vapor – manure 40t/ha+2Р60+2N30
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abstract 1491905012 issue 149 pp. 31 – 38 31.05.2019 ru 89
Issues associated with the use of combined units in the preparation of the soil are relevant and of scientific and practical interest. Relevance increases when it comes to the cultivation of the main crop - winter wheat. In this regard, the presented results on the effectiveness of the use of combined units in the preparation of soil for winter crops are important. They are important primarily from a practical point of view. Experimental studies were conducted in the conditions of many years of stationary experience in the FSUE "ANC" Donskoy ", Zernograd, Rostov Region and in the Krasnodar region, LLC "Step". The efficiency of the use of combined units KUM-4, APK-4, developed at SKNIIMESH, now FSUE “ANC “Donskoy” in the cultivation of winter barley and winter wheat is considered. The technological process of tillage using combined units consists of several technological operations performed simultaneously. Disk working bodies chop plant residues and destroy weeds. At the same time, a network of cracks in the underlying soil horizons is laid. Next are flat-cutting working bodies that loosen the soil already at the set depth. There is a cutting of the root system of weeds, loosening the remaining non-loosened soil layer to the required depth, the formation of a flat bottom of the “furrow”, the separation of erosion-hazardous soil particles to the bottom of the furrow. Next, a roller - a compactor - compactor enters the work, which provides regrinding of soil lumps on the surface and subcompaction of the treated layer. The last in the process chain is a mulch roller, which ensures the formation of a compacted seed bed for seeds with simultaneous mulching of the compacted soil layer. The use of combined units in the technologies of cultivation of winter barley and wheat allowed to achieve a reduction in the number of technological operations by 1,5-2,5 times, an increase in the productivity of winter wheat by 0,4 t / ha (9%), a reduction in fuel consumption by 40%, operating costs 1,4 times with the economic effect of 1500 rubles / ha and the profitability of production of 140%
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abstract 1291705039 issue 129 pp. 447 – 457 31.05.2017 ru 128
The article deals with the application of the theory of regulation for the synthesis of technological mechanical devices and their replacement by electrical or electronic analogs in order to reduce energy processes in soil cultivating and sowing machines
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abstract 1471903018 issue 147 pp. 150 – 159 29.03.2019 ru 150
Issues related to the contamination of crops are topical and very relevant. All this fully applies to the main crop produced in the South of Russia – winter wheat. In this regard, the presented results of studies of the influence of predecessors and tillage technologies on the development of weeds in the cultivation of winter wheat are relevant. Experimental studies were carried out in conditions of many years of experience located in the FEDERAL state scientific institution «ANTS «Donskoy». The influence of different methods of sowing (ordinary, scattered, belt) and technologies of tillage (dumping, non-dumping, surface, small) on infestation of winter wheat is considered. It is established that the least amount of weed plants is provided at scattered sowing on the background of deep tillage. The main treatment at a depth of 18-20 cm reduces the number of weeds by 47% in comparison with the surface (8-10 cm), and the scattered sowing reduces their number by 80%, since weeds are in more severe conditions compared to winter wheat, the rapid development of which contributes to the optimal nutrition area. Of the predecessors, the most acceptable is the steam with the number of weeds 7-25 PCs / m2, which is several times less than after peas, or corn after silage
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abstract 1351801002 issue 135 pp. 50 – 57 31.01.2018 ru 144
Currently in the South of Russia, the most acute problem of accumulation and preservation of productive moisture in arable layer of soil. This fact has a decisive influence on the yield of agricultural crops. The need to study the dynamics of accumulation of moisture of the treated soil due to the fact that at the first stage of development plants are very sensitive to moisture content in the rooting zone of the soil. Practically the regulation of the moisture content of the processed layer may correct the influence of soil tillage aggregates with different types of working bodies. The work was performed in FSRI of the «ASC «Donskoy» (Zernograd, Rostov area), in the conditions of stationary experience (4,3 ha), 2013-2015, where explores various technologies of soil treatment, including no treatment. To obtain comparable results the same selected set (rotation) of crops (winter wheat, spring barley, pea, vapor). As a result of researches it is established that on steam background (76,1-46,2 mm) content of productive moisture is more than two times higher than on other backgrounds (of 30,6-46,2 mm). This allows us to talk about the effectiveness of the fallow field from the point of view of accumulation of moisture. The analysis of statistical data allows making a conclusion about the impact of crops on the dynamics of productive moisture. On the other hand, the rating statistics of the received data with backgrounds treated with different technologies did not allow to find significant advantages to any of them, as the area under the curve ROС analysis does not exceed the value of 0,6. Therefore, the studied backgrounds in the period of the research have equal influence on the moisture content of the treated soil layer
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abstract 1501906001 issue 150 pp. 1 – 9 28.06.2019 ru 150
The article considers the possibility of reducing the cost of tillage in the production of grain crops. The most important economic characteristic of production is operating costs. In terms of agricultural production, they represent the amount of contributions to wages, depreciation, repairs, and the cost of fuel, lubricants and other consumables. In this regard, the aim of the research was to determine the dynamics of operating costs in the production of legumes. Determination of the dynamics of operating costs was carried out on the basis of the results of studies of energy-saving technologies in a stationary experience. Variants of processing of the soil on the conventional technology was layered subsurface tillage combined unit, UNS-3, the layered subsurface tillage unit CUO-2 and conventional tillage (PN-5-35). No provision was made for zero tillage technology. As a result of the research it was found that on pre-sowing tillage and sowing, the value of operating costs varies for the crops under consideration, but has almost the same values (within each crop) for the methods of the main tillage. More preferable for this type of work is zero tillage, as it provides 21-29% lower operating costs due to direct sowing of crops. The highest operating costs for all the crops under consideration are observed in the main tillage. In the same technological period of work operating costs are the most variable. Thus, depending on the technology of the tillage when growing winter wheat, they change within 117,2-5229,2, the production of spring barley - to 167,8-4517,4 and in the production of peas – to 136,6-4517,4 thousand rubles
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abstract 1291705077 issue 129 pp. 1070 – 1078 31.05.2017 ru 283
The use of resource-saving technologies for cultivation of basic crops does not make sense without the use of microelement fertilizers, biologics and growth regulators. All this fully applies to the technology of cultivation of the main bean culture – pea. In the current market conditions of agrochemical products, microfertilizers are presented in a wide range. Identifying the most effective of them at a price and yield increase is a defining task for agricultural producers. In this connection, the purpose of the research was to study the influence of biologics and growth regulators on the development and productivity of peas with the definition of their most effective them. The studies were conducted in 2014-2016 on the fields of the training and demonstration center on the introduction of resource-saving technologies of the IPCC APK VO "DGAU" in Zernograd, Rostov Region. As the studied drugs there were used Rizotorfin, Extrasol, Vigor Fort, Miwal Agro, Flavobacterin, Biogumat Kubansky, KU-8 Agrofon. As a result of the research, it was established that all the preparations studied showed a positive effect on the development of pea plants grade Angela. The yield gain was 0,34-0,56 t/ha in comparison with the control. The most effective are the following ones: Extrasol with a yield increase of 0,56 t / ha (14,6%) and a profitability level of 232%, Mival Agro – 0,54 t/ha (14,1%) and a profitability level of 192%, Biohumat Kuban – 0,55 t/ha (14,3%) and the level of profitability of 271%. A good level of profitability was noted at KU-8 Agrofon – 224%
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abstract 1481904012 issue 148 pp. 49 – 56 30.04.2019 ru 84
The article discusses the possibilities and presents the results of research on the cultivation of spring barley with different production technologies in conditions of insufficient and unstable wetting of the south of Russia. Experimental studies were carried out in a stationary experiment with a four-field crop rotation with different variants of tillage (dump, flat-cut, layered, without tillage – no-till). It is established that the most expensive is the waste treatment of the soil (PN-5-35), and the least expensive is the technology excluding the impact on the soil. At the same time, the operating costs of labor and fuel consumption at no-till are lower, respectively, by 82-107, 23-48, 131-188% in comparison with traditional types of technology. Hectare fuel consumption with zero technology is 131-188% less than with traditional technologies and amounted to 22.8 kg / ha. The cost of production of spring barley using no-till is 8-41% lower compared to flat-cut, layer-by-layer, and dump technology and amounts to 285 rubles per cent. Calculated per 1 hectare, labor costs, fuel consumption, wages, fuel costs, deductions for renovation and repairs, as well as total operating costs for traditional basic tillage technologies increase, respectively, 1,23-1,48; 2,31-2,88; 1,30-1,56; 3,1-3,81; 1,65-1,85; 1,81-1,96; 1,83-2,09 times compared with no-till. The use of spring barley cultivation technology that excludes impact on the soil provides a fairly high efficiency even at lower yields
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abstract 1531909021 issue 153 pp. 202 – 210 29.11.2019 ru 41
The article presents the results of research on the impact of tillage technologies on the value of its density in the cultivation of winter wheat in conditions of insufficient and unstable wetting of the south of Russia. Experimental studies were carried out in the conditions of a long-term stationary experiment with a four-field crop rotation with different variants of tillage (dump, layer-by-layer, small, surface). The soil density was fixed at spring tillering of winter wheat and at the end of the growing season. Conducted analysis of variance shows that the soil has relaxation abilities, i.e. over time, it restores its properties by compaction ability, since studies conducted during the period of tillering of winter wheat show that Ffact. Ftable. (5,794,76), i.e. methods of treatment have an impact on soil compaction, which cannot be said for the case at the end of the growing season of winter wheat. The ability to restore its properties is a remarkable property of the soil, as it prevents them from over-compaction. The energy intensity of the compacted soil treatment increases to 30%, while the degree of crumbling is significantly reduced and its lumpiness increases. The most fundamental way to reduce the density of the soil is its timely loosening by working bodies of agricultural tools. Tillage methods affect soil density, the correlation coefficient between tillage methods and soil density varies between 0,929-0,979. The most radical way of soil decompression is exposure to it by a certain type of working bodies
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abstract 1461902012 issue 146 pp. 49 – 57 28.02.2019 ru 140
The article discusses the influence on the thermal regime of soil by agricultural activities, as well as the results of studies on determination of temperature in different soil layers under conditions of insufficient and unstable moistening of southern Russia. Experiments were performed in the experimental field in FSRI of the «ASC «Donskoy» (Zernograd, Rostov oblast) in terms of long-term stationary experience in the cultivation of soybeans with different technologies (traditional, zero). We performed the soil temperature checking at a depth of 30 and 60 cm using the temperature sensors with a measurement range from -40S to + 85S with a measuring accuracy of ±0,6S. For accumulation of data were used in the logger (weather station) Watch Dog 1400 series Micro. The purpose of the research was to determine and compare the influence of technologies of processing of soil on the temperature of the soil at different levels. On the basis of the conducted researches it is established that the average value of the ambient temperature stood at 23,8S a standard deviation of 3,1S. These figures are higher than the temperature of the soil at the background processed by traditional technology, and the raw background. The lowest average soil temperature at a depth of 30 cm (21,2S) recorded at zero background, obviously due to the presence on the soil surface of plant residues that protect the soil from solar radiation. Thus, the soil as a dynamic system converts the input signal (the ambient temperature) so that it is reduced in size and the rate of change (dynamic). These soil characteristics are determined by the technologies of soil processing