Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Name

Neshchadim Nikolay Nikolayevich

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professor

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Kuban State Agrarian University
   

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Articles count: 15

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187 kb

BIOENERGETICS ESTIMATION OF LONGTIME FERTILIZERS’ APPLICATION IN THE CROP ROTATION

abstract 1301706061 issue 130 pp. 856 – 872 30.06.2017 ru 228
The influence of the crop rotation type, predecessor and different doses of mineral fertilizers on the yield of winter wheat varieties was investigated and bioenergetics estimation was given. Investigations were carried out in the North-Kuban Agricultural Experiment Station in two ten field crop rotation: grain tillage and grain - grass tillage rotation of prolonged stationary experience. The soil is the black soil, low in humus, powerful, with humus content (0-30sm), depending on the power of nutrition backgrounds in the arable soil layer. It was found that the selection of predecessors and the differentiated application of mineral fertilizers ensure stable high yields of grain and they exceed the varieties without fertilizers by 40-79%. Winter wheat yield depends on the crop rotation of 8-15%; from its predecessor - 15-18% and 27-31% of the fertilizer. A strong correlation between yield and agronomic methods was determined. The most effective predecessor for the wheat cultivation by the turnover of furrow slice is sainfoin, peas and wheat. More labor intensive and energy-consuming predecessors are grain maize and sugar beet
191 kb

CROP YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY OF ANTONINA WINTER WHEAT IN LEACHED BLACK SOIL UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE WESTERN PRE-CAUCASIAN REGION

abstract 1291705098 issue 129 pp. 1353 – 1370 31.05.2017 ru 82
The article is devoted to the various elements of the cultivation technology of winter wheat called Antonina with the application of different soil fertility backgrounds, fertilizer norms, and plant protection systems against weeds, pests and diseases. Investigations are carried out in a multivariate stationary experiment: factor ‘A’- soil fertility; factor ‘B’ - fertilizer system; factor ‘C’ - the system of plants protection; factor ‘D’ - the main methods of soil tillage. Four models of soil fertility levels were studied in the experiment: А0 - initial (natural background); А1 - medium (200 kg / ha Р2О5 and 200 t / ha of solid manure); А2 - high (double dose); at А3 - high (tripled) on three backgrounds of basic soil tillage: nonmoldboard, recommended, moldboard with deep bursting and without the application of tillage (direct seeding and the natural rate of soil fertility). The soil is heavy leached black humus with humus content in the arable layer of 2.5% - 2.9%. Based on examined researches it was found that for the sustainable yield of winter wheat the dose of mineral fertilizers should be increased, by that, the high quality of the grain is provided
177 kb

CROP YIELD AND PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY OF WINTER BARLEY GRAIN IN THE HEAVY LEACHED BLACK HUMUS OF THE WESTERN PRE-CAUCASIAN REGION

abstract 1311707132 issue 131 pp. 1612 – 1626 29.09.2017 ru 95
The influence of different agricultural technologies on the yield of winter barley variety ‘Gordei’ was studied. Economic evaluation was given to the researched factors. The studies were carried out at the experimental station of Kuban State Agrarian University in the conditions of polyfactorial long-term soil monitoring. The soil is represented by strongly leached, light-clay black humus with an average thickness of the humus horizon - 150 cm. It was found that with the change of technology (fertilizer, tillage, sowing method, means of protection) winter barley yields increases to 50% in comparison with the control. According to the analysis of bioenergetic and economic evaluation it makes sense to use the variants 022, 111 and 222 at plowing, where the maximum net efficiency ratio and net income are noticed
190 kb

CROP YIELD OF WINTER BARLEY GRAIN WITH THE APPLICATION OF VARIOUS GROWING TECHNOLOGIES

abstract 1331709082 issue 133 pp. 1126 – 1143 30.11.2017 ru 57
The experiment considered the influence of different methods of agricultural technologies on the yield of winter barley in the dependence of the investigated factors. The studies were carried out at the experimental station of Kuban State Agrarian University in the conditions of multifactorial longterm soil monitoring. The experiment was carried out in a typical 11-field grain-grass-tillage crop rotation with the following alternation of crops: alfalfa, alfalfa, winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, winter wheat, corn for grain, winter wheat, sunflower, winter wheat, spring barley with sowing of alfalfa. Stationary experience is represented by the following factors: the level of fertility (factor A); fertilizer system (factor B); plant protection system (factor C) and methods of basic soil cultivation (factor D). The relationship between the influence of the soil fertility level, fertilizer norms, plant protection products, the soil cultivation system and yield, and the crop structure of the perspective winter barley variety ‘Gordey’ were determined. The soil is chernozem leached superheavy light-clay with an average thickness of the humus horizon - 150 cm. It is found that fertilizer, soil treatment, seeding method; protective means increase the yield of winter barley and positively influences the elements of the yield structure. The yield increase in comparison with the control changed from 10.4 to 26.8 c / ha. The statistical processing data show that the fertilizer system (35.8%) and soil cultivation (27%) had a certain influence on the number of productive stems; the fertilizer system (44.6%) influenced the spike size, the fertilizer system (28%) and the tillage (32.8%) had influence on the amount of grain in the spike and influenced the mass of grain from the spike
190 kb

CROP YIELD OF WINTER BARLEY GRAIN WITH THE APPLICATION OF VARIOUS GROWING TECHNOLOGIES

abstract 1371803021 issue 137 pp. 106 – 122 30.03.2018 ru 120
The experiment considered the influence of different methods of agricultural technologies on the yield of winter barley in the dependence of the investigated factors. The studies were carried out at the experimental station of Kuban State Agrarian University in the conditions of multifactorial long-term soil monitoring. The experiment was carried out in a typical 11-field grain-grass-tillage crop rotation with the following alternation of crops: alfalfa, alfalfa, winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, winter wheat, corn for grain, winter wheat, sunflower, winter wheat, spring barley with sowing of alfalfa. Stationary experience is represented by the following factors: the level of fertility (factor A); fertilizer system (factor B); plant protection system (factor C) and methods of basic soil cultivation (factor D). The relationship between the influence of the soil fertility level, fertilizer norms, plant protection products, the soil cultivation system and yield, and the crop structure of the perspective winter barley variety ‘Gordey’ were determined. The soil is leached super-heavy light-clay chernozem with an average thickness of the humus horizon - 150 cm. It is found that fertilizer, soil treatment, seeding method, protective means increase the yield of winter barley and positively influences the elements of the yield structure. The yield increase in comparison with the control changed from 10.4 to 26.8 c / ha. The statistical processing data show that the fertilizer system (35.8%) and soil cultivation (27%) had a certain influence on the number of productive stems; the fertilizer system (44.6%) influenced the spike size, the fertilizer system (28%) and the tillage (32.8%) had influence on the amount of grain in the spike and also influenced the mass of grain from the spike
204 kb

DEPENDANCE OF YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY OF THE WINTER WHEAT FROM CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGIES IN LEACHED BLACK SOIL UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE WESTERN PRE-CAUCASIAN REGION

abstract 1321708117 issue 132 pp. 1425 – 1442 31.10.2017 ru 72
Elements of the cultivation technology of winter wheat variety called ‘Antonina’ with the application of different backgrounds of soil fertility, norms of fertilizers, system of plant protection from weeds, pests and diseases were studied. The studies are conducted in a polyfactorial stationary experiment: factor A - soil fertility; factor B - system of fertilizers; factor C - plant protection system; factor D - methods of basic soil cultivation. In the experiment four models of soil fertility levels were studied: А0 - the initial (natural background); А1 - average (200 kg / ha Р2О5 and 200 t / ha of litter manure); А2 - increased (doses are doubled); when А3 - high (tripled). Based on the studies it has been established that to obtain a stable yield of winter wheat, an increased dose of mineral fertilizers should be used, which also ensures high grain quality indicators. The maximum yield increase of 37% was achieved on varieties in comparison with extensive technology. A significant increase of the protein content in the grain from 12.8 to 15.3% and gluten from 22.0 to 27.8% was found in the intensive technology - triple doses of fertilizers (NPK) and the use of integrated protection against diseases, pests and weeds. The introduction of high doses of mineral fertilizers contributes to the accumulation in the soil and grain of nitrogen, and also reduces the content of copper and zinc
306 kb

EFFICIENCY OF CULTIVATION OF DIFFERENT WINTER WHEAT CULTIVARS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE WEST CAUCASUS

abstract 1231609081 issue 123 pp. 1152 – 1181 30.11.2016 ru 274
The influence of the crop rotation type, predecessor and different doses of mineral fertilizers on the yield of two winter wheat cultivars (Lira and Krasnodar 99) was investigated. The investigations were carried out in the North-Kuban Agricultural Experiment Station in two five-crops: grain tillage and grain - grass tillage rotation of prolonged stationary experience. The soil is the black soil, low in humus, powerful, with humus content, depending on the power of nutrition backgrounds in the arable (0-30sm) soil layer is 3,95-4,00%, of mineral nitrogen is 5,9-8,3 mg / kg of soil, of exchangeable potassium is 330-360 mg / kg of soil. It was found that the maximum value of the winter wheat crop structure elements is noticed in the fertilizer systems with complete mineral fertilizer, and the minimum value - with PK and NK. Winter wheat yield depends on the crop rotation of 8-15%; from its predecessor - 15-18% and 27-31% of the fertilizer. Grain quality was generally determined by the dose of fertilizer. High and higher doses of fertilizers contributed to the protein content from 11.7 to 12.3% and fibrin content - 23,5-24,0%. A strong correlation between yield and agronomic methods was determined
177 kb

LONG TERM 32-YEAR-OLD APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS FOR THE FERTILITY OF THE ORDINARY BLACK SOIL AND PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGAR BEET

abstract 1171603088 issue 117 pp. 1341 – 1356 31.03.2016 ru 212
The article deals with the effectiveness of mineral and organic fertilizers in long-term application (for more than thirty years) according to the influence on the fertility of ordinary black soil of the Western Ciscaucasia and productivity of sugar beet. The investigations were carried out in the long-term stationary experiment laid on the experimental stationary section "Severokubanskaya agricultural experimental station" of P.P. Lukyanenko Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute. The experiment was laid simultaneously in time and space in two ten-course crop rotations and combined grain-grass tilled. In the structure of sown areas sugar beet occupied 10% of crop rotation area and was placed after the winter wheat. During three rotations it was studied: 1- control without fertilizer with natural forming level of mineral nutrition; 2- minimal dose N21P26K16 3- medium dose N43P52K33 ; 4 - N43P52K33, 5- high dose N96P104K68; 6- organo-mineral system¹ N43P52K34 + 12 t/ha of manure; 7- organo-mineral system² N20P24K34 + II-III rotations tillage of straw crop + 6 t/ha of manure; 8- medium dose P52K33; 9- medium dose N43K33; 10- medium dose N43K52. The soil which is used by organo-mineral system with increased and high standards of mineral fertilizers had higher concentration of mineral nitrogen. Long systematic application of fertilizer had more noticeable effect on soil phosphorus regime. The provision of soil by exchange potassium tended to decline from rotation to rotation. If at the completion of the first rotation the content of this battery was at the level 362,0-433,0 mg / kg of soil, in 2010, these values were 356,0-405,0 mg / kg of soil, remaining at the level of increased and high provision characterized to ordinary black-soil. Fertilizers for crop rotation provided almost equal yield increase: in the first rotation - 4,9-16,0 t / ha in the second 5,3- 17,1, the third 6,1-15,5 t / ha. In the moderate favorable for moisture and temperature conditions during the first and third rotation (hydrothermal index 0,8- 0,76), the value of sugar beet yield was 30,1-46,1 and 35,7-52,1 t / ha, in comparison with tougher conditions for the second rotation (hydrothermal index 0,41- 1,96) higher up to 2,6-6,5 9,2-16,0 t / ha. Research carried out in long-term stationary experiment showed that long-term use of fertilizers prevents to the loss of soil organic substances, supporting the humus content at the level of 3.95-3.99%, and organicsystems contribute to its reproduction to 4,01-4,21%. soil nitrogen state is stabilized. However, there is a tendency of decrease of the exchange potassium in mineral fertilizer systems. In the conditions of insufficient moisture supply of the northern zone of Krasnodar region the most applicable norm is N60P90R60, both in mineral and organic-systems, ensuring the collection of root crops within 43,0-45,2 t / ha, with an estimated amount of sugar 6,92-7, 14 t / ha. The given systems of fertilizer provide the yield of root crops 53,3-56,0 t / ha with the synthesis of sugar 8,19-8,70 t / ha. Increasing the rate of fertilizer in 2 times from medium to N120P160R120 doesn’t increase the productivity, reduce sugar content of root crop to 0.4-0.8%. It is undesirable to use fertilizer that are unbalanced in nutrition elements in which root crops yield declines from 5.4 to 19.0%, and current biological sugar from 6,1 to 25,9%
293 kb

THE APPLICATION OF FUROLAN PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR AND IMMUNIZER ON SUNFLOWER CULTIVATION IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1211607093 issue 121 pp. 1522 – 1544 30.09.2016 ru 316
Sunflower is one of the most important oilseed crops, which are of great economic importance in Russia and in the world. It is very adaptive crop in terms of climatic conditions range, for that reason it is cultivated on a vast territory of the Russian Federation in various weather conditions. Sunflower oil has high nutritional and taste qualities, it is used numerously in food and is applied in various fields of food industry. The biologically active linoleic acid, phosphatides and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, which are of great nutritional value to humans, are contained in the oil. According to its calorific capacity, sunflower oil is on the first place among vegetable oils. Due to biological characteristics of sunflower, the Krasnodar region is the most favorable region of the Russian Federation for obtaining high and stable yields of this crop. However, here the drought is observed during the summer period and it affects adversely the productivity and quality of sunflower seeds. The increasing of resistance to unfavorable weather conditions is possible only based on detailed study of physiological features of productivity formation and seeds quality that is highly important task in view of the current geopolitical situation in Russia. One way of solving this issue is the appliance of the growth regulators, possessing anti-stress activity that improve the quality of sowing seeds and increase the productivity and plant resistance to stressful environmental factors. These drugs include growth regulator called Furolan, which was created in KubGTU and is certified for use in Russia. It is not toxic and is used in nano-dozes, there is no its residual quantities in the products and environment. Furolan has a positive effect on physiological and biochemical processes, improves the productivity of plants, their resistance to unfavorable growing conditions by increasing the resistance to dehydration as well as to the risk of fungal diseases
191 kb

THE ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMICAL EVALUATION OF FUROLAN TREATMENT IN SUNFLOWER CULTIVATION IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1211607092 issue 121 pp. 1504 – 1521 30.09.2016 ru 499
Sunflower is one of the most important oilseed crops, which are of great economic importance in Russia and in the world. It is very adaptive crop in terms of climatic conditions range, for that reason it is cultivated on a vast territory of the Russian Federation in various weather conditions. Sunflower oil has high nutritional and taste qualities, it is used numerously in food and is applied in various fields of food industry. The biologically active linoleic acid, phosphatides and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, which are of great nutritional value to humans, are contained in the oil. According to its calorific capacity, sunflower oil is on the first place among vegetable oils. Due to biological characteristics of sunflower, the Krasnodar region is the most favorable region of the Russian Federation for obtaining high and stable yields of this crop. However, here the drought is observed during the summer period and it affects adversely the productivity and quality of sunflower seeds. The increasing of resistance to unfavorable weather conditions is possible only based on detailed study of physiological features of productivity formation and seeds quality that is highly important task in view of the current geopolitical situation in Russia. One way of solving this issue is the appliance of the growth regulators, possessing anti-stress activity that improve the quality of sowing seeds and increase the productivity and plant resistance to stressful environmental factors. These drugs include growth regulator called Furolan, which was created in KubGTU and is certified for use in Russia. It is not toxic and is used in nano-dozes, there is no its residual quantities in the products and environment. Furolan has a positive effect on physiological and biochemical processes, improves the productivity of plants, their resistance to unfavorable growing conditions by increasing the resistance to dehydration as well as to the risk of fungal diseases
.