Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Name

Neshchadim Nikolay Nikolayevich

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professor

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Kuban State Agrarian University
   

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Articles count: 20

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191 kb

THE ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMICAL EVALUATION OF FUROLAN TREATMENT IN SUNFLOWER CULTIVATION IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1211607092 issue 121 pp. 1504 – 1521 30.09.2016 ru 887
Sunflower is one of the most important oilseed crops, which are of great economic importance in Russia and in the world. It is very adaptive crop in terms of climatic conditions range, for that reason it is cultivated on a vast territory of the Russian Federation in various weather conditions. Sunflower oil has high nutritional and taste qualities, it is used numerously in food and is applied in various fields of food industry. The biologically active linoleic acid, phosphatides and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, which are of great nutritional value to humans, are contained in the oil. According to its calorific capacity, sunflower oil is on the first place among vegetable oils. Due to biological characteristics of sunflower, the Krasnodar region is the most favorable region of the Russian Federation for obtaining high and stable yields of this crop. However, here the drought is observed during the summer period and it affects adversely the productivity and quality of sunflower seeds. The increasing of resistance to unfavorable weather conditions is possible only based on detailed study of physiological features of productivity formation and seeds quality that is highly important task in view of the current geopolitical situation in Russia. One way of solving this issue is the appliance of the growth regulators, possessing anti-stress activity that improve the quality of sowing seeds and increase the productivity and plant resistance to stressful environmental factors. These drugs include growth regulator called Furolan, which was created in KubGTU and is certified for use in Russia. It is not toxic and is used in nano-dozes, there is no its residual quantities in the products and environment. Furolan has a positive effect on physiological and biochemical processes, improves the productivity of plants, their resistance to unfavorable growing conditions by increasing the resistance to dehydration as well as to the risk of fungal diseases
169 kb

THE INFLUENCE OF LONG-TERM APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS ON THE SUGARINESS OF BEET IN THE CONDITIONS OF INSUFFICIENT WATERING OF THE WESTERN CISCAUCASIA

abstract 1171603083 issue 117 pp. 1288 – 1302 31.03.2016 ru 659
This article presents the experimental material obtained from long-term stationary experiment of GNU "Severokubanskaya agricultural experimental station" in P.P. Lukyanenko Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute. Stationary experience was founded in 1978. It had two ten-course crop rotations and combined graingrass tilled. The ordinary black soil, low-humic, heavy loamy in mechanical composition. The capacity of humus horizon is 113-116 cm with a total content of humus on the date of the experience beginning is 3.88%. Arable (0-30cm) layer was characterized by the following parameters: total nitrogen content - 0.22-0.24, mineral -10,0-10,5mg / kg of soil, total phosphorus-0,16- 0,19%, labile phosphorus - 12,2-12,9mg / kg soil total potassium -1,7-2,0%, exchange potassium- 386mg / kg soil. The degree of saturation of bases is 80-90%. The amount of absorbed bases is 30-40 m ekvg/ 100 g of soil. The reaction of the soil solution is weakly alkaline (PH water 8.0-8.2). The predecessor is winter wheat. General Agrotechnics is recommended for a given soil and climate of region. Solid mineral fertilizer were applied as mineral fertilizers in combination with organic fertilizer in the form of half-decomposed cattle manure. According to agro-climatic zonation the northern zone of the Krasnodar region, where the research was conducted, is related to the zone of insufficient watering with hydrothermal coefficient 0.7-0.9 with an annual rainfall of 350.5 to 899.8 mm. During the autumn and winter period, which determines the accumulation of water in the soil, from 150.3 to 426.8 mm of rain falls or 30,4-68,9% of the annual amount. During the vegetation of sugar beet from germination to harvest -112,0- 588,9mm of rain falls, with an average daily temperature of the air 16,5-20,000С, including the period of the greatest growth of roots and accumulation of sugar from 3.2 to 557.1 of rain falls with air temperature 19,5-28,800С. Hydrothermal index is 0,01-2,83. During the years of the research 19% of years have been characterized as unfavorable (hydrothermal index 0.67), 44% of years as moderate on moisture supply and temperature conditions (hydrothermal index 0.99) and 37% of years as favorable (hydrothermal index 1.05). The generalization of the research results obtained by us in the long-term stationary experiment, allowed us to estimate the impact of different standards and systems of fertilizer on the productivity of sugar beet and sugar content in the roots. On average, during the years of research, the root harvest under the influence of fertilizer amounted to 36,7-45,6 t / ha per unit area with the addition to the control variant, that isn’t manurable, amounted from 6.6 to 15.5 t / ha. The highest yield of root is 43,0-45,6 t / ha which was obtained with systems of fertilizer with complete mineral nutrition
328 kb

YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY OF DIFFERENT WINTER WHEAT CULTIVARS DEPENDING ON PREDECESSORS, FERTILIZERS AND OTHER METHODS OF GROWING

abstract 1201606087 issue 120 pp. 1305 – 1321 30.06.2016 ru 423
The reaction of winter wheat of Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute selection that is included in the State Register of selection achievements in the Russian Federation, on the predecessor, the sowing time and the level of mineral nutrition in 2008 - 2010 was studied in "Severokubanskaya agricultural experimental station" P.P. Lukyanenko Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute, located in the northern area of the region. The objects of research were cultivars ‘Bezostaya 1’, taken as a standard, ‘Tanya’, ‘Grom’, ‘Sila’, ‘Ligue 1’, ‘Irishka’ and ‘Yumpa’, with a specific weight of strong wheat (excluding the cultivar ‘Bezostaya 1’) - 57.1%, essential - 28.6%, weak - 14 3%. The predecessors are winter wheat, sunflower, white mustard. Seed dates: the 20th of September (optimal for determining the originator of the cultivar) the 1st and 10th of October. The background of mineral nutrition is N0P0K0, N60P30K30 and N120-160P90K60. The soil is an ordinary powerful heavy-loam chernozem with humus content in the soil layer 0 - 30 cm 3.95 - 4.00%, of mineral nitrogen - 8.3 - 10.7 mg / kg of soil, of mobile phosphates - 22.4 - 26 6 mg / kg of soil, of exchangeable potassium - 330 - 360 mg / kg of soil. Weather conditions during the research were extremely contrasting, both by the precipitation and by the temperature conditions. Based on these studies, it was found that five or six cultivars of this crop that differ in biological and economic features, the reaction on the predecessor, soil fertility and sowing terms as well as adapted to the specific soil and climatic conditions should be used to obtain consistently high yields of winter wheat. Well-chosen cultivars, predecessors and sowing terms predecessors allow without additional cost on the unfertilized background to increase the yield on 0.20 - 0.79 t / ha. Together with the growth of yield, the technological quality of grain is improved: protein content by 0.5 - 2.4%, fibrin content - 1.7 - 7.6%. The principle of mosaic use of cultivars with specific predominance of strong wheat is 57.1%, essential - 28.6%, weak - 14.3%, it allows to produce the grain when you apply the minimum dose of 12.5% protein content, 20.9% of fibrin content. When using N90P60K60 respectively 13.3 and 23.6% at a dose N120-150P90K60 - 14.4 and 26.8% with an average of 13.5 - 24.0%
389 kb

YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY OF THE WINTER WHEAT IN THE CONDITIONS OF INSUFFICIENT HUMIDIFYING IN KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1281704067 issue 128 pp. 984 – 1002 28.04.2017 ru 403
The influence of the predecessor and different doses of mineral fertilizers on the yield and the quality of the winter wheat cultivar ‘Krasnodar 99’ were investigated. Investigations were carried out in the North-Kuban Agricultural Experiment Station in two ten- course crop-rotations: grain plowing and grain - grass plowing (stationary experience). The soil is the black soil, low in humus, powerful, with humus content 3,95-4,00%, depending on the nutrition in the arable soil layer (0-30sm), mineral nitrogen is 5,9-8,3 mg / kg of soil, exchangeable potassium is 330-360 mg / kg of soil. It was found that the maximum value of the winter wheat crop structure elements is noticed in the fertilizer systems with complete mineral fertilizer, and the minimum value - with PK and NK. Winter wheat yield depends on the crop rotation of 8-15%; from its predecessor - 15-18% and 27-31% of the fertilizer. The protein content was mainly determined by the fertilizer dose. Enhanced and high doses of fertilizers contributed to an increase in the protein content to 12%.A strong correlation between protein content, agronomic methods and precipitation was determined
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