Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Kulyan Raisa Vasilievna

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Russian Research Institute of Floriculture and Subtropical Crops

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abstract 1311707051 issue 131 pp. 595 – 603 29.09.2017 ru 195
Feijoa crop is valuable due to the complex of useful traits (high frost resistance, big yield, ornamental value and long profitable period). These fruits have delicate flavor, nutritional and dietary properties. The fruits are juicy with a pleasant, gentle, refreshing sweet and sour taste, specific strawberry-pineapple flavor and contain significant quantities of important substances for the human body. Pectin (up to 2.5%), sugars (6-14%), proteins, vitamins, organic acids, mineral salts, etc. are among them. However, the challenge of its cultivation is the lack of cultivars and plantations are represented by a mixture of hybrids originated from free pollination, and characterized by a great variety in biological and morphological traits, differing not only in yield, but in size, shape and yield period. In this connection, the breeders faced the objective to create new cultivars of feijoa, using classical and modern breeding methods and available genetic resources for commercial gardening and production. Development of the core hybrid diversity material and selection of promising forms are the most important stages of the breeding process, providing success of further breeding programs. The breeding of varieties and forms for crossings was carried out according to the principle of combining the desirable traits of the obtained offspring. There are direct and reverse crosses in six combinations ('Dachnaya' x 'Superba', 'September' x 'Superba', 'Dagomysskaya' x 'Superba', 'Superba' x 'Dachnaya', 'Superba' x 'September', Superba ; X 'Dachnaya'). The viability of the pollen was evaluated prior to pollination, by germination on a nutrient medium - 1% agar-agar + 15% sucrose. The degree of fertility varied year by year: in 2015 - 60-62%, and in 2016 - 68-77-88%. The best crossing combinations were established 'September' x 'Superba' and the 'Superba' x 'Dagomyskaya for the creation of the hybrid genepool of Feijoa sellowiana. A high percentage of germination of the feijoa seeds was noted in combinations of 'Dagomyskaya' x 'Superba' (74%) and 'Superba' x 'Dagomysskaya' (70%).