Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Name

Malashikhin Nikolai Vasilyevich

Scholastic degree

Academic rank

Honorary rank

Organization, job position

Kuban State Agrarian University
   

Web site url

Email

malashikhin95@bk.ru


Articles count: 5

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832 kb

EFFECTIVE WAYS TO REDUCE SOIL COM-PACTION TO PRESERVE ITS FERTILITY

abstract 1461902003 issue 146 pp. 0 – 0 28.02.2019 ru 5
New ways of solving reducing soil compaction problem are substantiated. Soil compaction destroys its structure, violates its water-air regime, and leads to erosion and reduced yield. The effectiveness of the presented directions, based on the analysis of the issue and the results of own research is confirmed by practical use in the crop production processes mechanization of intellectual engineering authors' developments, based on their inventions and well-known serial technology selected from Automated reference system "agricultural machinery". It was the synthesis of own research results and modern agricultural machinery best samples analysis that allowed us to form an effective system of machines that reduce the harmful soil compaction. This ensures soil fertility preservation and crop yield increase. The set of machines proposed in the system for soil processing, sowing, fertilizing, spraying and harvesting not only reduces soil compaction but also improves work quality, labor productivity and complexity of the work performed, harvest and reduces costs of all types (energy, money, labor). The basis of the problem solution consists of a combination of technological operations for one pass of the unit across the field, multifunctional units application in the system that performs tillage and seeding, fertilization and tillage, additional fertilizing of spike crops with simultaneous harrowing, harvesting with simultaneous stubbling or straw pressing etc., refusal to use heavy machinery in the fields, trucks, conversion tracked system on tractors, front and rear hydraulics for making multi-functional units, the use of fundamentally new machines and adaptations to them according to the inventions of the authors
1629 kb

INNOVATIVE-TECHNOLOGICAL PREREQUISITES OF GRAIN COMPETITIVENESS IMPROVEMENT

abstract 1321708020 issue 132 pp. 249 – 264 31.10.2017 ru 180
The systemic links that depend on mechanization, which affect the growth of the cost price of field crop production were proposed and their analysis was made. Three main blocks of the basic reasons for production costs growth (machinery and materials cost rise, agroecological potential underutilization, agrotechnologies non-observance) disclose agricultural machinery and agrotechnologies of field crops negative aspects that are being used, and also explain agro-potential underutilization causes on the example of the Krasnodar region. The irrational nomenclative list of machines in the current system was analyzed, which not only raises field crop production cost price, but also negatively affects the soil fertility due to its reconsolidation and spraying. Requirements for production processes mechanization means, taking into account their cost price reduction, were formulated. The possibilities for optimizing of the field works timing performed by the proposed agricultural machinery, their quality improving and product damage reducing, as well as work complexity with coinciding terms, streamlining and rhythmicity of processes were formulated. Taking into account the system approach, the imbalance between the agro-industrial complex and management forms was reflected in the weak interrelation of their interests with state interests, which also affects the cost price of production. The negative aspects of the machine system for the mechanization of field crop cultivation were revealed. A special effect should be expected from the proposed combination of technological operations in one pass of the machine across the field due to full-scale adaptations to machines, the ratio of the park of caterpillar and wheel tractors and the work complexity. On the basis of these studies, proposals for traumatization reducing of grain by harvesting equipment and the cost of crop losses from trauma, as well as the regularities of the area of damage to grain from grain vitality have been substantiated. The reasons of production cost price increase are connected with attracting investment issues and managing innovative activities of introducing priority means of mechanization (concessional lending, subsidies, etc.)
1942 kb

MECHANIZATION PRODUCTION PROCESSES STRATEGY OF HIGH QUALITY WHEAT GRAIN

abstract 1371803001 issue 137 pp. 1 – 12 30.03.2018 ru 57
The article presents a production system analysis of high-quality winter wheat grain and the problem solution methods based on mechanization production processes strategy through a new generation of equipment and innovative improvement of machine technologies were outlined. Deterioration of grain quality indicators in the country was marked: the proportion of strong wheat is not more than 0.5% of commodity grain resources, and about 80% of exportable parties is wheat of 4...5 classes. Thus, it is possible due to the process mechanization to raise the grain quality. A well-known method of functional-cost analysis was applied to ground machine technological operations, which are the first to be developed in order to improve the wheat quality in the entire technological system, the demand for which is reduced abroad. The basic technological principles of production of high-quality grain were designed. They have three subsystems: the structure of the wheat varieties for the agricultural producer, the previous crops for wheat, features of cultivation technology of valuable varieties on the basis of intelligent manufacturing systems machines. The mechanization of high quality grain production processes was proposed. It can provide engine technology improvement due to rational composition machine-tractor units of new generation. They allow to abandon the outdated usual items of machinery used in their system and dramatically raise labor productivity due to the combination of operations, quality of work, yield and reduce costs. The features of mechanization on harvesting and post-harvest grain refinement are reflected with the aim of improving its quality. Applied to various forms of management, intellectual grain sorting means of mechanization recommended, which contribute to an increase in wheat quality. The impact of "neveika" technology with the completion of the heap at the stationary place on the grain quality improvement was marked
1932 kb

MECHANIZATION PRODUCTION PROCESSES STRATEGY OF HIGH QUALITY WHEAT GRAIN +)

abstract 1351801007 issue 135 pp. 80 – 91 31.01.2018 ru 58
The production system analysis of high-quality winter wheat grain was done and the problem solution methods based on mechanization production processes strategy through a new generation of equipment and innovative improvement of machine technologies were outlined. Deterioration of grain quality indicators in the country was marked: the proportion of strong wheat is not more than 0.5% of commodity grain resources, and about 80% of exportable parties is wheat of 4...5 classes. Thus, it is possible due to the process mechanization to raise the grain quality. A well-known method of functional-cost analysis was applied to ground machine technological operations, which are the first to be developed in order to improve the wheat quality in the entire technological system, the demand for which is reduced abroad. The basic technological principles of production of high-quality grain were designed. They have three subsystems: the structure of the wheat varieties for the agricultural producer, the previous crops for wheat, features of cultivation technology of valuable varieties on the basis of intelligent manufacturing systems machines. The mechanization of high quality grain production processes was proposed. It can provide engine technology improvement due to rational composition machine-tractor units of new generation. They allow abandoning the outdated usual items of machinery used in their system and dramatically raise labor productivity due to the combination of operations, quality of work, yield and reduce costs. The features of mechanization on harvesting and post-harvest grain refinement are reflected with the aim of improving its quality. Applied to various forms of management, intellectual grain sorting means of mechanization recommended, which contribute to an increase in wheat quality. The impact of "neveika" technology with the completion of a heap at the stationary place on the grain quality improvement was marked
375 kb

ULTRA-LOW VOLUME SPRAYER'S PERFEC-TION FOR GARDENS AND VINEYARDS PRO-CESSING

abstract 1491905001 issue 149 pp. 0 – 0 31.05.2019 ru 17
The urgency of the task in creating a reliable plant protection system is the improvement and development of new technologies for spraying crops on the basis of fundamentally new agricultural requirements at a higher quality level, increasing productivity, reducing energy costs and greening protective measures. Pneumatic slotted sprayers have great design capabilities allowing obtaining operating parameters necessary for the specific task of the sprayer. In this regard, we have proposed a technological scheme of the sprayer in the garden-vineyard version. To do this, the sprayers are placed in pneumatic ducts of the fans mounted on the sprayers. It is possible to reduce energy and resource costs, to achieve high quality indicators of the process and to increase the level of environmental friendliness by developing technical means for ultra-low-volume spraying. The principal novelty in solving the problem of ultra-low volume spraying is the use of KubSAU design pneumatic sprayers on the sprayer, and the scheme of the technological process, allowing the reduction of the working fluid and pesticides doses rate, resulting in reduced operating costs to support operations: preparation of working fluids and filling the sprayers. To process two rows simultaneously, it is possible to use sprayers equipped with two centrifugal fans with the installation of pneumatic slit sprayers with fixation in the ducts that they overlap, forcing the air from the fan to pass through the atomizer body, mixing with drops of working fluid. In this case, the speed of the air-droplet jets increases and more efficient use of the air jet from the fan occur. Along with the use of sprayers, equipped with KubSAU design pneumatic sprayers, to combat pests and diseases, we propose to use a sprayer to combat weeds in the trunk area of perennial plantations. Thus we have a family of ultra-low volume sprayers with pneumatic slotted sprayers of the Kuban State Agrarian University design
.