Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Name

Terehova Svetlana Serafimovna

Scholastic degree


Academic rank

associated professor

Honorary rank

Organization, job position

Kuban State Agrarian University
   

Web site url

Email

Zemled@Kubsau.ru


Articles count: 3

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157 kb

INFLUENCE OF TILLAGE AND CHEMICAL WAY TO CONTROL WEEDS ON WINTER WHEAT PRODUCTIVITY UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE PLAIN-EROSIVE AGROLANDSCAPE

abstract 1341710002 issue 134 pp. 14 – 26 29.12.2017 ru 112
This article discusses the results of the study to determine the impact of different primary tillage and herbicide against weeds in winter wheat agrocenosis. The task of the research was to determine the impact of primary tillage (moldboard plowing and surface treatment) factor A and herbicide (Lancelot) factor B on the agro-physical and agrochemical soil properties. It has been established that the content of productive moisture during the growing period of winter wheat in 0-100 cm of soil layer didn’t depend on the method of tillage. Introduction of herbicide Lancelot boosted the moisture reserves in soil compared to the control type, in the herbicide-free type the weeds absorb the large amounts of moisture. Surface soil treatment did not have negative effects on soil agro-physical properties and its structure in comparison with moldboard plowing. Number of agronomically valuable aggregates on moldboard plowing is 85.2 - 87.5%, on surface one is - 86.2 87.5%. Density of composition and waterproof aggregates under surface treatment didn’t defer to tillage. Accumulation of wet and dry mass by weeds regardless to the way of soil tillage declined to a minimum when introducing the herbicide Lancelot. The high yield of winter wheat was obtained on this type. Mathematical processing results have shown that due to factor A (main soil tillage) to moldboard plowing the average productivity is 57.5 kg/ha, on surface one is 56.0 kg/ha, i.e. the difference between treatments is 1.5 t/ha (with NSR05 on factor - 2.9 t/ha) is insignificant. To factor B (herbicides) on control the productivity is 54.5 kg/ha, introduction of Lancelot increased the productivity to 59.5 t/ha, i.e. the increase was 5.5 kg/ha at NSR05-by the factor B-2.9 t/ha, i.e. is significant. Thus, the present soil treatments had no effect on yield of winter wheat in ordinary black soil. The use of herbicide Lancelot has produced the harvest increase in 0.5 t/ha on average for 2 years
147 kb

MINIMIZING TILLAGE AND ITS EFFECT ON AGRO-PHYSICAL INDEXES OF LEACHED CHERNOZEM AND PRODUCTIVITY OF FIELD CROPS

abstract 1401806026 issue 140 pp. 112 – 122 29.06.2018 ru 20
This article discusses the results of research on the effect of soil treatment on agro-physical performance and productivity of major field crops. The task of the research was to determine the impact of primary tillage (moldboard plowing), surface treatment (minimum) and zero (direct seeding) is factor A, fertilizers – B, and herbicides as factor C for agro-physical properties of soil. We have found that high density led to a significant increase in the proportion of the stone faction in the structural composition of the soil. Deterioration of the agro-physical properties while minimizing soil tillage has negatively affected water, air and food regimes under crops rotation. When all methods of soil tillage are applied, the moisture reserves in the 0-200 cm layer in early spring had the lowest values of moisture-holding capacity (230-272 mm) and were defined by the features of weather conditions and past cultures. At the time of sowing, their number decreased by 12% (203-241 mm). The most economical way of spending moisture was shown by plants on the moldboard tillage. In autumn, fewer weeds (7-11 PCs/m2) there were in the options for ploughing. When the surface and zero ways of soil treatments were applied, their number for 1 m2 was 1.2-1.9 times bigger. We effectively eliminated weeds only when applying herbicides. Different crop cultures reacted differently to minimizing the tillage. The greatest reduction in yield was observed when applied surface and zero tillage in cultivated crops. Thus, studies have shown that in order to obtain maximum yields of field crops of crop rotation, reducing production costs, there must be a rational combination of deep or conventional plough tillage for surface or zero tilled for grain crops
332 kb

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS SOIL TREATMENTS AND HERBICIDE ON YIELD OF WINTER WHEAT UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF TERRAIN-EROSIVE AGROLANDSCAPE

abstract 1381804019 issue 138 pp. 91 – 105 30.04.2018 ru 45
Plants of winter wheat suppress weeds quite well, however, the use of herbicides is required, which prevents the new clogging up of soil. Under surface tillage it was observed a greater spread of weeds than under mold-board plowing. Introduction of the herbicide Lancelot regardless of ways of tillage has reduced this rate in 5.8 times. An important means of regulating of vital functions of soil microflora is tillage. 40% of all expenses ac-counted for the soil treatment required for cultivation of crops. Therefore it is important to study the effect of tillage on the course of microbiological processes in the upper 0-30 cm layer. The intensity of the decomposition of plant material by linen cloths method objectively reflects the status and activity of soil microflora. One of the signs of cultural soil condition is its ability of nitrification. Nitrification process is particularly slow in early spring, because this time the microbiological activity is weak because of low soil temperature. When the soil is progressing the number of nitrates increases and reaches its peak in summer, after that the process is fading. Studies have shown that under surface tillage, microbiological processes of decomposition of cellulose and the ability of soil nitrification compared with moldboard plowing are higher. The components of yield structure show features of yield formation. Tillage did not have an essential effect on crop structure elements. Application of herbicide Lancelot has significantly increased the number of productive stalks (7.3-10%) and mass of 1000 grains on 1.8 g or 4.5%. Grain yield of winter wheat did not depend on the primary tillage (57.5-56.5 kg/ha). Application of herbicide Lance-lot has allowed to receive allowance (on average for 2 years) 5.0 kg/ha. Grain quality indicators of winter wheat depend both on the hereditary traits and preferred growing conditions. The amount of gluten is not dependent on the main tillage, while the introduction of herbicide has increased gluten to 1.4%. Calculation of economic and bio-energy efficiency showed that the use of surface treatment in the cultivation of winter wheat on soil ordinarily is worthwhile
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