Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Anischenko Arman Aleksandrovich

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Kuban State Agrarian University
   

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CHANGE IN THE STRUCTURE OF BLACK LEACHED SOIL IN THE LOW-WEST AGRO LANDSCAPE DEPENDING ON THE TECHNOLOGY OF CULTIVATION OF FIELD CROPS

abstract 1391805014 issue 139 pp. 38 – 47 31.05.2018 ru 149
The article examines the results of studies on the study of changes in the structure of leached chernozem in the low-west agro landscape, depending on the technology of cultivation of field crops. The research task was to determine the effect of basic tillage (dumping plowing, non-loosening loosening and surface treatment) and fertilizer systems (mineral and organic in crop rotation) on the structure (aggregate composition of the soil) of the old irrigated leached chernozem. It was established that the aggregate composition of the arable layer when cultivating tilled crops (sugar beet, soybean and corn) was noticeably inferior to the structure of the treated layer under crops of solid crops (winter wheat, alfalfa). The content of agronomically valuable soil aggregates for roaches varied from 39.8% in corn to 53.4% in soybean. At the same time, the structural coefficient was 0.7-1.1. Cultures of continuous sowing increased the content of agronomically valuable soil aggregates of the arable layer by an average of 12.2%, and the structural coefficient by 0.6. The replacement of plowing with non-loosening loosening and surface treatment in crop rotation showed that in the arable layer of the aggregated soil particles under the tilled crops practically did not change. This figure was 47.3 and 48.5%, while in plowing it occupied an intermediate position - 48.3%. Under the crops of continuous sowing a tendency to increase agronomically valuable aggregates was noted. The mineral fertilizer system fully worked to preserve the structure of the soil when it was used for plowing. The remaining methods of basic processing against the background of the mineral fertilizer system are less effective. According to the arable crops there was a tendency to increase aggregates of 10-0.25 mm in size. Winter wheat (according to its predecessor - corn and alfalfa), alfalfa of different years of life increased the austerity of the arable layer by 9.0%. Organic fertilizers, introduced twice in the rotation, significantly improve the soil structure in the plow layer. The organic system used for tilled crops in comparison with unmanned crops for plowing, non-rooting and surface loosening increased the number of aggregates measuring 10-0.25 mm on average by a rotation of 10.4. Organic fertilizers in the link of the crops of continuous sowing improved the aggregate composition by an average of 4.3%. Optimal organic fertilizers worked against the backdrop of non-loosening loosening
.