Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Tolstykh Anzhelika Sergeevna

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Kuban State Agrarian University

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abstract 1501906019 issue 150 pp. 182 – 194 28.06.2019 ru 357
The article presents the results of studies on the influence of the main tillage in the technology of cultivation of sunflower on its agrophysical properties. The object of the research was sunflower, the Vulkan variety, the predecessor was winter wheat. The soil was superpowerful low-humus typical leached chernozem. The studies were carried out in a stationary experiment on the basis of the experimental field of the department of general and irrigated agriculture of KubGAU in accordance with generally accepted methods for experiments with grain crops. Variants of experience (basic tillage): Option 1 (A0) - dump plowing to a depth of 25-27 cm (control); option 2 (A1) - chiseling 25-27 cm; option 3 (A2) - disc peeling at 8-10 cm; option 4 (A3) - zero treatment (direct seeding). On the basis of the conducted research, a general trend of agrophysical soil deterioration during the entire vegetation period of sunflower development and with a decrease in the intensity of the main tillage in the technology of its cultivation is revealed. So, the soil density was minimal, and the total porosity and soil moisture, as well as the reserves of productive moisture were maximal when carrying out land plowing at a depth of 25-27 cm to the main tillage. 25-27 cm) slightly worsened these figures. Conducting in the main tillage only surface disc peeling to a depth of 8-10 cm led to a further deterioration in these indicators. And in the last place there was the option where the soil was left without primary treatment under direct sowing of the crop (the variant of zero tillage). And just before harvesting sunflower (September), zero tillage provided the highest levels of soil moisture and reserves of productive moisture