Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Plotnikov Vladimir Konstatinovitch

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associated professor

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Kuban State Agrarian University
   

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Articles count: 17

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193 kb

TO THE 100TH ANNIVERSARY OF N. I. VAVILOV’S RULE ON HOMOLOGICAL SERIES IN HEREDITARY VARIABILITY

abstract 1602006002 issue 160 pp. 11 – 29 30.06.2020 ru 19
100 years ago, on June 4, 1920, 32-year-old Professor of the Saratov University Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov (1887-1943) first reported at the III all-Russian selection Congress at the University of Saratov on his discovery of homological series in the study of parallelisms in the phenomena of hereditary variability by analogy with homological series of organic compounds. This discovery in genetics received the rank of law, the only one after the laws of G. Mendel. This major study was a further development of the genetic idea of C. Darwin on the origin of species. It showed the ways in which close species and genera of plants have a parallel formative process, because the crucial in the process of evolutionary development of living organisms – first of all, their genetic features. In cases where the development of a trait requires the joint and consistent action of many genes, the occurrence of homological series is inevitable, and this does not contradict the random variability of C. Darwin. In addition to its great genetic significance as a law of evolution, the law of homological series in hereditary variability is of great importance for botanists, plant breeders and breeders: it not only determines the place of each form in the plant world, but can also indicate to the breeder possible directions in his practical work. According to a number of geneticists and breeders, if G. Mendel discovered the rules of heredity, then N. I. Vavilov discovered the rules of variability
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THE CONCEPT OF THE «RNA WORLD»: THEORY AND PRACTICE

abstract 1281704053 issue 128 pp. 740 – 770 28.04.2017 ru 337
The review examines research unusual properties of RNA. RNA has the ability to act as both genes and enzymes (ribozymes). This property could offer a way around the «chicken-and-egg» problem: genes require enzymes; enzymes require genes. Furthermore, RNA can be transcribed into DNA, in reverse of the normal process of transcription. These facts are reasons to consider that the RNA world could be the original pathway to cells. The general notion of an «RNA World» is that, in the early development of life on the Earth, genetic continuity was assured by the replication of RNA and genetically encoded proteins were not involved as catalysts. There is now strong evidence indicating that an RNA World did indeed exist before DNAand protein-based life. RNA has multiple functions. Among these, "messenger RNA" carries genetic information from DNA to protein formation. RNA is often a single-stranded spiral, but also exists in double-stranded form. In 1998, Craig Mello and Andrew Fire discovered through their studies of the roundworm C. elegans a phenomenon dubbed "RNA interference". In this phenomenon, double-stranded RNA blocks messenger RNA so that certain genetic information is not converted during protein formation. This "silences" these genes, i.e. renders them inactive. The phenomenon plays an important regulatory role within a genome. Recent years have been perhaps the most fruitful period yet in terms of research in the area of mRNA stability (Phenomena: Gene Silencing; RNA interference; Identity of mRNA decay in vivo and in vitro). The elaboration of new methods in biothechnology have been presented
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STABILIZATION OF MRNA CEREALS IN VITRO UNDER THE SILICON INFLUENCE

abstract 1321708056 issue 132 pp. 685 – 719 31.10.2017 ru 255
The differential stability of mRNA is an important mechanism for posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Messenger RNA stability is controlled by specific genes and growth conditions. The review examines the theoretical possibility of mRNA stabilization in vivo as a consequence of replacing carbon atoms (C) or phosphorus (P), composed of nucleic acid on the silicon (Si) atom. During isolation of poly-(A)+mRNA from plant tissues by the two-cycle affinity chromatography on poly-(U)-Sepharose, regular changes in poly- (A)++mRNA yield were observed. The changes varied both with the plant genotype and growth conditions. Celite treatment of heated and unheated total RNA preparations from developing corn kernels and from green and etiolated wheat seedlings. Messenger RNA that differed in the length of poly- (A)-sequences was used for hybridization. It is evident that a reduction of poly-(A)-length causes alterations in spatial structure of mRNA, and associated proteins and cations Mg++ become accessible to celite absorption. Heating promotes melting of secondary structure, already initiated, and increases the efficiency of mRNA stabilization by celite. Interpreting the facts interact celite with mRNA in vitro and stabilization of mRNA in vivo by cycloheximide with a modern point of view can be considered with the position research of the phenomenon of RNA interference
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SPECIFICITY OF TRILON B INFLUENCE ON THE GERMINATION OF SEEDS OF VARIETIES OF WINTER BARLEY

abstract 1201606048 issue 120 pp. 706 – 729 30.06.2016 ru 401
The problem of increasing resistance of winter barley to adverse conditions of winter is the most problem in the selection area of this crop. The main component of this complex trait is the frost resistance. Laboratory methods of assessment of frost resistance are important for breeding of winter barley. These methods can effectively replace more costly method of direct freezing in the freezers. Magnesium cations (Mg++) are essential components of the protein-synthesizing system of germinating seeds. Magnesium cations determine the stability and translational activity of mRNA and rRNA. Trilon B is usually used for in vitro banding of magnesium cations in area of biochemistry of the nucleic acids. It was very interesting to verify the Trilon B influence to seed germination of winter barley varieties by experiment. Experiments showed: actinomycin D – the inhibitor of RNA synthesis – didn’t show varieties specific effect to seed growth of winter barley, while Trilon B had a varieties specific impact to length coleoptiles and roots. Research was carried out on etiolated seedlings at temperatures from 22 to 28oC, and different concentrations of Trilon B - 1,6×10-3М, 2,4×10-3М and 3,2×10-3М. The roots of 3-days old seedlings were more sensitive to Trilon B influence. It is shown the varieties of Russian origin were naturally reacted to Trilon B: the higher the frost resistance of variety, the more resistant variety to the action of various concentrations of Trilon B at different temperatures. The most optimum concentration was 3,2 × 10-3М at 22-25oC. Varieties by foreign origin deviated from this pattern. It is interesting to research the genetic essence of these differences. It will be helpful for optimization of varieties differentiation conditions to create a laboratory method of estimate of frost resistance of winter barley. The new method will be most efficient compared the direct freezing method
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MOLECULAR-BIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION MECHANISMS OF PROTEIN-SYNTHESIZING SYSTEM IN ANIMALS TO IMBALANCED AMINO ACIDS

abstract 0861302032 issue 86 pp. 432 – 471 28.02.2013 ru 1175
In the article, there are the results of comparative studies of the effect of diets with imbalance lysine and tryptophan on the growth, appetite and tissue components of the protein-synthesizing system of Wistar rats and pigs
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MOLECULAR MARKERS OF THE EFFECT OF INTERACTION "GENOTYPE-ENVIRONMENT" IN PLANTS ON THE BASIS OF THE DECAY OF mRNA IN VIVO (RNAi) AND IN VITRO (OMMP-SYSTEM)

abstract 1411807012 issue 141 pp. 41 – 64 28.09.2018 ru 151
This overview and theoretical article deals with the consideration of hypothetical possibilities for the development of molecular-kinetic markers of agricultural plants allowing to quantify the effect of genotype-environment interaction on the basis of stability studies of mRNA. The development in view is based on the results of studies of the mRNA decay identity in vivo and in vitro (the ommp system), as well as the phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi), widely studied in plants. The ommp system has allowed to establish the relationship of the cultivar-specific growth reaction to the effects of low positive temperatures, dehydration, salinity, illumination and biologically active substances with the stability of the total and a number of gene-specific mRNAs of green and etiolated seedlings of winter soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Similar studies of mRNA stability have been conducted on ripening grains of maize (Zea mays L.), with a particular result of the in vivo and in vitro decay identity confirmed for major mRNAs of stored proteins, 19 and 22 kDa zeins, of normal maize and mutant according to the regulatory gene opaque-2, changing the amount and stability of zein mRNA in the maturing grain of high-lysine maize. Regulatory response of the organism through RNAi is also multiple and includes neutralization of viral and bacterial infections, reaction to pathogens and biologically active substances, circadian rhythms, water stress, hypoxia, mechanical stress, mineral nutrition, salt stress and temperature changes. Unfavorable environmental influences result in an increase or decrease in the expression of certain microRNAs (miRNAs). The change in mRNA stability is an important component of the gene expression regulation system in eukaryotic cells. The main determinants of mRNA stability are in the 3'-untranslated region. It is the It is the (U)nА sequence and the degree of polyadenylation of mRNA, i.e. length of its terminal homonucleotide chain. It is to this region that mRNA molecules are complementary to miRNA. The most important component, which largely determines the regularity of the genotype-environment interaction, is the polyadenyl sequence at the 3 'end of the mRNA. Its length depends both on the genotype and on the environmental conditions. There is evidence that polyadenylation degree of mRNA determines the secondary structure of the molecule. As is known, deadenylation of mRNA reduces its lifetime, and when the poly-A-tail reaches several dozens of nucleotides, an explosive disintegration of the mRNA molecule occurs. Consequently, in a living cell the following mRNA decomposition scheme appears to be logical: shortening the poly-A-tail of the mRNA opens the sites of miRNA interaction with the 3'-non-coding region of the mRNA molecule, which causes its degradation. Thus, it is safe to assume that the interaction of mRNA and miRNA in the ommp system is the underlying process for molecular-kinetic markers under development
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INTERACTIONS OF GOLD, SILVER AND MAGNESIUM NANOPARTICLES WITH PLANTS

abstract 1201606047 issue 120 pp. 675 – 705 30.06.2016 ru 668
The review examines the recent years’ data pertaining to the interaction of plants with nanoparticles of noble metals (gold and silver) and with nanoparticles of magnesium as an element that has a central role in the organization of the cellular protein-synthesizing apparatus. Information is presented about the effect of gold and silver nanoparticles on plants and on possible nanoparticle phytotoxicity. It is shown that magnesium nanoparticles, as well as those of noble metals, produce various effects on the growth and productivity of plants, enabling the arsenal of biologically active substances to be expanded. Analysis is made of the involvement of magnesium nanoparticles in cryobiological reaction of the regular breakdown of plant RNA under conditions of ultra low temperatures, which is important not only for the further developments of views of the origin of life ob Earth but also for the purposes of designing new markers for the analysis of the biological peculiarities of agricultural crops on the basis of studies of magnesium in the long-lived RNA of their mature seeds. The presented critical analysis of the literature data, which are often incomplete and contradictory, suggest that a coordinated research program is needed that would detect correlation between particle parameters, experimental design, and observed biological effects
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HYGROSCOPICITY OF MATURE GRAIN AS A MARKER OF WINTER BARLEY AND SUNFLOWER FROST RESISTANCE

abstract 1451901012 issue 145 pp. 7 – 30 31.01.2019 ru 190
In the review article we present a comparative analysis of frost resistance of varieties of winter barley and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by the results of freezing in the refrigerating chambers and by the hygroscopicity of mature grain. On the example of a number of varieties of both cultures, it is shown that the higher the frost resistance of the variety, the smaller the volume of the supernatant can be obtained by extracting the press cake with a solution containing magnesium cations. It is assumed that increased hygroscopicity of winter barley and sunflower press cake is associated with a relatively high content of so - called "water-soluble starch" - β-glucan polysaccharides in its grain. The possibility of regulation of the degree of hygroscopicity under the influence of potassium (KNO3), zinc (ZnSO4) and gibberellic acid (GA3) was studied on a number of sunflower varieties. It was shown that treatment with a solution of potassium (a concentration of 50 ppm KNO3) of sunflower plants at the stage of 4 leaves leads to a significant increase in hygroscopicity of grain and hardiness of plants, little effect was given treatment with zinc (30 ppm ZnSO4) and a lesser effect was observed when treating plants gibberellovaja acid (20 ppm). Potassium treatment significantly intensified the biosynthesis of free Proline, phenolic compounds and soluble proteins. When processing zinc significantly increased the content of carbohydrates in sunflower plants. Hygroscopicity showed a significant correlation with the content of free Proline (R2=0.621), phenolic compounds (R2=0.907), total carbohydrates (R2=0.673) and soluble proteins (R2=0.708). It is assumed that the treatment of plants with potassium and zinc plays a key role in increasing the hygroscopicity of grain. The results of comparative studies of frost resistance on the degree of survival of plants during freezing in cold rooms and the degree of hygroscopicity of mature grain showed that these two methods of assessing frost resistance give very close data. At the same time, in terms of simplicity and low economic costs, the proposed method of assessing frost resistance is many times superior to the method of direct freezing of plants
229 kb

GENE EXPRESSION OF ANIMALS IN THE AMINO ACID IMBALANCE Part I

abstract 0881304018 issue 88 pp. 252 – 273 30.04.2013 ru 1492
This review covers the advances of the molecular biology in the study of gene expression characteristics of animals in the amino acid imbalance
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EFFECT OF GOLD NANOPARTICLES ON SEEDS GERMINATION OF WINTER BARLEY

abstract 1271703018 issue 127 pp. 295 – 307 31.03.2017 ru 459
The article presents experimental data on the research of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with mean diameter 15 nm and 50 nm effect on seeds germination and growth of 3-day-old etiolated coleoptiles and roots. Compared with distilled water (control) initial colloidal solution of 15 nm and 50 nm GNPs (57 µg/ml) had no significant impact on seeds germination and growth of coleoptiles and roots. However, in both cases a weak tendency to stimulation of the coleoptile growth and root growth inhibition was observed. Reduction of 15 nm GNPs concentration down to 10 µg/ml and 1 µg/ml had not effect on the growth of the seedlings, but stimulated seed germination up to twofold. Similar concentrations of 50 nm GNPs exerted the stimulating effect on seed germination (twofold) and the growth of root and coleoptiles. Seedlings grew especially intensive in colloidal GNPs solution with Au concentration of 10 µg/ml. Temperature rise of 2 degrees (from 25°C to 27°C) resulted in growth increase of control 3-day-old seedlings and opposite effect of 50 nm GNPs: coleoptiles and roots growth fell behind control seedlings growth by 16-17%. However, on the 4th day, the relative growth slowdown of control seedlings occurred at 27°C and growth stimulation effect under the influence of 50 nm GNPs appeared again. Over time, the stimulating effect of 50 nm GNPs decreased: at the end of October it weakened, and in November – beginning of December, it was no observed for the roots, and there was a decline in coleoptiles growth. However, in all cases the effect of stimulation of seeds germination persisted under the influence of 50 nm GNPs, weakening by December. We hypothesize the molecular mechanisms of biological action of GNPs
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