Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Name

Babenko Olga Sergeevna

Scholastic degree

Academic rank

Honorary rank

Organization, job position

Don State Technical University
   

Web site url

Email

spu-38.2@donstu.ru


Articles count: 2

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EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATES OF PROVIDING SEED FEEDING AREAS FOR STRIP SEEDING WITH A DISC COULTER WITH A DEFLECTOR DISTRIBUTOR

abstract 1572003018 issue 157 pp. 243 – 262 31.03.2020 ru 229
An effective factor in increasing the yield of grain crops has long been considered to provide the sown seeds with the necessary nutrition area when sowing. ideally, the plant's nutrition area should be in the form of a circle with an area of 10 ...25 cm2 without overlapping with the neighboring ones. This distribution of feeding areas means an ideal spread of crops without borders and row spacing. However, in the grain production, the standard crop with a row spacing of 15 cm was spread out, where the seed distribution is artificially limited to a narrow strip where the grain feeding areas overlap. According to experts, this placement of seeds, which has developed historically, is not justified by either the experience of agricultural production or agricultural science. The availability of seeds with the necessary feeding area for row sowing is small – about 15%. At the present time, agricultural science is showing increasing interest in the technologies of ideal spread seeding. But the ideal is not yet obtained due to the lack of appropriate coulters. In these conditions, the band seeding method that closely implements the ideal multiple seeding comes to the fore. We propose a number of designs for single-disc and single-disc coulters for strip sowing, which form a fairly wide furrow up to 100 mm
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THE RATIONALE FOR THE USE OF COMBINED UNITS IN THE CULTIVATION OF WINTER WHEAT

abstract 1582004020 issue 158 pp. 280 – 288 30.04.2020 ru 284
Issues related to the use of combined aggregates in soil preparation are relevant and of scientific and practical interest. The relevance is increased when it comes to the cultivation of the main crop – winter wheat. In this regard, the presented results on the efficiency of using combined aggregates in preparing soil for winter crops are important primarily from a practical point of view. Experimental studies were conducted in the conditions of long-term stationary experience in the Federal state budgetary institution «Agrarian Science Center «Donskoy», Zernograd, Rostov region. The article considers the efficiency of using the combined unit APK-4, developed in "SKNIIMESH" now Federal state research institution of the «Agrarian Science Center «Donskoy» in the cultivation of winter wheat. The structural and technological scheme of a combined unit, the technological process of which consists of several technological operations performed at the same time, is justified. Disk working bodies crush plant residues and destroy weeds. This creates a network of cracks in the underlying soil horizons. Next, there are flat-cutting working bodies that loosen the soil to a set depth. The root system of weeds is pruned, the remaining loosened soil layer is loosened to the required depth, the formation of a smooth bottom of the "furrow", and the separation of erosive soil particles to the bottom of the furrow. Next, the roller starts working – a lump-crushing sealer, which provides crushing of soil lumps on the surface and sub-compaction of the treated layer. The last in the technological chain is a mulching roller, which provides the formation of a compacted seedbed for seeds with simultaneous mulching of the compacted soil layer. The use of the combined unit in the technology of winter wheat cultivation allowed to reduce the number of technological operations by 1,5-2,5 times, increase the productivity of winter wheat by 11-13% and the cost of production by 10,4-18,3 %
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