Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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2252 kb

ICONOGRAPHY OF WHEAT

abstract 1331709021 issue 133 pp. 240 – 262 30.11.2017 ru 88
The study of agronomy plants history, its distribution and use through image analysis and iconography have been presented. As an object of study, the image of wheat has been taken as the ancient culture of the world among agricultural plants. After many years, the illustrative series takes on a completely different meaning, namely, it becomes an independent resource of information. The analysis includes images of wheat in painting, sculpture, mosaic, tapestries, murals, botanical illustrations, stamps, porcelain and scientific drawings. In the work, we have made an attempt to analyze the images of wheat in the works of art in order to search for species diversity, directions of selection and genetic research, and also to present the morphological characteristics of culture. The method of analysis is a method of visual notes or sketches, which consists in comparing and searching information by image. The analysis is carried out on grounds: tall wheat, multiflorous forms of wheat, nonspreading, thickness of straw. The visual analysis of the images of wheat in works of art by the method of sketches made it possible to reveal the species diversity of culture along the ear, to see the ancient forms that were cultivated in the world before the "green revolution". The analysis included works of art from the 14th to the 21st century, the masters of painting in Italy, Germany, Russia, the Netherlands, France, the United States, and others
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DESIGN OF THERAPEUTIC PHAGE COCKTAILS BASED ON T4-TYPE BACTERIOPHAGES: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

abstract 1331709063 issue 133 pp. 823 – 850 30.11.2017 ru 86
In the review, the stages of designing therapeutic cocktails of T4 type bacteriophages based on works by Harald Brüssow from Nestlé S.A. (Switzerland) are considered. The main stages of this process are identified: analysis of existing cocktails, selection of phages; creating a collection; cultivation of the host bacterium, multiplication of viruses; purification of the preparation; contamination testing; preservation, stabilization and storage; preclinical and clinical trials. H. Brüssow first studied the Russian drug " Coli-Proteus bacteriophage " of "Microgen" with the help of metagenomic analysis, electron microscopy and conducted its clinical studies. Prof. Brüssow considered the advantages of T4 bacteriophages for the treatment of Escherichia coli infections. Researchers studied methods of cultivation in Erlenmeyer flasks, in a bioreactor, in disposable sack cultivators for the propagation of viruses. For its purification the chromatography, centrifugation, filtration and polyethylene glycol precipitation were studied. To quickly check the contamination of phage cocktails, a mass spectrometry method is proposed. Researchers considered basic strategies, such as lyophilization, spray drying, the formation of microcrystals and microspheres to stabilize the preparations. They also reviewed the results of clinical trials of phage cocktails. We have listed the problems of selecting T4 bacteriophages from the point of view of modern knowledge. H. Brüssow and his colleagues carried out an interesting work on the construction of phage cocktails based on T4 type bacteriophages, and also revealed the problems of the current state of phage therapy
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APPROBATION OF ISSR DNA-MARKERS FOR GENOTYPING OF GALÁNTHUS WORONOWII LOSINSK.. AND ANALYSIS OF GENETIC STABILITY OF PLANTS, OBTAINED BY IN VITRO CULTURE

abstract 1331709088 issue 133 pp. 1166 – 1178 30.11.2017 ru 95
In the course of the work, 33 ISSR markers were evaluated for efficacy in the detection of genetic changes in regenerants of Galanthus woronowii Losinsk.. Ten markers were found suitable for genotyping according to the species under study. Five samples from the selected ten were analyzed for a sample of 20 plants of regenerants and a mother plant. The obtained data testify to genetic stability of plant material in the process of microclonal propagation
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STABILIZATION OF MRNA CEREALS IN VITRO UNDER THE SILICON INFLUENCE

abstract 1321708056 issue 132 pp. 685 – 719 31.10.2017 ru 54
The differential stability of mRNA is an important mechanism for posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Messenger RNA stability is controlled by specific genes and growth conditions. The review examines the theoretical possibility of mRNA stabilization in vivo as a consequence of replacing carbon atoms (C) or phosphorus (P), composed of nucleic acid on the silicon (Si) atom. During isolation of poly-(A)+mRNA from plant tissues by the two-cycle affinity chromatography on poly-(U)-Sepharose, regular changes in poly- (A)++mRNA yield were observed. The changes varied both with the plant genotype and growth conditions. Celite treatment of heated and unheated total RNA preparations from developing corn kernels and from green and etiolated wheat seedlings. Messenger RNA that differed in the length of poly- (A)-sequences was used for hybridization. It is evident that a reduction of poly-(A)-length causes alterations in spatial structure of mRNA, and associated proteins and cations Mg++ become accessible to celite absorption. Heating promotes melting of secondary structure, already initiated, and increases the efficiency of mRNA stabilization by celite. Interpreting the facts interact celite with mRNA in vitro and stabilization of mRNA in vivo by cycloheximide with a modern point of view can be considered with the position research of the phenomenon of RNA interference
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IDENTIFICATION OF S2 AND S3 ALLELES OF SELF-INCOMPATIBILITY GENE IN CRAB APPLE AND ADVANCED BREEDING SELECTIONS

abstract 1321708084 issue 132 pp. 1076 – 1085 31.10.2017 ru 82
Industrial horticulture assumes the most effective use of the potential of varieties. One of the key factors determining the yield of garden plantings is the effectiveness of pollination. To obtain the maximum yield, it is necessary to ensure maximum pollination during the flowering period. For this reason, much attention has been paid to the selection of pollinators. Crab-apple forms are promising for use as pollinators, so this work was aimed at identifying the most common alleles of the self-incompatibility gene in the crab-forms using the molecular genetic method of analysis. The object of the study was 29 apple-tree creams and 3 elite selection forms. They carried out the molecular genetic identification of alleles S2 and S10, which are among the most common apple trees in the world gene pool. Allele S2 was identified in 16 samples (14 forms and 2 elite selection forms), while S10 allele in one sample (elite form 12/2-20 (24-28)). Data on the allelic composition of the S gene in the samples studied are of value for the formation of a genetic passport on the compatibility of the studied samples of apple with modern industrial varieties
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NUTRIENT MEDIUM FOR INDUCTION GEMMOGENESIS TO CREATE SOMATIC CLONES OF TEA PLANTS IN VITRO CULTURE

abstract 1321708100 issue 132 pp. 1258 – 1267 31.10.2017 ru 63
The article presents the first results of studies of somaclonal variability, which take place during cultivation of tea plants tissues and organs in vitro culture. As a starting material, there was used morphogenic callus, isolated from the basal part of tea microshoots, because callus increases somaclonal variability. An optimized protocol of the nutrient medium for induction gemmogenesis to product somatic clones of tea plants in vitro culture was developed. Morphogenesis calluses, initiated from the basal part of tea microshoots and subcultured on the nutrient medium with 6 – BAP – 2,5 ml + gibberellic acid – 1,0 ml + Tidiazuron – 4,0 ml + Tryptophan – 1000 mg, distinguished by high rates of induction of gemmogenesis – 63,3 %. The article studies the effect of exogenous growth regulators on morphological and growth indices of tea callus culture in vitro
365 kb

MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF CONIDIOGENESIS OF VENTURIA INAEQUALIS (COOKE) WINTER IN LABORATORY CONDITIONS

abstract 1321708106 issue 132 pp. 1310 – 1322 31.10.2017 ru 95
The pathogenic agent of apple scab disease, Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Winter, causes significant damage to the industrial production of apples. Studying the pathogen in pure culture is important for solving the theoretical and practical issues of its biology. The sporulation ability of the Venturia inaequalis laboratory culture is an important diagnostic feature in morphological culture analysis, in the test for sensitivity to fungicides, when creating a collection inoculum for an artificial infection. We have studied the morphological features of conidiogenesis of pure V. inaequalis culture, such as the location of conidiogenic structures and their form. For the first time in the laboratory culture of the pathogen, sporulation in the thickness of agar on the substrate mycelium was demonstrated. Conidiogenesis proceeded according to the blastic-annellidic type. Depending on the location of the conidiogenic structures on the aerial or substrate mycelium, their morphology was different. Conidiogenic areas in the substrate mycelium could be observed with the unaided eye, in the form of hyphal grit, while they were conidia conglomerations in each annelid. Annellide had a curved shape. On the aerial mycelium, annelids were straight and always had only one conidium. Differences in the morphology of conidiogenic structures are supposed to be related to the physical conditions of the environment in which sporulation takes place. In the agar, each mature conidium remaining at the apex of the annelid interferes with the formation of the next one, which results in its bending. The fixed arrangement of conidiogenic structures and forming conidia in the thickness of agar allows the use of substrate sporification for model studies of the conidiogenesis process
161 kb

DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMAL WAY OF OBTAINING A HYDROLYZATE OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

abstract 1321708121 issue 132 pp. 1465 – 1477 31.10.2017 ru 24
The work was carried out in the scientific-research laboratory of the chair of Biotechnology, Biochemistry and Biophysics of Kuban SAU, the aim of which is the search of optimal conditions of obtaining the hydrolyzates of lactic acid bacteria by thermoacid and enzymatic ways. The pure cultures of microflora of gastrointestinal tract of quails − Lactobacillus agilis, Lactobacillus intermedius and Lactobacillus salivarius were the object of researches. Under conducting the thermal acid hydrolysis there were used the same correlations of bacterial mass and water as well as procedures of clearing of hydrolyzates. The variable conditions were рН, temperature and time of hydrolysis. When carrying out the enzymatic hydrolysis in this study there was used the enzyme from the group of muramidase lysozyme. The amount of enzymes and time of carried out hydrolysis were the variable conditions under obtaining the enzymatic hydrolyzates. In the process of researches there were studied: qualitative content of total protein, peptides with М.м. < 1500, protein and peptides with M.m. > 1500, aminoacids and as well as GMDP (glucosaminilmuramilpentapeptide). On the basis of carried out experiments there was stated that according to all components of biologically active substances the thermal acid way is more effective than enzymatic. The maximum accumulation of BAA in hydrolyzates by different ways was revealed at destruction of cells Lb. intermedius. Content of GMDP in thermal acid hydrolyzate was higher than in enzymatic on 0,028 g/100 ml (51,8 %)
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CATALOGING IMAGES OF DANDELION (TARAXACUM OFFICINALE WIGG.) WITH FASCIATION

abstract 1311707014 issue 131 pp. 142 – 153 29.09.2017 ru 153
The phenomenon of fasciation on the example of a higher plant called “Taraxacum officinale Wigg” has been considered. The effect of fasciation on the various particularities of plants has been shown. There are numerous examples of the different fasciation types of present plant’s type which are growing in different ecological areas. We have demonstrated that the phenomenon of fasciation exists in natural populations and in areas with development pressures, and it may occur after mechanical damage to plants of Taraxacum officinale. In most cases, fasciation is regarded as an exceptional phenomenon. A number of authors have distinguished fasciation to non-inheritable and inheritable. The first is the influence of external factors such as insect damage, injury, weather conditions. The second is caused by internal reasons. The number of regularities was installed that the reproductive bodies of plants are more often fascinated, and thermophilic forms are more likely to have fasciation. Photographic images of various types of fasciation, patterns and diagrams are given. Fasciation can be considered as a marker because of the connection of this phenomenon with the violation of the ecological situation. Plants with morphoses including ones with fasciation of individual organs, can act as indicators of pollution of the natural environment. Thus, the phenomenon of fasciation affects many areas of science, such as ecology, morphogenesis, genetic monitoring. The possibility of studying the phenomenon of fasciation on a model object of dandelion is shown. As a methodical approach to the study of this phenomenon, it is proposed to create a database of images, in this way it would be cataloging the image
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SEGREGATION OF THE PLANT HEIGHT AT INTERSUBSPECIES HYBRIDS OF THE SECOND GENERATION RICE

abstract 1311707018 issue 131 pp. 191 – 197 29.09.2017 ru 154
The article presents the results of the genetic analysis of the trait ‘plant height’ for six crosses involving the forms related to different subspecies of rice. There have been estimated the types of inheritance and a number of genes, which assist to determine this quantitative trait. We have found out that the variance of the trait ‘plant height’ is determined by 3-5 pairs of genes having additive and dominant activities and the degree of dominance reduces in case the variance among parental forms increases. The non-allelic interaction of the genes of the initial forms produces transgressive dwarf and tall forms. The cross ‘Lampo’x’Virazh’ showed the highest degree of transgression in ‘plant height’ due to short height of both parental forms (61.7%), but the frequency of transgression was larger than that of the cross ‘Lampo’x’Komandor’(17.6%). This combination (‘Lampo’x’Komandor’) produced more tall forms (up to 135 cm). The segregation of a great number of tall forms into F2 testifies that the parental forms of these hybrids vary in the allelic state of several pairs of genes, whose various combinations form phenotypes with a longer stem. Thus, the semi-dwarf feature of the varieties ‘Lampo’, ‘Komandor’ and ‘Virazh’ is determined by various non-allelic genes
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