Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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1914 kb

CATALOGING IMAGES OF DANDELION (TARAXACUM OFFICINALE WIGG.) WITH FASCIATION

abstract 1311707014 issue 131 pp. 142 – 153 29.09.2017 ru 5
The phenomenon of fasciation on the example of a higher plant called “Taraxacum officinale Wigg” has been considered. The effect of fasciation on the various particularities of plants has been shown. There are numerous examples of the different fasciation types of present plant’s type which are growing in different ecological areas. We have demonstrated that the phenomenon of fasciation exists in natural populations and in areas with development pressures, and it may occur after mechanical damage to plants of Taraxacum officinale. In most cases, fasciation is regarded as an exceptional phenomenon. A number of authors have distinguished fasciation to non-inheritable and inheritable. The first is the influence of external factors such as insect damage, injury, weather conditions. The second is caused by internal reasons. The number of regularities was installed that the reproductive bodies of plants are more often fascinated, and thermophilic forms are more likely to have fasciation. Photographic images of various types of fasciation, patterns and diagrams are given. Fasciation can be considered as a marker because of the connection of this phenomenon with the violation of the ecological situation. Plants with morphoses including ones with fasciation of individual organs, can act as indicators of pollution of the natural environment. Thus, the phenomenon of fasciation affects many areas of science, such as ecology, morphogenesis, genetic monitoring. The possibility of studying the phenomenon of fasciation on a model object of dandelion is shown. As a methodical approach to the study of this phenomenon, it is proposed to create a database of images, in this way it would be cataloging the image
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SEGREGATION OF THE PLANT HEIGHT AT INTERSUBSPECIES HYBRIDS OF THE SECOND GENERATION RICE

abstract 1311707018 issue 131 pp. 191 – 197 29.09.2017 ru 5
The article presents the results of the genetic analysis of the trait ‘plant height’ for six crosses involving the forms related to different subspecies of rice. There have been estimated the types of inheritance and a number of genes, which assist to determine this quantitative trait. We have found out that the variance of the trait ‘plant height’ is determined by 3-5 pairs of genes having additive and dominant activities and the degree of dominance reduces in case the variance among parental forms increases. The non-allelic interaction of the genes of the initial forms produces transgressive dwarf and tall forms. The cross ‘Lampo’x’Virazh’ showed the highest degree of transgression in ‘plant height’ due to short height of both parental forms (61.7%), but the frequency of transgression was larger than that of the cross ‘Lampo’x’Komandor’(17.6%). This combination (‘Lampo’x’Komandor’) produced more tall forms (up to 135 cm). The segregation of a great number of tall forms into F2 testifies that the parental forms of these hybrids vary in the allelic state of several pairs of genes, whose various combinations form phenotypes with a longer stem. Thus, the semi-dwarf feature of the varieties ‘Lampo’, ‘Komandor’ and ‘Virazh’ is determined by various non-allelic genes
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THE REDUCING SUGARS CONTENT AND Β- GLYCOSIDES ACTIVITY IN NONNUCLEAR CHLOROPHYLL MUTANTS OF SUNFLOWER

abstract 1311707040 issue 131 pp. 462 – 471 29.09.2017 ru 5
In the Southern Federal University on the genetic basis of sunflower inbred line 3629, a collection of plastid mutants with varying degrees of chlorophyll deficiency was created by inducing Nnitrosomethylurea. Chlorophyll content was associated with their photosynthetic activity. It was found that the lower the chlorophylls content in mutant plastids, the lower the sugar concentration in plant tissues. For example, during the entire period of plant growth for whites (1.0-3.0 % chlorophylls a+b from control) var- 10, var-17 and yellows (6.0-9.5 % chlorophylls a+b from control) var-29, var-33 leaf areas of variegated mutants depending on the development phase and the content of green pigments are characterized by a low (2-7 fold) sugar content. Yellow-green (75.5% chlorophylls a + b from control) leaves of en:chlorina- 7 contain a higher level of carbohydrates, although it is 1.5-2 fold lower than at line 3629. Monosaccharides are products of hydrolytic reactions catalyzed by β- glycosidases. It was shown, that the activity level of β- galactosidase and β-glucosidase exceeded the corresponding indicators of the control at 1.5-2 and 2-7 fold, respectively. Similarly to enzymes from the water-soluble fraction, membrane-bound β- glycosidases also showed increased activity in the leaves of the investigated mutants, compared to the control green plants of 3629. Consequently, the activity of β-glycosidases increases dramatically in leaf tissues with deficiency of photosynthetic. Thus, chlorophyll mutations can lead to a change in the expression of nuclear genes, resulting in a significant increase in the activity of β-glycosidases in the mutant organelles themselves
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RESULTS OF INTRODUCTION OF SPECIES OF FAMILY CAPRIFOLIACEAE JUSS. IN SFedU BOTANICAL GARDEN

abstract 1311707053 issue 131 pp. 616 – 631 29.09.2017 ru 4
The results of the introductory test of 22 species of the family Caprifoliaceae from 5 genera are analyzed: Abelia R. Br. (1 species), Diervilla Mill. (1 species), Kolkwitzia Graebn., Lonicera L. (15 species), Symphoricarpos Ducham. (2 species), Weigela Thunb. (2 species) in the Botanical Garden of SFedU. The estimation of ecological-biological properties, of degree of naturalization is given, of phenological development, of age status, of decorative longevity of these species. It has been established that 17 species have high winter hardiness: Kolkwitzia amabilis; Lonicera caprifolium, L. coerulea, L. chrysantha, L. demissa, L. dioica, L. ferdinandii, L. gracilipes, L. × heckrotii, L. japonica, L. morrowii, L. tatarica, L. × tellmanniana, L. trichosantha, Symphoricarpos hesperius and S. occidentalis, Weigela praecox; drought-resistant: Abelia × grandiflora, Kolkwitzia amabilis; Diervilla rivularis, Lonicera acuminata, L. caprifolium, L. confusa, L. chrysantha, L. demissa, L. ferdinandii, L. × heckrotii, L. japonica, L. morrowii, L. tatarica, L. × tellmanniana, L. trichosantha, Symphoricarpos hesperius and S. occidentalis, Weigela floribunda; medium-drought-resistant: Lonicera coerulea, L. dioica, L. gracilipes, Weigela praecox. Period of preservation of decorative qualities in plant ontogeny: Abelia × grandiflora - not less than 10 years; Diervilla rivularis, Lonicera dioica, Weigela praecox - 15-20 years; Lonicera demissa, L. gracilipes, Weigela floribunda - 20-25 years; Lonicera acuminata, L. caprifolium, L. coerulea, L. confuse, L. chrysantha, L. etrusca, L. ferdinandii, L. × heckrotii, L. japonica, L. morrowii, L. tatarica, L. × tellmanniana, species of Symphoricarpos – 25-30 years, Kolkwitzia amabilis – 30–35 years, Lonicera trichosantha 35–40 years
151 kb

SMALL MAMMALS OF THE TAMAN PENINSULA

abstract 1311707059 issue 131 pp. 700 – 708 29.09.2017 ru 5
In the present study, fauna of small mammals of the Taman Peninsula is analyzed. It is shown that the complex of rodents and insectivores inhabiting the study area differs considerably from the adjacent continental areas and is an isolate. Structure of its fauna and population resembles that of the steppe parts of Crimea and, at the same time, North-West NearCaspian areas. Analyses of variation of the D-loop regions of mtDNA in yellow-bellied mouse Sylvaemus witherbyi, as well as certain peculiarities of the species diversity, show the priority of faunal and genetic connections of the Taman Peninsula’s mammal fauna with the North-West Near-Caspian one
295 kb

ДНК-ПАСПОРТИЗАЦИЯ СОВРЕМЕННЫХ РОССИЙСКИХ СОРТОВ РИСА С ПРИМЕНЕНИЕМ SSR-МАРКЕРОВ

abstract 1311707065 issue 131 pp. 772 – 782 29.09.2017 ru 4
In the presented study, we have performed genotyping of modern Russian rice cultivars using microsatellite DNA-markers. The markers showed different level of allelic polymorphism: from 2 to 8 alleles per locus. For all studied cultivars,unique DNA-fingerprints were obtained
251 kb

ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN STATE OF THE GROUND VEGETATION IN THE TERRITORY OF SOKOLOV OIL WELLS IN THE ASTRAKHAN REGION

abstract 1311707086 issue 131 pp. 1046 – 1055 29.09.2017 ru 6
The article shows the direct impact of oil pollution on morphometric parameters and external a large burdock broadleaf and camel spines ordinary. The object of the study is Sokolovsky oil wells in the Astrakhan region. Vegetation is very sensitive to violations environment and most visually reflects the changing ecological situation territory as a result of anthropogenic impact. Petroleum products concentration of 8100 mg / kg leads to a decrease some morphometric indicators plants and deterioration of their external condition. The results of content research oil products in the soil showed that the maximum values of this indicator at the end of the oil wells (near rescue station), which was more than 8 ODK, the minimum - in control, in the region beach (0.1 ODK), at all other points. The indices were within the norm (1000 mg / kg). In the location of the oil there were 10 terrestrial plant species. We have studied plant territories using the following parameters: root length, thickness, the length of the above-ground part
1441 kb

VASILY NOSULCHAK - THE NEWEST COMPLEX-RESISTANT TABLE SEEDLESS WHITE GRAPE VARIETY

abstract 1311707103 issue 131 pp. 1248 – 1270 29.09.2017 ru 5
Vasily Nosulchak, the newest complex-resistant tableless seedless grape variety, was bred in Greece by Pantelei Zamanidi and Leonid Troshin in 2013 by crossing the Talisman variety with the Yanaky variety. The created variety is a complex inter-species Euro-American-Amur hybrid. The duration of the production period is 146-155 days. The growth of shoots is strong. The degree of grapevine maturing high. Yield is very high. Percentage of fruit-bearing shoots 90. Average weight of bunches 900 g. It is stainable for high winter hardiness, drought resistance and increased resistance to fungal diseases, tolerant to phylloxera. The top of the young shoot is green without pubescence. Young shoots are green, without pubescence. The flower is hermaphroditic. The cluster is large, conical, branching, winged, of medium density. The berry is medium-sized, short elliptical, green-yellow. Peel is thin, strong. The pulp is juicy, with a varietal flavor. The sugar content is high. Rudiments of seeds are soft. The variety is intended for fresh consumption and kishmish production. The table high-yielding seedless variety Vasiliy Nosulchak in terms of winter hardiness, resistance to diseases and pests significantly exceeds all Eurasian varieties of table and kishmish designation. Can be used as a table grapevine for fresh consumption on site and for export, as well as for the production of high-quality dried products. As a winter-hardy variety, it is very promising for cultivation in covered viticulture zones, where table varieties require shelter for the winter. It is of great interest for selection work in breeding frost-resistant, diseases and pests of seedless varieties. To determine the influence of different ecological conditions on the growth, development, quantity and quality of the crop, the variety must be tested on all continents in different ecological and geographical areas of cultivation - in the grapes producing countries of America, Eurasia, Australia, Africa
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ARTIFICIAL SCAB RESISTANCE EVALUATION OF MALUS ORIETALIS FORMS – A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF NEW GENES FOR RESISTANCE TO APPLE SCAB

abstract 1311707113 issue 131 pp. 1377 – 1388 29.09.2017 ru 4
Professional apple gardening is bound to particular risks, of which is essential losses of a harvest because of diseases. An apple scab, the caused Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) G. Winter, brings the greatest loss. The main approach in monitoring of a scab of an apple-tree is creation of grades, steady against pathogen. In the present work we have carried out phytopathology testing of generations of the seedlings received from the free pollination of six forms of a crab of Malus orientalis from a collection MOS VIR (Maykop) characterized by a relative resistance to the apple scab in 2-3 classes of damage by long-term data. For infection we used inoculum, consisting both of natural population of a scab, and of strains of pathogen of various cultivars and geographical origin. When carrying out padding infection increase in force of an infectious background that can be bound to selection of the plants of biotypes of a fungus that are most adapted for genotypes was noted. It is recommended for precise elimination of unstable plants at selection at early stages of an ontogenesis to carry out more than one serial infection during the season. By results of the phytopathological testing, we highlighted three Malus orientalis forms from the six studied No. 17982, 17985 and 3080 the most perspective stability genes for an introgressiya in a cultural gene pool of an apple tree
327 kb

DISTRIBUTION AND VARIABILITY OF MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS OF CENTAUREA DAGHESTANICA (LIPSKY) CZER

abstract 1311707122 issue 131 pp. 1470 – 1485 29.09.2017 ru 5
The distribution and variability of features of the endemic of flora Eastern Caucasus Centaurea daghestanica (Lipsky) Czer. were given in this article. Eleven locations of the species are detected and three of them are new ones. C. daghestanica grows in the lower and middle mountain belts from 400 to 1250 m above sea level. In the lower belt, the species is found on clayey areas of the solonchak valley of Kar-Kar and the limestone slopes adjoining the valley, on average on shale screes and stony slopes. Three populations of the C. daghestanica we studied. Species composition on the investigated sites was determined, and a geobotanical description is carried out. Project coverage of C. daghestanica in the studied populations varies within 2–5%. By generative individuals of different ages were represented mainly populations. One generative shoot from 30 individuals in each population was taken to reveal the variability of the generative shoot structure, on which 13 traits were taken into account. The degree of variability of the morphological features of C. daghestanica shoot is different, the influence of the altitude level on them is not the same. The annual shoot of C. daghestanica has an average of 3-5 branches of the first order. Branches of all levels are located at the bottom of the shoot
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