Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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151 kb

DYNAMICS OF MACRO AND MICRO ELEMENTS UNDER WINTER WHEAT AS A RESULT OF REMINERALIZATION OF LEACHED BLACK SOIL

abstract 1281704007 issue 128 pp. 135 – 145 28.04.2017 ru 30
Remineralization of leached chernozem was carried out by applying such rocks as loess-like loam, shell limestone, apatite phosphogypsum. We have revealed that the introduction of species didn’t change substantially the content of boron during the growing season. We have also displayed the seasonal dynamics of macro variants of the experiment and the increase in the content of food items in the phase of active growth of winter wheat. Seasonal dynamics of trace elements is expressed, but can not be expressed with certain regularity
191 kb

POULTRY MANURE AND ITS USE AS AN ORGANIC FERTILIZER

abstract 1281704061 issue 128 pp. 913 – 930 28.04.2017 ru 28
We have conducted a research on the poultry farm of the commodity farm of the educational and experimental farm Kuban of the Kuban State Agrarian University. The chemical analysis of various organic fertilizers is considered in the article. Also agrochemical characteristics of organic fertilizers are given. The composition and properties of the bird droppings of the farm under study were determined for comparison with other organic fertilizers: manure of cattle and pig manure. Since straw is used as the main moisture-absorbing material for composting in the farm under study, straw analyzes were carried out in terms of chemical composition and nutritional content. A chemical analysis of the content of plant nutrients in straw has been carried out. Bird droppings is valuable, a fast full fertilizer. Of all organic fertilizers, bird droppings are the most valuable, both in nutrient content and in their accessibility to plants. The nutrient content in the litter varies depending on the species of the bird, the breed, the age, the method of keeping and feeding, the type of feed and other factors. The chicken manure contains morephosphorus, nitrogen and potassium, than manure of cattle and pigs. The advantage of organic fertilizers in comparison with mineral fertilizers is their long after-effect. As fertilizer a bird droppings surpasses manure at 8-10 times and almost don't concede to equal amount of nutrients of mineral fertilizers by action on productivity of cultures. The norm of introduction of bird droppings is up to 30 times lower, than norm of introduction of manure. Agricultural areas where introduction of organic fertilizers, the list of crops under which fertilizers are introduced were considered. The received results confirm the value of organic fertilizers (bird droppings), and their application enriches the soil with necessary nutrients, increases productivity and quality of grown-up crops
230 kb

CORRELATION AMONG QUANTITATIVE TRAITS OF SORGHUM GRAIN

abstract 1281704062 issue 128 pp. 931 – 940 28.04.2017 ru 31
At present, the farmers have to develop varieties and hybrids, which fully meet the requirements of agricultural production. The study of correlation among economic-valuable characteristics of grain sorghum is of great importance nowadays, as it allows optimizing plant-breeding work at its early stages. For a more productive process of developing of the initial material in breeding, it is necessary to determine the correlation among the traits to identify the strongest connections, and to conduct further work, based on the obtained data. Knowing the correlation, the estimation of timeconsuming economic trait can be replaced by the assessment of the simpler trait correlated with it. The article presents the analysis of correlation among various traits of grain sorghum. The degree and direction of the correlation have been estimated. The significant effect of the length of vegetation period on many traits has been seen. There have been also mentioned the characteristics, having an influence on a size and a number of kernels per panicle. There is a positive correlation between a size of panicle and dimensions of a leaf (length, width). Along with it there has been found a positive correlation among linier dimensions of a panicle, length and width of a leaf, a number of leaves with a number of kernels per panicle. While studying the correlation between an extension of a panicle with other traits, there has been noted a negative correlation between a length of vegetation period, length and width of a leaf, but there has been found a positive correlation with plant height. There has been found a positive effect of 1000-kernel weight, a number of kernels per panicle, a number of leaves and their dimensions on the formation of kernel weight per panicle
389 kb

YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY OF THE WINTER WHEAT IN THE CONDITIONS OF INSUFFICIENT HUMIDIFYING IN KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1281704067 issue 128 pp. 984 – 1002 28.04.2017 ru 19
The influence of the predecessor and different doses of mineral fertilizers on the yield and the quality of the winter wheat cultivar ‘Krasnodar 99’ were investigated. Investigations were carried out in the North-Kuban Agricultural Experiment Station in two ten- course crop-rotations: grain plowing and grain - grass plowing (stationary experience). The soil is the black soil, low in humus, powerful, with humus content 3,95-4,00%, depending on the nutrition in the arable soil layer (0-30sm), mineral nitrogen is 5,9-8,3 mg / kg of soil, exchangeable potassium is 330-360 mg / kg of soil. It was found that the maximum value of the winter wheat crop structure elements is noticed in the fertilizer systems with complete mineral fertilizer, and the minimum value - with PK and NK. Winter wheat yield depends on the crop rotation of 8-15%; from its predecessor - 15-18% and 27-31% of the fertilizer. The protein content was mainly determined by the fertilizer dose. Enhanced and high doses of fertilizers contributed to an increase in the protein content to 12%.A strong correlation between protein content, agronomic methods and precipitation was determined
329 kb

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION COMPARISON OF DRIED TOBACCOS OBTAINED FROM DIFFERENT HYBRIDS, SORTS AND LINES

abstract 1281704068 issue 128 pp. 1003 – 1013 28.04.2017 ru 11
Tasting and smoking properties of tobacco products depend on chemical composition of dried tobacco. The most important are nicotine, carbohydrates, and proteins. Their content is controlled when new sorts are bred. In the article data on chemical composition and their analysis for some hybrids, new and zoned sorts are presented. Most of studied samples had medium nicotine content in dried tobacco. Hybrid of Jubileiniy noviy 142 and Ostrolist 46, sorts: Trapezond 159, 359, 115 and Ostrolist 46 were characterized as low nicotine tobaccos. Jubileiniy (standard) and Oktiabrskii were characterized as high nicotine tobaccos. This indicator depends on rain quantity during vegetation period. During drought seasons this indicator is higher. Total soluble carbohydrates content affects smoke taste. The more water soluble carbohydrates content the better smoking properties tobacco has. Unlike nicotine, carbohydrates content when rainy season increases. Best results were for Krupnolistniy 9M and Oktiabrskii. Proteins have negative effect on smoke taste as it becomes bitter and with smell of burned feathers. Most of studied hybrids have quite high protein content. For cured tobacco quality assessment, not total contents of proteins and carbohydrates are important but their ratio (carbohydrates/proteins) called Shmuk ratio. Best results were for Krupnolistniy 9M and Oktiabrskii
164 kb

DEPENDENCE OF VALUABLE TRAITS OF CONFECTIONERY SUNFLOW SEEDS ON POPULATION DENSITY

abstract 1281704072 issue 128 pp. 1051 – 1059 28.04.2017 ru 12
Development of confectionery sunflower openpollinated varieties (OP-varieties) is a prospect direction in sunflower breeding. High price level for confectionery sunflower seeds pushes forward the breeding program. The aim of our work is to study dependence of main valuable confectionery seed characteristics from plant density and to identify sunflower samples, which decrease seed size at minimum level under high plant density. The study was done at All-Russia Oil Crops Research Institute (VNIIMK) named by V.S. Pustovoit (Krasnodar) in 2015 and 2016. Seeds of different biotypes of OP sunflower variety called Dzhinn were used as a material. Samples were sown with 2 replications. Every plot had 1 row. The highest yield of OP variety Dzhinn was obtain under plant density 60 000 plants per ha. 1000-seeds weight decreased with increasing plant density up to 60 000 plants per ha. Prospect for future breeding samples were identified which not decrease the level of valuable traits under higher plant density
194 kb

FINAL INDICATORS OF VALUABLE PROPERTIES FOR NEW TOBACCO SORTS (FOR FIVE YEAR PERIOD)

abstract 1281704091 issue 128 pp. 1294 – 1308 28.04.2017 ru 13
Basic aim of institute’s breeding is to keep, renew and increase selection and genetic resources of Nicotiana tabacum. Final stages of this work are competitive and state sort testing procedures. Their results are base for zoning new sorts. In the article, the results on testing 8 new tobacco sorts of Trapezond and Ostrolist sort type are presented. Testing on experimental field situated in Severskii district of the Krasnodar region lasted for five years. For this purpose, phenological observations, biometric and technological properties measuring, plant productivity and dried tobacco quality assessments and other operations were carried. As the result, Trapezond 25, Ostrolist 360 and Sheptalskii 63 sorts may be recommended for zoning and utilizing in industry. Trapezond 25 and Sheptalskii 63 are sorts with high productivity, high quality of dried tobacco and good curing properties. Ostrolist 360 when earlymiddle maturing keeps high productivity and quality of cured tobacco. Other sorts: Trapezond 115, Ostrolist 311, Ostrolist 149, Ostrolist 90, Krupnolistniy 22 can be initial material for further selection
762 kb

EROSION ZONING OF THE TERRITORY OF THE BRYANSK REGION: THE EXPERIENCE AND CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS

abstract 1281704092 issue 128 pp. 1309 – 1319 28.04.2017 ru 14
The article analyzes the experience of zoning of territory of the Bryansk region on the main factors of erosion to select the measures to combat it. The Bryansk region in its present borders, mainly representing the middle course of the Desna river, has been considered safe in relation to erosion. The existing zoning is based on the quantitative characteristics of the processes of erosion that primarily allowed us to assess the scale of their impact on nature and the region's economy. The erosion zoning was performed on the basis of the map of erosion-prone land. As a result of study and analysis of all natural factors of erosion and land of the region under study the regularities of distribution of land erosion and intensity of spring rainfall and soil erosion are detected. Under the leadership of Filin V. I., a survey of the ravines of the region was conducted and made the scheme of erosion zoning, according to which the region is divided into three areas. It is noteworthy Horinas E. V. research. When divided into areas it was taken into consideration the need for each of them specific actions to combat the causes and consequences of erosion in relation to the peculiarities of the latter in each district. According to the intensity of the erosion processes and physico-geographical zoning of the Bryansk region and the nature of agricultural land use, specialists of the Bryansk branch of the Institute "Rosgiprozem" produced erosion zoning of the territory of the region, which highlighted seven erosion regions. From the variety of methods for zoning, the most appropriate in our view are created, based on the estimated small-scale (medium-scale) maps of erosion of land, capable of performing the function diagrams of erosion zoning
163 kb

GENETIC ANALYSIS OF TRAITS INHERITANCE IN DEVELOPMENT OF COLD TOLERANT RICE VARIETIES FOR THE CONDITIONS OF RUSSIAN RICE-GROWING

abstract 1281704093 issue 128 pp. 1320 – 1332 28.04.2017 ru 12
Hybridization was performed for nine hybrid combinations between Russian early-ripening varieties Novator and Serpantin and South Korean cold-tolerant introduced samples Odaebueo и Tinbubueo. As a result, 283 hybrid caryopses in eight combinations were obtained, which were later studied in growing conditions. Study of trait inheritance in F1 hybrids was conducted, heterosis effect of studied hybrid populations was determined by productivity and individual elements of yield structure, using indicators of the degree of phenotypic dominance (hp) of quantitative traits. Significant variability in agronomic traits of F1 hybrids was determined. The manifestation of heterosis in productivity was noted in combination Odaebueo / Tinbubueo, in which super dominance was observed by all the studied traits forming productivity, in the hybrid progeny. Using the "halves method", analysis for cold resistance of 227 F2 plants in eight hybrid populations was performed. Seven lines with increased resistance to low positive temperatures during germination were identified in five hybrid combinations, which is 3% of the studied material. It is shown that in breeding for cold resistance as mother plants in hybridization it is necessary to use rice varieties (samples) that are resistant to low positive temperatures during germination, and as paternal - more productive varieties, adapted to soil and climatic conditions of rice growing area of the Krasnodar Region
243 kb

THE PRODUCTIVITY OF PERENNIAL GRASS HERBAGE IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER DURING THE VEGETATION PERIOD

abstract 1271703014 issue 127 pp. 246 – 259 31.03.2017 ru 114
The article is devoted to the estimation of the dependence of perennial grass herbage’s productivity on the dose and distribution of nitrogen fertilizers during the vegetation, as well as from the dynamics of the species composition by years of use. It was revealed that for cocksfoot-timothy grass mixture an increase in the rate of nitrogen fertilizer for every 10 kg of active ingredient leads to an increase of yield by 0.27 tons/ha. The selection of components of grass mixtures and rational fertilizer doses forms the herbage which provides a yield of about 7,0-12,0 tons/ha of dry mass and 58,1-99,6 GJ of energy exchange. It is established that competitive relations in grass mixtures are exacerbated with increasing doses of fertilizers. The timothy grass develops successfully in a mixture with the cocksfoot with a low level of mineral nutrition (N80). A high level of mineral nutrition speeds up the formation of single-species herbage - the cocksfoot. Meadow fescue grass provides sustainable yields on medium and high backgrounds of mineral fertilizers in combination with the cocksfoot. Recommendations for a nitrogen dose of more than 200 kg per hectare for fertilizing mixed grass crops with the cocksfoot and about 100 kg per hectare for clover-cereals mixtures without cocksfoot are suggested
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