Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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165 kb

MODERN STATUS AND TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT OF GRAIN PRODUCTION IN THE REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA)

abstract 1331709007 issue 133 pp. 64 – 71 30.11.2017 ru 11
The article considers the current state of production of grain crops in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). The analysis of gross collection, structural shifts, sowing area and yield of grain crops over the past five years is being carried out. Also, the application of mineral and organic fertilizers to crops of cereals is being investigated, since their application is of great importance for obtaining high and stable harvests of grain crops. Based on the results of the analysis, conclusions were drawn and ways of development of grain production in the republic were outlined
237 kb

PLANT HEIGHT AND LODGING RESISTANCE OF COLLECTION VARIETIES OF WINTER BARLEY

abstract 1331709015 issue 133 pp. 160 – 172 30.11.2017 ru 14
Lodging resistant is a very important factor of limitation of the yield of barley. The yield of lodged crops may be decreased up to 50%. The quality of the yield also deteriorates which negatively affects brewery characteristics. The lodging resistance of a variety is determined genetically and depends on a plant height and weather conditions during dynamic vegetation. One of the main aims of breeding of the crop for lodging resistance is the selection of short-stem varieties. However, a thorough study of the basic material and determination of its adaptability to a particular soil and climatic zone and suitability of its usage as parental forms are needed. The article covers the plant height of collection varieties of winter barley in the central zone of Krasnodar region and determines the groups of the varieties based on this trait. The dynamic of plant height formation depending on the vegetative conditions during five years is studied. The examination of lodging resistance of winter barley revealed that there are many non-lodging forms of the crop. New local varieties and lines have short and strong culms. Also, some varieties from Western Europe and the USA show its good lodging resistance under these conditions
492 kb

DETERMINATION OF CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF SEEDS OF GRAPEVINE ON THE GROWTH POWER IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SOUTHERN COAST OF CRIMEA

abstract 1331709018 issue 133 pp. 196 – 205 30.11.2017 ru 10
The influence of growth, its ripened part and the diameter of the vine at the base of the shoot on the growth power of 922 seedlings of 55 combinations of crosses in 2011 and 2012 was studied (planting scheme 3 x 1 m), seedlings of grapes of the second and third years of vegetation in the field conditions of the Southern coast of Crimea. The mean vine maturation for all populations was 64.7%, the diameter at the base of the shoots was 3.3 mm. After pruning to reverse growth, in the third year of vegetation of seedlings (2014), the length of growth of shoots increased significantly and the average for populations it became 73.3 cm. The coefficient of variation increased, 26%, - it acquired the character of a significant deviation from the general population. This happened because the seedlings, which had a vine growth less than 25 cm in the second year of vegetation, had a growth of only 35 cm in the third year, whereas in all seedlings that had a growth of more than 30 cm, in the following year shoots increased almost 1, 5 and 2 times more. Formulas are proposed for estimating the growth force of seedlings according to the 9-score scale OIV (OIV)
215 kb

OPTIMIZATION OF STRUCTURE OF SOWING AREAS AT APPLICATION OF METHODS OF MATHEMATICAL DESIGN FOR TERMS OF FOREST-STEPPE OF WESTERN SIBERIA

abstract 1331709022 issue 133 pp. 263 – 274 30.11.2017 ru 2
Alternation of crops, will remain a fundamental element of zonal technologies of their cultivation for a long time. Application of methods of mathematical model operation will allow to come to new level in the solution of the questions of effective use of an arable land, through application of models optimizing it. Results of researches which basis data of long-term observations are will be especially valuable. They used data of the long-lived stationary experiments on studying of alternation of crops in crop rotations of last more than five rotation. Stationary experiences are located in a forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia on the fields FGBNU "SIBNIISKH". The purpose of researches consisted in optimization of use of an arable land at application of methods of mathematical model operation for preservation of soil fertility. The model allowing when performing particular conditions is given in work (balance of a humus, work expense, a metabolic cost, etc.) to optimize use of an arable land against the background of preservation of soil fertility of the soil, receiving production, economic and power efficiency. It is shown that at alternation of grain crops with clear steam, formation of a harvest happens due to natural fertility of the soil what the negative balance of a humus which reaches 0,18 – 0,78 tons from hectare testifies to. At alternation of field cultures without clear steam the harvest was formed against the background of reproduction of organic matter of the soil, due to increase in vegetable oddments from use of fertilizers, the balance of a humus was positive – 0,15 – 0,28 tons from hectare. Use along with clear steam, busy steam, colza on green fertilizer, and also straw as organic fertilizer for grain crops, 2,01 tons from hectare of commodity grain were received, at a share of clear steam – 16,8%, busy steam – 11%, summer grain – 72,2% of arable land. Increasing in crop rotations of West Siberian Square with use as organic fertilizer of straw, busy vapors and green fertilizers, it is possible to achieve reproduction of fertility of the soil with some decrease in an exit of commodity grain to 2 tons from hectare
148 kb

THE FORMATION AND QUALITY OF MEAT OF CATTLE BREEDING AND POULTRY FARMING

abstract 1331709026 issue 133 pp. 310 – 319 30.11.2017 ru 2
In order to ensure import substitution and threshold values of meat production, it is necessary to stabilize the livestock of animals and introduce intensive technologies. In conditions of arid steppes, the animals of Kalmyk, Hereford and Aberdeen-Angus breeds are best suited to stall-pasture technology. Before weaning from mothers at 7-8 months of age, their offspring is grown without additional feeding, just mothers’ milk. Therefore, the growth rate of suckling young animals rarely exceeds 850 grams of daily growth, while the live weight reaches 400-450 kilograms at the age of 18 months, with some advantage in favor of the young generation of Hereford breed. Using the intensive 9- months growing at the fattening complex with feeding from the self-feeders ensured the average daily gain in the Kalmyk bull-calves at the level of 1398 grams, and for the Aberdeen-Angus and Hereford breeds the growth is 1533 grams. The highest growth energy, live weight (661 kilograms), was with Hereford bulls. From bulls of the native Kalmyk breed with intensive technology of growing, a heavy body weight increase of 331 kilograms at 18 months of age was obtained. All tested samples of meat according to microbiological indicators comply with the requirements of the Technical Regulations
142 kb

NEW GROWTH REGULATORS AND ANTIDOTES FOR ENVIRONMENT-FRIENDLY PLANT PROTECTION

abstract 1331709037 issue 133 pp. 475 – 485 30.11.2017 ru 4
Searching for new promising plant growth regulators and antidotes, we have synthesized a series of Nsubstituted naphthalene-2-sulfonylamides. Synthesized compounds have been studied as potential growth regulators of economically significant crops - winter wheat, sugar beet, sunflower, soybean, and herbicide antidotes for sunflower growing plants. The substances with high growth stimulating and antidote effect were found
159 kb

EFFICIENCY OF THE FERTILIZER SYSTEM IN THE TECHNOLOGY OF EMPOWERMENT OF WINTER WHEAT

abstract 1331709039 issue 133 pp. 498 – 504 30.11.2017 ru 5
Winter wheat is very demanding on the nutrient regime of the soil. Like many winter crops, it consumes the nutrients unevenly distributed during the vegetation period, which must be considered when making them. Modern varieties of winter wheat are very demanding to soil fertility. For the formation of 4,0-4,5 t/ha requires about 140 kg of nitrogen, 50 kg phosphorus and 120 kg potassium. Therefore, without the use of fertilizers, it is not possible to obtain such a crop with high grain quality. In addition, in the cultivation of winter wheat in the high and intensive technologies simply need using large amounts of fertilizer to compensate for the removal of nutrients. This is especially important when having partial or complete reduction of application of organic fertilizers. Therefore, we consider the possibility and the results of studies using different doses, combinations and types of fertilizers in technology of winter wheat cultivation. Experimental studies were carried out in the conditions of insufficient and unstable moistening of southern zone of Rostov region, on experimental fields of the federal state scientific institution «ASС «Donskoy». For research, we have chosen the most common varieties of winter wheat (Tanais, Granite, Axinite, Terra, Donskoy prostor, Motto) and various combinations and combinations of mineral and organic fertilizers. The experiments were conducted on two predecessors: couples and peas. As the controllable parameters we had the productivity and quality of winter wheat. We have found a positive impact of the in-change of fertilizer on the studied parameters with a share of the variance of 96% and a high degree of correlation of 0,98. The marked increase in the productivity of winter wheat is up to 22% when using different versions of the experiment. We have identified rational combination doses of mineral and organic nutrition for predecessors: peas N40P60K40+2N30 and vapor – manure 40t/ha+2Р60+2N30
236 kb

DESTRUCTION OF SOIL STRUCTURE WHEN CULTIVATING GRAPES

abstract 1331709042 issue 133 pp. 534 – 542 30.11.2017 ru 5
The ecological state of soil on the globe is unstable. Intensification of agricultural production is accompanied by negative trends in changes in soil fertility. One of the most important indicators of soil fertility is its structural state. With a long time cultivation of grapes in one place, the physical properties of the soil deteriorate. The purpose of our research is to study the process of destruction of soil structure during the cultivation of vineyards. The object of research is the soils of plots of various agricultural uses (vineyards, field crop rotation, forest belts). The research methods used in the work are route-field surveys, a laboratory study of the waterphysical properties of the soil. The article presents the data of the structural-aggregate composition of the soil from plots of various agricultural uses. From the data given, it can be seen that the soil occupied by the vine plantations is characterized by a poor structure and low structure of the arable horizon. The share of agronomically valuable aggregates is 40.4%, the structural coefficient is 0.68 units, while in the forest belt this figure is 5.7 units. The increased mechanical load on the soil during the cultivation of vineyards leads to a deterioration in the physical properties of the soil. Soil with low indicators of physical condition is more susceptible to erosion processes, such as water and wind erosion. Water erosion annually causes great damage to agricultural lands throughout the world. The article clearly demonstrates and scientifically substantiated the negative effect of the system of soil content of vineyards on the type of black steam. Also proposed are ways to reduce the mechanical load on the soil and prevent the development of degradation processes in the soils of vineyards
170 kb

INFLUENCE OF DYNAMICS OF AGROECOLOGICAL INDEXES OF SOIL OF AZOVKUBAN LOWLAND ON THEIR AGROPRODUCTIVE VALUE AND CADASTRE COST

abstract 1331709054 issue 133 pp. 718 – 729 30.11.2017 ru 3
In the article there were analyzed the different approaches of Soviet and Russian authors to the assessment of soils regarding to agro-ecological factors. There was given the characteristic of natural-economic zones territorially entering the Azov-Kuban lowland by main soil-climatic indexes. There was considered the valuation of soils which determines their relative value and suitability on main factors of natural fertility or their groups, it serves as a criteria of unification of soils into agro-ecological groups. There were shown the main indexes and order of grouping of soils under unification of different soils into agro-ecological groups. There was calculated the “normative” productivity of main agricultural crops on natural-economic zones of Azov-Kuban lowland which defines the agro-productive value of soil. There were revealed the disadvantages of soil assessment method used in the course of state cadastre valuation of agricultural lands asserted by the order of the Ministry of Economic Development from 20.09.2010 № 445. There were cited the specific rates of cadastre cost (SRCC) of agricultural lands on municipal entities of Krasnodar region. There was given the assessment of obtained data regarding to natural-climatic factors of the region, there were made proposals on optimization of trends of further researches on claimed problem
144 kb

SUPPRESSION OF FIELD THISTLE – CIRSIUM ARVENSE IN SUNFLOWER CROPS

abstract 1331709056 issue 133 pp. 735 – 744 30.11.2017 ru 7
The article presents the results of research in the field of suppression of thistle field Cirsium arvense in sunflower crops under different methods of tillage
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