Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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157 kb

INFLUENCE OF TILLAGE AND CHEMICAL WAY TO CONTROL WEEDS ON WINTER WHEAT PRODUCTIVITY UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE PLAIN-EROSIVE AGROLANDSCAPE

abstract 1341710002 issue 134 pp. 14 – 26 29.12.2017 ru 40
This article discusses the results of the study to determine the impact of different primary tillage and herbicide against weeds in winter wheat agrocenosis. The task of the research was to determine the impact of primary tillage (moldboard plowing and surface treatment) factor A and herbicide (Lancelot) factor B on the agro-physical and agrochemical soil properties. It has been established that the content of productive moisture during the growing period of winter wheat in 0-100 cm of soil layer didn’t depend on the method of tillage. Introduction of herbicide Lancelot boosted the moisture reserves in soil compared to the control type, in the herbicide-free type the weeds absorb the large amounts of moisture. Surface soil treatment did not have negative effects on soil agro-physical properties and its structure in comparison with moldboard plowing. Number of agronomically valuable aggregates on moldboard plowing is 85.2 - 87.5%, on surface one is - 86.2 87.5%. Density of composition and waterproof aggregates under surface treatment didn’t defer to tillage. Accumulation of wet and dry mass by weeds regardless to the way of soil tillage declined to a minimum when introducing the herbicide Lancelot. The high yield of winter wheat was obtained on this type. Mathematical processing results have shown that due to factor A (main soil tillage) to moldboard plowing the average productivity is 57.5 kg/ha, on surface one is 56.0 kg/ha, i.e. the difference between treatments is 1.5 t/ha (with NSR05 on factor - 2.9 t/ha) is insignificant. To factor B (herbicides) on control the productivity is 54.5 kg/ha, introduction of Lancelot increased the productivity to 59.5 t/ha, i.e. the increase was 5.5 kg/ha at NSR05-by the factor B-2.9 t/ha, i.e. is significant. Thus, the present soil treatments had no effect on yield of winter wheat in ordinary black soil. The use of herbicide Lancelot has produced the harvest increase in 0.5 t/ha on average for 2 years
861 kb

PECULIARITIES OF USING OF PLANT RESIDUES FOR OBTAINING COMPOSTS

abstract 1341710003 issue 134 pp. 27 – 38 29.12.2017 ru 55
Using of organomineral composts to preserve fertility and restore ecological functions of chernozem soils in the Krasnodar territory is necessary. Their composition depends on the properties of chernozem soils and can include various wastes of industry and agriculture. The main component of compost can be organic wastes of livestock, and plant residues and mineral additives are additional compost components. Peculiarities of the interaction of the components of the organomineralic mixture, which including manure of cattle and phosphogypsum, are considered in the work. In the interaction of organic particles of cattle manure and phosphogypsum particles, structural formations are formed where the phosphogypsum particles are enveloped by particles of cattle manure. The experience of composting this organomineral mixture with various crop residues of crops was carried out. Plant residues according to the intensity of decomposition in composts can be represented in the next row, beginning with more decomposed ones: sugar beet> winter wheat> winter barley> corn> sunflower. The composts obtained were characterized by a well-aggregated structure with a predominance of particles 1-2 mm in diameter, good aeration, low density (1.01-1.10 g / cm3), and favorable humidity (22-25%). The structural factor of composts with different plant residues ranged from 3.1 to 4.3 units. The best physical properties were compost, including plant residues of sugar beet, the worst - sunflower. The combination of an organomineral mixture with various plant residues contributed to a decrease in alkalinity of the substrate, a slowing of the mineralization of organic matter, restraint of ammonification processes, and an increase in the content of total nitrogen and phosphorus
141 kb

FEEDING CONCENTRATES AND PREMIXES FOR CATTLES

abstract 1341710011 issue 134 pp. 134 – 145 29.12.2017 ru 58
The article gives an overview of the current developments of scientists of the Russian Federation in the field of production of feed concentrates and premixes for cattle. A critical analysis of feed concentrates and premixes of preventive and compensatory action for the control of mycotoxicoses was carried out, and their brief characteristics were given. The characteristic of biologically active substances and fillers, declared in the recipes of feed concentrates and premixes, is given. It is shown that the alternative to existing feed concentrates and premixes on the market is vitamin-mineral fodder concentrate "Tetra +", developed by the authors. Based on the analysis, a conclusion was made about the relevance of studies to identify the effectiveness of vitamin-mineral fodder concentrate "Tetra +" in livestock
220 kb

PHENOTYPING OF HIGH-QUALITY TECHNICAL GRAPES OF AZOSVIV SELECTION IN THE AMPELOGRAPHIC COLLECTION

abstract 1341710019 issue 134 pp. 230 – 240 29.12.2017 ru 17
A variety determines the direction of use of grape products and plays a leading role in improving its quality. Preservation of genetic resources of grapes and their studying are very important for modern science. The studied material makes it possible to use the selected genetic characteristics for breeding new varieties of grapes, taking into account the requirements, and introducing them into production, as well as highlighting the most valuable varieties for transferring them to the state variety testing. Among a wide variety of grape varieties, in the ampelographic collection there are varieties of AZOSVIV selection of the technical direction: Krasnostop AZOS and Dostoiniy, for which complete phenotyping was carried out. The phenological and agrobiological information on the grape varieties studied for 2015- 2017 is collected. The presented grades of grapes of the technical direction are characterized by high quality of production. The wines from the varieties Krasnostop AZOS and Dostoiniy are competitive, characterized with high consumer properties; they enjoy the well-deserved fame and were nominees of exhibitions and holders of diplomas repeatedly. Based on the results of microsatellite profiling, the varieties showed a sort-specific general combination of alleles. At the same time, in each locus there is one identical allele, which corresponds to the fact that the varieties Krasnostop AZOS and Dostoiniy have one common parent (Phylloxer-resistant Gemete). The received formulas of a variety (DNA-passports) in practice can be effectively applied to determine the cleanliness of planting stock and plantations of grapes, specification of the parent forms of the sample and in the disputed questions of the authorship of the variety. The study was supported by Federal Agency for Scientific Organizations program for support the bioresource collections
191 kb

COMPARATIVE ENERGY CHARACTERISTIC OF FUNCTIONING OF PERSONAL SUBSIDIARY FARMS: IMPLEMENTATION OF THE METHODICAL APPROACH

abstract 1341710020 issue 134 pp. 241 – 251 29.12.2017 ru 17
Currently, personal subsidiary farms (PSF) have an important place in solving of the food security problem in some regions and the country as a whole. The organization of optimal and sustainable management strategy of maintenance for PSF should be planned according to the study of functioning of PSF. The authors propose a unified methodical approach for complex accounting of energy costs of external and internal flows involved in the production of agricultural products. Comparative energy characteristic of the functioning of the two personal subsidiary farms located in the Tomsk oblast and having different socio-economic and climatic conditions is presented in the article. Both farms are located in the taiga zone of Western Siberia. Calculations of the energy content of all the incoming and outgoing flows involved in the economic activities of PSF showed that the flow of technogenicanthropogenic energy is the most energy-intensive for both farms. Some conformity in the energy structure of consumption of their own product takes place despite the different types of stockbreeding specialization. An assessment of the level of selfsufficiency in food has shown that more favourable socio-economic conditions create preconditions for an increase of the anthropogenic flow. While PSF located in remote areas are forced to conduct of business activities with maximum using of natural resource potential
131 kb

USE OF LOCAL AND NEW VARIETIES OF THE LOWER VOLGA IN THE SELECTION OF ADAPTIVE VARIETIES OF PLUM

abstract 1341710031 issue 134 pp. 368 – 378 29.12.2017 ru 26
In Nizhny-Volzhsky Agricultural Research Institute at Dubovskoye strong point, by hybridizing local varieties with southern varieties, and by using cultivated hybrids from free pollination, a number of plum varieties combining winter hardiness with high fruit quality have been introduced. The varieties Volgograd, Bogatyrskaya and Vengerka Korneevskaya are sorted, as well as a number of other local Volga varieties obtained by hybridization: Volga Blue, Summer Ternosly, Autumn Ternon with the most adaptive introduced varieties. These Volga varieties are donors of winter hardiness. The environmental conditions of the Lower Volga region contribute to the development of adaptive genotypes that combine winter hardiness with high fetal quality. The use of new varieties of plums obtained in the Lower Volga region, in crosses with the best varieties of plum, allows the creation of industrial varieties of this crop
335 kb

SUSTAINABILITY OF FOREST PHYTOCENOSISES AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF SOUTH-EAST OF WESTERN SIBERIA (TOMSK REGION)

abstract 1341710032 issue 134 pp. 379 – 389 29.12.2017 ru 10
The increasing consumption of forest resources causes a greater anthropogenic impact on forest ecosystems and leads to a negative impact on both biodiversity and the environment as a whole. In this article, the sustainability of forest phytocenosises of southeast of Western Siberia is assessed using the example of Tomsk region. The analysis of the status and dynamics of the forests of Tomsk region has been assessed. The main factors negatively affecting the biodiversity of forests of Tomsk region were analyzed. The forests cover extensive areas; therefore, the studies were carried out based on the data from the State Forestry Register of the Russian Federation for the period from 2008 to 2015. According to the results of the study, the sustainability of forest phytocenosises has increased significantly in recent years, which can be explained by its strengthened ability to maintain the current state under the influence of external factors. This work considers such causes of damage and death of forest plantations as pests, forest diseases, unfavorable soil and climate impacts, forest fires, as these are the main and most massive phenomena that cause the greatest damage to forest. It is possible to see the dynamics of damage and death of forest plantations on the figures presented in the article
2071 kb

LANDSCAPE PLANNING ORGANIZATION OF THE CAMPUS TERRITORY OF PETROZAVODSK STATE UNIVERSITY

abstract 1341710041 issue 134 pp. 504 – 513 29.12.2017 ru 41
Тhe results of the evaluation of the condition of trees and shrubs in various types of park and garden stands located on the territory of several educational buildings of Petrozavodsk state university are presented in the article. The details of the planning of sites and the spatial location of trees and shrubs are displayed. The species composition and the distribution of plants according to the categories of viability are identified. The 3D computer models of the studied territories with inventory results are created. The analysis of the plantation allows us to offer projects on formation of the landscape planning structure of the university campus of PetrSU
261 kb

THE DURATION OF THE PRODUCTIVE USE OF SOWS AND ANALYSIS OF REASONS FOR CULLING

abstract 1341710042 issue 134 pp. 514 – 524 29.12.2017 ru 56
Nowadays, domestic pig production is dynamically changing in technological and selection terms and is one of the most effective sectors. In the current conditions of pig breeding in intensive technology, the requirements to the level and direction of pig production, the rational use of genetic resources are increasing. The development of effective methods for the production of pork on the basis of the wide use of highly productive breeds and types of both imported and domestic selection allows to obtain the maximum possible productivity of animals, to produce pork of good quality, to reduce the cost of production and to fully realize the genetic potential of animals. Genetic and selection techniques have significantly changed the physiological, morphological and productive capabilities of modern animals. In connection with this, the actual for the pig industry is the identification of opportunities to increase the duration of the use of pigs, and the inclusion of new indicators in breeding work when creating specialized maternal lines. The research was carried out on the electronic database (KP ACC, OOO "Selikom", Ryazan), the breeding center "Lozovoye" ZAO "Plemzavod-Yubileyniy" of the Tyumen region. The center is engaged in thoroughbred breeding and improvement of four pigs: large white, landrace, pietren, duroc
163 kb

FOREST DIVISION AND STATUS OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS OF THE TAMAN PENINSULA

abstract 1341710047 issue 134 pp. 585 – 599 29.12.2017 ru 18
The article presents long-term studies of afforestation on the Taman Peninsula. The directions of improving the ecology of the peninsula are considered by increasing the total biomass of the biogeocenosis of the given region by creating forest plantations, increase of forest cover and involvement of non-generating land in the economic circulation. Practical agro-forest-meliorative aspects of development of a specific category of nonproducing lands are presented. The basic agrotechnical methods are recommended at creation of forest plantations. The analysis of the state of forest plantations on the unique site of the Taman Peninsula is given - it is a tract of Sad Yakhno
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