Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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243 kb

THE PRODUCTIVITY OF PERENNIAL GRASS HERBAGE IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER DURING THE VEGETATION PERIOD

abstract 1271703014 issue 127 pp. 246 – 259 31.03.2017 ru 53
The article is devoted to the estimation of the dependence of perennial grass herbage’s productivity on the dose and distribution of nitrogen fertilizers during the vegetation, as well as from the dynamics of the species composition by years of use. It was revealed that for cocksfoot-timothy grass mixture an increase in the rate of nitrogen fertilizer for every 10 kg of active ingredient leads to an increase of yield by 0.27 tons/ha. The selection of components of grass mixtures and rational fertilizer doses forms the herbage which provides a yield of about 7,0-12,0 tons/ha of dry mass and 58,1-99,6 GJ of energy exchange. It is established that competitive relations in grass mixtures are exacerbated with increasing doses of fertilizers. The timothy grass develops successfully in a mixture with the cocksfoot with a low level of mineral nutrition (N80). A high level of mineral nutrition speeds up the formation of single-species herbage - the cocksfoot. Meadow fescue grass provides sustainable yields on medium and high backgrounds of mineral fertilizers in combination with the cocksfoot. Recommendations for a nitrogen dose of more than 200 kg per hectare for fertilizing mixed grass crops with the cocksfoot and about 100 kg per hectare for clover-cereals mixtures without cocksfoot are suggested
346 kb

ORIGIN OF SORGHUM AND DEVELOPMENT OF ITS BREEDING

abstract 1271703017 issue 127 pp. 281 – 294 31.03.2017 ru 40
Sorghum is cultivated in many countries of the world on around 50 ml hectares. The main producers of sorghum are India, Nigeria, Sudan and the USA. Sorghum comes from equatorial Africa. India and China are the secondary places of origin and formation. The USA achieved great success in breeding, seedgrowing and agro technologies of grain sorghum. In the country sorghum occupies 14.4% of the world amount of sowing areas; the gross yield is 40%. Sorghum breeding on Don was started by E.S. Yakushevsky in 1938. In 1963 after a long break the work was restarted at the Zernograd Breeding Station headed by Ya.I. Issakov. At present the amount of sowing areas for sorghum is constantly increasing in RF (220.3 thousand ha in 2015). It occurs due to aridity of climate and more frequent use of the crop as insurance. Besides, the development of white kernel varieties gave an opportunity to use sorghum for starch and spirit. There are 221 varieties and hybrids of sorghum registered in the State List. The main directions of breeding work with grain sorghum are early maturity, suitability for mechanical harvesting, productivity and grain quality. The ARRIGC developed the white kernel early maturing varieties ‘Velikan’, ‘Zernogradskoe 88’, ‘Ataman’ without necessity to be dried after harvesting, with productivity of 8 t/ha. The main directions of breeding work with sweet sorghum are early maturity, high intensity of initial growth, low height, resistance to lodging, high productivity and quality of green chop. The ARRIGC developed the varieties for fodder use (‘Listvenit’), for spirit and treacle (‘Debyut’ and ‘Zernogradsky Yantar’). Sorghum due to origin and varietal diversity even in dry and hot parts of the world allow obtaining stable, high yields of grain and green chop. This makes sorghum the leading grain-forage and food crop
1924 kb

3D MODELING OF THE HISTORICAL OBJECT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE EXEMPLIFIED BY PETROVSKY GARDEN IN PETROZAVODSK

abstract 1271703023 issue 127 pp. 353 – 362 31.03.2017 ru 39
Petrovsky garden was founded in 1703 and is the most important historical object of landscape architecture in Petrozavodsk. Tikhon Balandin made a description and drawing of Petrovsky garden at the beginning of the 19th century. He completed his work by studying and measuring the fragments of the earthen fortress, blast furnace and the location of the destroyed palace, pond and birch garden. On the basis of the historical documents, we created a 3D model of Petrovsky garden using of modern computer-aided design. Threedimensional model of the garden allows viewing the object from different angles, gives an idea about structure and compositions of the garden on a new visual level. Some examples of visualization garden fragments were presented at the article. Now the garden doesn’t have its original structure. The historical garden layout and 3D model of object can be used for reconstruction of Petrovsky garden
316 kb

THE ACCUMULATION OF 90SR IN CHERRYPLUM DEPENDING ON THE DEPTH OF ITS DISPOSITION IN THE SOIL

abstract 1271703028 issue 127 pp. 416 – 431 31.03.2017 ru 7
With the possible radioactive contamination of the territory, as a result of emergency situations at enterprises of the nuclear fuel cycle, there occurs a task of further use of the soil for agricultural purposes. Researches on the cultivation on contaminated areas of fruit plants in the conditions of the Krasnodar region were not carried out. As a result of the experiment in the field we received experimental material on migration and 90Sr accumulation in vegetative and generative organs of cherry-plum. Research lasted for 8 years. The accumulation of 90Sr, placed on the surface of the soil, in the bark, wood, leaves, and fruit was 7,0×102 ; 4,8×102 ; 9,7×102 and 1.8 ×102Bq/kg. With the penetration of 90Sr in soil at 50 cm accumulation in the bark, wood, leaves, and fruit were: 5,1×102 ; 3,0×102 ; 6,9×102 ; 1,4×102Bq/kg. The experimental material obtained in the field makes it possible to calculate the coefficients of the nuclide transition from polluted soil to the various organs of the studied plant and to make a forecast of the possible use of contaminated areas for the cultivation of fruit crops. Radioactive contaminated areas cannot be left without proper control, since, firstly, non-planted fields are exposed to wind and water erosion of soils, which leads to rapid and large-scale pollution of the environment and, secondly, if it is possible to obtain products from such fields, this should be done for economic reasons
142 kb

THE INFLUENCE OF THE PLUM POX POTYVIRUS (PPV) ON THE CONTENT OF PIGMENTS, PROTEIN, LIGNIN, WATER IN TISSUES OF LEAVES OF PRUNUS DOMESTICA

abstract 1271703029 issue 127 pp. 432 – 441 31.03.2017 ru 6
The results of the study of physiological and biochemical parameters of plum plants, changing when infecting plants Plum pox potyvirus (PPV) are shown. It was found that the infected leaves at the stage of full development of the content chlorophyll a reduced by 30 % in variety Stanley and by 6 % in Kabardinskaya rannaya, chlorophyll b in less than 49 % at Stanley, 37% in Kabardinskaya rannaya, carotenoids are less than 22 % in the variety Stanley and by 11% in the variety Kabardinskaya rannaya . Leaves infected with the virus pox (PPV), in comparison with not infected, the amount of protein were decreasing: in the variety Stanley by 21 %, in the variety Kabardinskaya rannaya by 28 %. In the period of active growth of the leaves change in the content of pigments and protein is more intense. The content of lignin in the tissues of leaves, infected with the virus pox (PPV), in comparison with not infected in the variety Stanley was below on 13 % and in the variety Kabardinskaya rannaya - 8 %. The total content of water of infected tissue on the stage of a full-time development is reduced in patients leaves as compared with not infected 11 % in the variety Stanley and by 1 % in the variety of Kabardinskaya rannaya. Throughout the period of development of foliage studied parameters vary depending on the variety
211 kb

INCREASING OF BIOLOGICAL POTENTIAL IN POULTRY DUE TO THE USE OF PROBIOTICS

abstract 1271703036 issue 127 pp. 527 – 545 31.03.2017 ru 5
To improve the quality, safety and competitiveness of the domestic raw materials of animal origin the use of probiotics in the poultry industry is a priority and promising direction of the development of organic agriculture. One of the key problems of the production of probiotics is to provide actively stable preparations. Biocompatibility of the indigenous microflora with probiotics, medical form and individual range of antibacterial activity of probiotics have a significant impact on the introduction of probiotics in new habitat conditions and its effectiveness. Consideration of these factors can enhance the effectiveness of probiotics. Currently, the available literature has insufficient justification of certain doses of administration and methods of using different probiotic preparations. The materials present and summarize the results of the research concerning the use of probiotics in the poultry industry, based on the achievements of Russian and foreign scientists. In addition, based on the analysis of various sources of scientific literature, we suggest ways to solve the problem of probiotic therapy and give some recommendations on the organization of the technological process of selection and application of different probiotics in poultryfeeding. Raw meat from poultry reared with the use of probiotic preparations is safe, because metabolites of probiotic microorganisms are not accumulate in the body tissues. Researches of biosynthesis regularities of probiotics were made at the cellular level, including genetic aspects, features of regulation of secretion, dependence on the cultivation conditions, interaction with binding sites on the cell surface, participation in the vital activity of the population of individual cells. The use of probiotics contributes to normalization of the intestinal microflora, activation of protein metabolism, productivity increase, reduction of feed costs per unit of production and increasing of poultry industry economic efficiency as a whole
2060 kb

AGENT OF BARLEY LEAVES NET BLOTCH: BIOLOGY, ETIOLOGY, VIRULENCE, RESISTANCE OF THE HOST-PLANTS (OVERVIEW)

abstract 1271703041 issue 127 pp. 604 – 627 31.03.2017 ru 9
Barley is one of the important fodder crops. In modern Russia barley is sown throughout the farming areas. The effectiveness of barley cultivation in some years is reduced due to the infestation with helminthosporiosis. Net blotch of barley Drechslera teres is a widespread and highly destructive disease in the world including Russia. In recent years the disease has been progressing in all grain-producing countries. Yield reduction due to the strong development of the blotch can reach up to 45%. Most cultivated barley varieties are susceptible to Drechslera teres. Нelminthosporiosis are characterized by greater variability and rapid adaptation to new varieties of host plants. In order to solve successfully the problem of barley immunity to net blotch it’s necessary to conduct genetics and population studies of the Hordeum vulgare - Drechslera teres pathosystem
226 kb

EFFICIENCY OF FERROURTIKAVIT BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE ADDITIVE APPLICATION IN THE DIET OF BLACKMOTLEY BREED LACTATING COWS

abstract 1271703050 issue 127 pp. 733 – 744 31.03.2017 ru 6
Ferrourtikavit is a biologically active additive (BAA) derived from common nettle supplemented with micro nutrient elements (titanium, vanadium, molybdenum, zinc, copper, iron, tin, chromium, manganese, barium). Ferrourtikavit is manufactured from local vegetable raw materials, however its application in feeding dairy cows is not sufficiently studied. Therefore, the application of the BAA ferrourtikavit in animal feeding with a view to increase milk production is relevant. The aim of the research conducted is to investigate the impact of the BAA ferrourtikavit on the overall nutritional value of animal diet and reduction of food consumption. The experiment was conducted on four groups of black-motley breed dairy cows. Formation of the experimental groups (15 animals per each group) was performed on the third lactation, taking into account age, productivity during the previous lactation, breed characteristics, live weight. The main diet consisted of hay, haylage, succulent fodder, concentrates. Additionally to basic diet the 2nd , 3 rd and 4th experimental groups obtained the BAA ferrourtikavit at the doses of 0,25, 0,50 and 0,75 mg/kg of live weight, respectively. It has been established that the animals from the experimental groups (2nd, 3rd and 4th) consumed 43,9-51,3 energetic feed units less, 439,4-513,5 MJ metabolic energy less, 56,4 – 62,0 kg dry matter less, 1,1 – 1,6 kg digestible protein less. The lowest feed consumption was noted among the animals from the 3rd experimental group, in the basic diet of which the BAA ferrourtikavit in an amount of 0,50 mg/kg of live weight was introduced. The research conducted established, that application of the biologically active additive ferrourtikavit in the diet of lactating cows at the dose of 0,5 mg/kg of live weight led to the highest milk yields 4678±45,17 kg. In the experienced groups, increase in milk yields, decrease in concentrates' utilization as well as costs of 1 kg milk as compared to the control group were registered
143 kb

STUDYING THE ROLE OF MOVING PHOSPHORUS IN THE SYSTEM OF SOILFERTILIZER-HARVEST

abstract 1271703064 issue 127 pp. 905 – 917 31.03.2017 ru 5
The results of the study farm «Zavet Ilyicha» JSC, Leningrad district of Krasnodar region, are presented in article to study the role of rolling phosphorus in soil samples, organic fertilizers and grain output of winter wheat. We examined the relationship between the content of phosphorus in the soil and fertilizers are introduced and subsequently with the quality of the harvest of grain. To receive high harvests of crops, primarily need adequate amounts of phosphorus in soils in an accessible form. The next important step is the use of different fertilizers (mineral and organic) under crops. Without the use of fertilizers cannot return key for plants of nutrients, such as phosphorus, nitrogen and sodium in the soil, since agricultural products makes the nutrients. What dose of fertilizer use and profitable forms of these fertilizers, solves every household depending on culture, soil, climate and economy. We received during the research the following results: for 4 year average contents of phosphorus in soils of agro-landscape in General, au pairs amounted to 27.2–31.4 mg/kg. Average levels of phosphorus in the soils crop rotation fields amounted to 26.9 and 30.9 mg/kg. Maximum values amounted to 115.0 mg/kg, while the minimum is about 3.0 mg/kg. Also conducted analyses on the contents of rolling phosphorus in manure polupereprevshem pigs and cattle. Marked by a very significant gap in content of phosphorus, which is associated with significant differences in their feeding. In grain of winter wheat for 4 years, phosphorus content accounted for at an average of 3.41 g/kg; minimum and maximum performance from 2.35 to 4.47 g/kg, in 2012. Compared with 2012 phosphorus concentrations in grain of winter wheat has gradually increased to 2015, and accounted for 3.47 g/kg with minimum and maximum thresholds ranging from 2.05 to 4.89 g/kg
387 kb

DYNAMICS OF CATALASE ACTIVITY IN THE LEAVES OF APPLE TREES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF FOLIAR FERTILIZING

abstract 1271703067 issue 127 pp. 940 – 955 31.03.2017 ru 11
The research was conducted studying the effect of various system of foliar fertigation on catalase activity in the apple orchard with drip irrigation in 2013-2014. The object of research were apple trees of Zhigulevskoye variety grafted on rootstock 62-396 in experimental intensive apple orchard of I.V. Michurin FSC which had been planted in 2007. During vegetation, the following indices were determined in apple tree leaves in dynamics: catalase activity by gasometrical method of M.I Lishkevich on the 3rd and 5 th day after treatments, the content of nitrogen (Kjeldahl method), phosphorus (KFK-3), potassium and calcium (Jenway PFP-7). Data were statistical processed according to the generally accepted methods described by B.A. Dospekhov. It has been established that foliar fertigation increased catalase activity on the 3 rd day after treatment, which then decreases to normal values. So, treatments acted as a stress factor. Correlation of catalase activity with nitrogen content in the leaves increased, and with calcium content decreased as the number of megafol mixed with calcium calbit treatments was enlarged. Using tank mixtures for multiple treatments with combination of antistress preparations and calcium-containing agrochemicals allows to moderate significantly the stress effect of foliar fertilizing on plants
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