Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL STRUCTURE AND CONDITION OF STANDS IN “YAMKA” PARK OF PETROZVODSK

abstract 1081504096 issue 108 pp. 1316 – 1328 30.04.2015 ru 0
The article presents the results of the evaluation of the spatial structure and condition of trees and shrubs in different types of park stands located in the park called “Yamka” in Petrozavodsk. Features of planning and spatial distribution of trees and shrubs have been identified. The species and number of plants in good, satisfactory and unsatisfactory states were determined. The conducted analysis of species distribution and the number of trees and shrubs in each category of state allows suggesting the activities for reconstruction of park stands
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STRUCTURING THE INFORMATION SYSTEM OF DATABASE "PARAMETERS OF QUALITY OF GRAIN" IN RICE PLANT BREEDING

abstract 1341710111 issue 134 pp. 1437 – 1447 29.12.2017 ru 64
In breeding programs, evaluation of initial material is made on all the stages of developing the variety. Great difficulties for the breeding process are made by absence of modern mechanisms for storing, retrieving, manipulating the relevant data, and using the information previously obtained for use in solving the set breeding task. In order to organize the management of breeding process for development of high-quality rice varieties, based on the urgency of problem of intellectual analysis of data, the Database "Rice Quality" was designed as a set of structured data - the rice quality characteristics identified in the stages of the process of developing variety belonging to the "Rice". In the domain model, the infologic model, a set of parameters for evaluating rice quality in terms of out-of-program components is defined. The program is written in the Microsoft Access database environment using built-in query building tools, forms, reports. The structure of the developed tables includes static and refreshed directories in which the necessary information is stored, the tables are combined into one-to-many relationships, while ensuring data integrity, cascading updates and deletion of fields
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PECULIARITIES OF AGROBIOLOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TECHNICAL WHITE MUSCAT GRAPES OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

abstract 1341710110 issue 134 pp. 1412 – 1436 29.12.2017 ru 70
The results of comparative analysis of three white muscat grades of grapes Viorika, the Muscat de Yaloven and the Muscat onitskan according to the biological indicators of fructification, productivity, quality of berries, mechanical structure of bunches, suitability for manufacture of direct extraction juice and dry wines are depicted in the article. All studied grades differ by high percent of fruiting runaways and high factors of fruiting and fructification. The highest factors of fruiting and fructification of runaways are reflected at grade Viorika, and the lowest - at a grade the Muscat de Yaloven. Biological indicators of fructification of runaways according to the length of a fruit spear are high and rather levelled at all grades. That is why, depending on bushes forming, it is possible to apply short and average (6-7 buds) length of vine cutting. Biological indicators of fructification of runaways from angular buds and sleeping buds are high enough, that shows to good regenerative ability of studied grades. Grades Viorika and the Muscat de Yaloven are tall, and the Muscat onitskan is average height. Degree of ripening of runaways at grades Viorika and the Muscat onitskan is good, at a grade the Muscat de Yaloven - satisfactory. Productivity of grades Viorika, Muscat de Yaloven and the Muscat onitskan is 77,94; 81,52 and 72,72 centner/hectares, and efficiency of runaway - 199,5; 193 and 221,9 with a significant difference between grades on both indicators. The exit of a mash at grades was 77,5-79,4 %. According to the contents of solids, sugars and acids, grapes of all grades correspond to requirements for manufacture of high-quality direct extraction juice. From grapes of these grades, it is possible to produce high-quality direct extraction juice under the name of ampelographic and blended grades. Sampling estimation of dry wines from grapes of these grades fluctuates from 7,6 to 7,8 points: 7,8 (Viorika), 7,7 (the Muscat onitskan), 7,6 (the Muscat de Yaloven)
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IMPACT OF WAYS OF INCORPORATING RICE STRAW INTO THE SOIL ON RICE YIELD

abstract 1341710051 issue 134 pp. 650 – 660 29.12.2017 ru 71
In the conditions of the two-factor field experiment, the influence of four methods of incorporating straw in the soil on the rice yield was studied: plowing, one-, two- and three-time discs and three ways of "processing" the straw: embedding in the soil of the chopped straw in its pure form, together with compensating nitrogen fertilizer and inoculated stubble biodestructor Stemix ® Niva. It is shown that the lowest yield is formed when straw is plowed, while surface tillage of soil by one-, two- and three-fold discs significantly increases the grain yield in comparison with the plow by 2.4, 4.2 and 5.2 c / ha, respectively. Taking into account that the double disking provided an almost twice increase in the yield of the crop and the absence of statistically significant differences with the triple disking; it is this method of incorporating the straw that should be considered the most expedient. The introduction of a compensating nitrogen fertilizer ensured a reliable increase in yield by 5.1 and 3.7 centners per hectare in comparison with the variants with the introduction of straw in pure form and treatment with biopreparation. Calculation of the share of the influence of the factors studied on the rice yield showed that the method for embedding straw provides 29.9% of the variability of the trait under study, the method of straw treatment is 36.7%, and the residual dispersion accounts for 33.4%. Incorporation of chopped rice straw in the soil together with compensating nitrogen fertilizer in the amount of 1% of the mass of straw, by double discing, ensured the receipt of a conventionally net income of 6940 rubles / ha, the rate of return - 70.4% and the cost recovery - 1.7 rubles / rub
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PROCESSING METHODS OF THE INTENSIFICATION OF EXTRACTION OF NUTRIENTS FROM FRUITS OF WILD PLANTS

abstract 1321708035 issue 132 pp. 442 – 451 31.10.2017 ru 74
The nutrient structure of fruits of the Mountain ash of ordinary Sorbus aucuparia L., sloe of Prunus spinosa and their extracts is investigated. Inside them, the standard methods in biochemistry have determined the content of extractive substances, sugars, titrable acids, vitamins C and P, phenolic and pectinaceous substances. Results of analyses demonstrate that the fruits of wild plants ripening in the conditions of Dagestan – mountain ashes and sloe - can be effectively used as raw materials for receiving extracts which are rich in vitamins, carbohydrates and phenolic connections. The possibility of production of highquality nutrient-rich extracts from these fruits with application of various technological modes and ways of extraction is revealed: duration of insisting of raw materials; various concentration of ethanol in an extractant and ratios raw materials/ extractant. Results of researches demonstrate that at a ratio of raw materials/extractant 1:3 and the 70% content of ethanol in the extractant have come the greatest extraction from vitamin fruits P (routine) and phenols which made respectively 56,0-65,7% and 51,4-68,3%. Increase in extraction of titrable acids and vitamin C is noted at 50% concentration of ethanol in the extractant. The maximum release of sugars has come from all fruit substrata at 30% ethanol in the extractant. Results of biochemical analyses of extracts have shown that carrying out extraction in the way of double insisting on condition of selection of optimum: concentration of ethanol in the extractant, ratios of the raw materials/ extractant and the best time of insisting, allow to provide on average a 55-60% exit of nutrients from the studied fruit raw materials
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ISSUE OF DEVELOPMENT OF NONWEEDING TECHNOLOGY OF GROWING RICE SEEDS

abstract 1341710058 issue 134 pp. 733 – 742 29.12.2017 ru 78
An analysis of the state of contamination of rice crops with red-grained forms was carried out, as well as impurity was found both in the seed material and in the soil. It was shown that there is a need to switch to non-weeding seed growing technology when conducting elite and reproductive seed production. Various variants of soil cultivation in combating the red rice forms are considered, both in the main and in the pre-sowing treatment. It has been found that after harvesting rice on heavily foul areas, it is better to burn straw, and not to carry out autumn tillage of the soil, the seeds of red-grained forms die mostly when wintering on the soil surface. The most effective method of soil cultivation for controlling of red rice forms in seed crops has been identified, in which the yield is increased, and the contamination of crops and the resulting rice grain is significantly reduced. The work carried out will allow reducing manual labor costs in the production of seeds, improving their quality and assortment, speed up variety changing and variety updating
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NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF GRAPES OF TECHNICAL GRADES

abstract 1291705027 issue 129 pp. 306 – 314 31.05.2017 ru 79
We have presented opportunities to improve the nutritional value of wine production: improvement of biogenetic soil, using organic fertilizers. The nutritional value is ensured by not only high-quality biochemical diversity of berries, but also the safety of products that do not contain toxic inclusions. Bio-fertilizer stimulates the biotransformation of toxic soil residues to replenish soil nutrients for the plant, providing grape raw material with biologically active substances and improves the nutritional value of wine products. Food safety of grapes is ensured by reducing it residues of hazardous chemicals migrating from the soil into the plant and the grapes. It has been established, that after 3 years of application of biofertilizers we significantly improved food safety and quality in the biochemical parameters, especially important for the classic wine grape varieties. The soil content of toxic residues in grape raw material is reduced to 50%, the amount of organic acids increases by: 4,22 mg/dm3(Gallic, coffee acid, chlorogenic; 0.7 g/cm3 amber; of 1.33 mg/dm3 ascorbic; 0.25 mg/dm3 nicotinic
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OPTIMIZATION OF STRUCTURE OF SOWING AREAS AT APPLICATION OF METHODS OF MATHEMATICAL DESIGN FOR TERMS OF FOREST-STEPPE OF WESTERN SIBERIA

abstract 1331709022 issue 133 pp. 263 – 274 30.11.2017 ru 79
Alternation of crops, will remain a fundamental element of zonal technologies of their cultivation for a long time. Application of methods of mathematical model operation will allow to come to new level in the solution of the questions of effective use of an arable land, through application of models optimizing it. Results of researches which basis data of long-term observations are will be especially valuable. They used data of the long-lived stationary experiments on studying of alternation of crops in crop rotations of last more than five rotation. Stationary experiences are located in a forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia on the fields FGBNU "SIBNIISKH". The purpose of researches consisted in optimization of use of an arable land at application of methods of mathematical model operation for preservation of soil fertility. The model allowing when performing particular conditions is given in work (balance of a humus, work expense, a metabolic cost, etc.) to optimize use of an arable land against the background of preservation of soil fertility of the soil, receiving production, economic and power efficiency. It is shown that at alternation of grain crops with clear steam, formation of a harvest happens due to natural fertility of the soil what the negative balance of a humus which reaches 0,18 – 0,78 tons from hectare testifies to. At alternation of field cultures without clear steam the harvest was formed against the background of reproduction of organic matter of the soil, due to increase in vegetable oddments from use of fertilizers, the balance of a humus was positive – 0,15 – 0,28 tons from hectare. Use along with clear steam, busy steam, colza on green fertilizer, and also straw as organic fertilizer for grain crops, 2,01 tons from hectare of commodity grain were received, at a share of clear steam – 16,8%, busy steam – 11%, summer grain – 72,2% of arable land. Increasing in crop rotations of West Siberian Square with use as organic fertilizer of straw, busy vapors and green fertilizers, it is possible to achieve reproduction of fertility of the soil with some decrease in an exit of commodity grain to 2 tons from hectare
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STATE AND STRUCTURE OF THE STREET PLANTINGS OF THE CENTRAL PART OF EKATERINBURG

abstract 1341710060 issue 134 pp. 753 – 759 29.12.2017 ru 79
Urban trees can provide multiple environmental benefits. The study of the state of the street tree and shrubby vegetation from the analysis of inventory data and environmental conditions is purpose the article. The structure of 11 types of street roadside vegetation, which determines about 93% of the greenery composition of the city of Ekaterinburg is considered. The structure of the examined tree-shrub vegetation and all vegetation, which is part of the greening of Ekaterinburg, is compared. For each tree (shrub) was measured: species, number of stems, diameter of stem at 1,3 m, tree height, height to base of live crown, crown width, percent of branch dieback in crown, percent of canopy volume devoid of leaves, number of sides of the tree receiving sunlight from above, distance and direction to building, distance to road. As a result, homogeneity of illumination of various plant species is received. Ash ordinary has the largest of all plants values of the percent of the missing crown (61.3%) and closest distance to the road. The effect on the plants (by average distance) of urban buildings (7- 30 meters) and the proximity of the roadway (3-7 meters) was observed
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CONTENT OF ELEMENTS OF FEED IN PLANTS OF WINTER WHEAT AT REMINERALIZATION OF BLACK LEACHED SOIL

abstract 1291705023 issue 129 pp. 265 – 275 31.05.2017 ru 82
The article shows the ninth year of research on the remineralization of leached chernozem. In the plants of winter wheat, the content of macro and micronutrients of nutrition under remineralization of leached chernozem was investigated. It is established that when introducing rocks, the content of food elements in plants rises
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