Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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236 kb

DESTRUCTION OF SOIL STRUCTURE WHEN CULTIVATING GRAPES

abstract 1331709042 issue 133 pp. 534 – 542 30.11.2017 ru 339
The ecological state of soil on the globe is unstable. Intensification of agricultural production is accompanied by negative trends in changes in soil fertility. One of the most important indicators of soil fertility is its structural state. With a long time cultivation of grapes in one place, the physical properties of the soil deteriorate. The purpose of our research is to study the process of destruction of soil structure during the cultivation of vineyards. The object of research is the soils of plots of various agricultural uses (vineyards, field crop rotation, forest belts). The research methods used in the work are route-field surveys, a laboratory study of the waterphysical properties of the soil. The article presents the data of the structural-aggregate composition of the soil from plots of various agricultural uses. From the data given, it can be seen that the soil occupied by the vine plantations is characterized by a poor structure and low structure of the arable horizon. The share of agronomically valuable aggregates is 40.4%, the structural coefficient is 0.68 units, while in the forest belt this figure is 5.7 units. The increased mechanical load on the soil during the cultivation of vineyards leads to a deterioration in the physical properties of the soil. Soil with low indicators of physical condition is more susceptible to erosion processes, such as water and wind erosion. Water erosion annually causes great damage to agricultural lands throughout the world. The article clearly demonstrates and scientifically substantiated the negative effect of the system of soil content of vineyards on the type of black steam. Also proposed are ways to reduce the mechanical load on the soil and prevent the development of degradation processes in the soils of vineyards
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DEPENDENCE OF THE PRODUCTIVITY AND THE QUALITY OF WINES FROM THE PLANTING PLAN

abstract 1321708092 issue 132 pp. 1155 – 1165 31.10.2017 ru 338
The dependence of the productivity of the Riesling Rennel vineyards and the quality of table wine from it under the conditions of the Anapa-Taman Winegrowing Zone was studied. It is established that the vineyards of the Riesling Rhine variety are planted with the highest yield, planted according to the scheme of 3.5x1 m. In this embodiment, at a density planting shrubs 2857 pcs. / Ha, the yield of grapes was the highest - 131.4 c / ha. Maximum accumulation of sugars in the grapes observed in the variants with a width of 2.5 m aisle highest extract content from different wine stocks options with row spacing of 2.5 m where the amount of extractables amounted to 17.1 - 19.2 g / dm3 . The increase in the total concentration of aromatic compounds of up to 540 mg / dm 3 helps to improve the quality of white table wine, and further growth of aromatics to 1090 mg / dm3 - it reduces the organoleptic evaluation. High tasting marks (7.88-8.29 points) received wine materials from sites having a spacing of 3.5 m. Thus, considering the quality of the wine, the cost of planting material, laying and care of vineyards, it is worth considering the 3.5x1 planting scheme , 5 m more suitable for the production of quality table wines in the Black Sea agroecological zone of viticulture in the south of Russia
201 kb

IMPACT OF WAYS OF INCORPORATING RICE STRAW INTO THE SOIL ON RICE YIELD

abstract 1341710051 issue 134 pp. 650 – 660 29.12.2017 ru 338
In the conditions of the two-factor field experiment, the influence of four methods of incorporating straw in the soil on the rice yield was studied: plowing, one-, two- and three-time discs and three ways of "processing" the straw: embedding in the soil of the chopped straw in its pure form, together with compensating nitrogen fertilizer and inoculated stubble biodestructor Stemix ® Niva. It is shown that the lowest yield is formed when straw is plowed, while surface tillage of soil by one-, two- and three-fold discs significantly increases the grain yield in comparison with the plow by 2.4, 4.2 and 5.2 c / ha, respectively. Taking into account that the double disking provided an almost twice increase in the yield of the crop and the absence of statistically significant differences with the triple disking; it is this method of incorporating the straw that should be considered the most expedient. The introduction of a compensating nitrogen fertilizer ensured a reliable increase in yield by 5.1 and 3.7 centners per hectare in comparison with the variants with the introduction of straw in pure form and treatment with biopreparation. Calculation of the share of the influence of the factors studied on the rice yield showed that the method for embedding straw provides 29.9% of the variability of the trait under study, the method of straw treatment is 36.7%, and the residual dispersion accounts for 33.4%. Incorporation of chopped rice straw in the soil together with compensating nitrogen fertilizer in the amount of 1% of the mass of straw, by double discing, ensured the receipt of a conventionally net income of 6940 rubles / ha, the rate of return - 70.4% and the cost recovery - 1.7 rubles / rub
762 kb

EROSION ZONING OF THE TERRITORY OF THE BRYANSK REGION: THE EXPERIENCE AND CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS

abstract 1281704092 issue 128 pp. 1309 – 1319 28.04.2017 ru 333
The article analyzes the experience of zoning of territory of the Bryansk region on the main factors of erosion to select the measures to combat it. The Bryansk region in its present borders, mainly representing the middle course of the Desna river, has been considered safe in relation to erosion. The existing zoning is based on the quantitative characteristics of the processes of erosion that primarily allowed us to assess the scale of their impact on nature and the region's economy. The erosion zoning was performed on the basis of the map of erosion-prone land. As a result of study and analysis of all natural factors of erosion and land of the region under study the regularities of distribution of land erosion and intensity of spring rainfall and soil erosion are detected. Under the leadership of Filin V. I., a survey of the ravines of the region was conducted and made the scheme of erosion zoning, according to which the region is divided into three areas. It is noteworthy Horinas E. V. research. When divided into areas it was taken into consideration the need for each of them specific actions to combat the causes and consequences of erosion in relation to the peculiarities of the latter in each district. According to the intensity of the erosion processes and physico-geographical zoning of the Bryansk region and the nature of agricultural land use, specialists of the Bryansk branch of the Institute "Rosgiprozem" produced erosion zoning of the territory of the region, which highlighted seven erosion regions. From the variety of methods for zoning, the most appropriate in our view are created, based on the estimated small-scale (medium-scale) maps of erosion of land, capable of performing the function diagrams of erosion zoning
177 kb

SPECIES COMPOSITION AND EFFICIENCY OF STEPPE MEADOWS IN DEPENDENCE ON THE DIETARY REGIME IN THE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL YAKUTIA

abstract 1311707057 issue 131 pp. 672 – 683 29.09.2017 ru 330
In the conditions of middle valley of the Lena River on the cryogenic, inundated, cespitose and chernozemic soils different steppe communities differently react on dietary regime. Herb-grass phytocenosis at organic dietary regime is reformed in cereal phytocenosis with the contents of cereals to 76% and bean types 19% of dry basis with productivity to 20 centner of hectare of dry basis. At the same time the efficiency of the improved phytocenosis was on charge exchange energy of 17,3 mega joule of hectare, feed units 1032 and a crude protein of 247 kilo of hectare. The whetgrasses phytocenosis has provided productivity to 19,4 centner of hectare and the content of perevarimy protein in 1 feed unit up to 118 gram. So the most effective for the steppe meadows is using complex fertilizer (humus of 20 tons of hectare + N60P60K60), increasing the productivity twice with a high quality of food
143 kb

STUDYING THE ROLE OF MOVING PHOSPHORUS IN THE SYSTEM OF SOILFERTILIZER-HARVEST

abstract 1271703064 issue 127 pp. 905 – 917 31.03.2017 ru 324
The results of the study farm «Zavet Ilyicha» JSC, Leningrad district of Krasnodar region, are presented in article to study the role of rolling phosphorus in soil samples, organic fertilizers and grain output of winter wheat. We examined the relationship between the content of phosphorus in the soil and fertilizers are introduced and subsequently with the quality of the harvest of grain. To receive high harvests of crops, primarily need adequate amounts of phosphorus in soils in an accessible form. The next important step is the use of different fertilizers (mineral and organic) under crops. Without the use of fertilizers cannot return key for plants of nutrients, such as phosphorus, nitrogen and sodium in the soil, since agricultural products makes the nutrients. What dose of fertilizer use and profitable forms of these fertilizers, solves every household depending on culture, soil, climate and economy. We received during the research the following results: for 4 year average contents of phosphorus in soils of agro-landscape in General, au pairs amounted to 27.2–31.4 mg/kg. Average levels of phosphorus in the soils crop rotation fields amounted to 26.9 and 30.9 mg/kg. Maximum values amounted to 115.0 mg/kg, while the minimum is about 3.0 mg/kg. Also conducted analyses on the contents of rolling phosphorus in manure polupereprevshem pigs and cattle. Marked by a very significant gap in content of phosphorus, which is associated with significant differences in their feeding. In grain of winter wheat for 4 years, phosphorus content accounted for at an average of 3.41 g/kg; minimum and maximum performance from 2.35 to 4.47 g/kg, in 2012. Compared with 2012 phosphorus concentrations in grain of winter wheat has gradually increased to 2015, and accounted for 3.47 g/kg with minimum and maximum thresholds ranging from 2.05 to 4.89 g/kg
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THE EFFECT OF PERLITE USING ON QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE INDICATOR OF SEED GROWTH

abstract 1311707102 issue 131 pp. 1237 – 1247 29.09.2017 ru 323
An experiment has been carried out on the effect of germination of seeds with perlite on the improvement of the growth force of rye Vyatka-2. The purpose of the experiment was to study the effect of perlite on the growth force of seeds under the conditions of additional fertilizers and changing the volume water during irrigation. The task of the work was to determinate the growth force of seeds with perlite. The growth force of the seeds was determined after 10 days in sprouted seeds in five samples in glass vessels with three different moisture conditions. It was proved that germination of seeds with perlite increased the seed growth force up to 28% in comparison with seeds grown in sand (a control sample). The result also depended on decreasing of humidity rate up to 30-40%
140 kb

PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIAL PIG BREEDING IN RUSSIA THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES

abstract 1341710098 issue 134 pp. 1220 – 1230 29.12.2017 ru 322
The steady development of modern pig farming dictates the need for new priorities, opportunities and requirements, such as reducing harmful environmental impacts, more efficient use of resources, and provision of comfortable conditions for the pig housing. The creation of an appropriate ITS BAT in the branch will optimize the activity of agricultural pig breeding enterprises due to the transition to performance of requirements based on BAT technological parameters, to solve the problem of energy efficiency, import substitution and increase of competitiveness. Their integration will have an effect not only on improving the ecological state of the environment, but also on the economy of agricultural enterprises providing a new approach to agricultural activity
180 kb

ASSESSMENT OF CARBON-DEPOSIT AND OXYGEN-PRODUCING PART OF ARTIFICIAL FOREST PLANTATIONS OF THE KUBAN FORESTRY IN THE KARACHAYCHERKESSIA REPUBLIC

abstract 1211607103 issue 121 pp. 1677 – 1691 30.09.2016 ru 320
Currently, due to the risk of global warming because of increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, carbon-deposit function of forest ecosystems, thanks to which stabilization of gas composition of the atmosphere takes place, has great importance [1]. Forest is one of the main components of the biosphere. Forests protect soil from erosion, provide stability hydrological regime of rivers, supply atmosphere with oxygen, biologically active substances, purify of harmful impurities, create optimal environmental conditions and play an important environmental role. However, because of intensive anthropogenic influence (unregulated logging, technogenic environmental pollution recreation) forest ecosystems are experiencing stresses at which irreversible processes of degradation of communities of economically valuable main forestforming species of both natural and artificial origin take place [6]. Evaluating carbon-deposit function of forest plantations, CO2 emissions to the atmosphere through the soil respiration must be taken into account, which can vary within wide limits. Productivity of forests is largely driven by carbon dioxide, released from the soil. Soil carbon dioxide provides demand of forest plants for photosynthesis. With increasing intensity of soil respiration, positive balance is maintained [2]. Based on the method of V.I. Tarankov for evaluation of carbon-deposit and oxygen-producing functions of wood cenoses [2], similar research is carried out in RSI "Kuban forestry", the KarachayCherkessia Republic
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THE EFFECT OF NANO BIOLOGICAL FEED SUPPLEMENT "NABIKAT" IN RATIONS OF BROILER CHICKENS ON THEIR PRODUCTIVITY AND HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

abstract 1211607137 issue 121 pp. 2165 – 2176 30.09.2016 ru 318
The article scientifically substantiates and experimentally confirms the high efficiency of the nano biological feed supplement "NaBiKat" in diets of broiler chickens of the "Cobb-500" cross. The supplement is a new complex with a mixture of rice germ films, green tea gallocatechin in chelated form, and forty-nine trace elements in chelated form, including biosoluble form of silicon. The main function of silicon is to be involved in a variety of intermediate exchange reactions as a catalyst and to ensure normal flow of vital mechanisms as a coupler helping to combine cellular molecules into a whole functioning structure. Silicon begins to act on the body when getting into the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract with the feed. It activates the enzyme system of the body and in ionic form is absorbed by kind of ordinary diffusion along almost the entire small and large intestine beginning from the jejunum. The supplement studied has been proved to improve the morphological structure and biochemical properties of blood, to enhance metabolism, redox processes, and the level of natural resistance. The broilers fed the supplement "NaBiKat" in the experimental groups have been found to have a higher concentration of macro- and micronutrients in blood. The nano biological silicon-containing supplement as a compound of in the composition of feed for chickens had a positive effect on their growth and development
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