Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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142 kb

NEW GROWTH REGULATORS AND ANTIDOTES FOR ENVIRONMENT-FRIENDLY PLANT PROTECTION

abstract 1331709037 issue 133 pp. 475 – 485 30.11.2017 ru 461
Searching for new promising plant growth regulators and antidotes, we have synthesized a series of Nsubstituted naphthalene-2-sulfonylamides. Synthesized compounds have been studied as potential growth regulators of economically significant crops - winter wheat, sugar beet, sunflower, soybean, and herbicide antidotes for sunflower growing plants. The substances with high growth stimulating and antidote effect were found
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METHOD OF INCREASING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF BROILER CHICKENS THROUGH THE USE OF FUNCTIONAL ADDITIVE

abstract 1211607120 issue 121 pp. 1897 – 1906 30.09.2016 ru 465
In the experimental work, we studied the effect of the inulin prebiotic on the growth, development and efficiency of growing broiler chickens of the Isa cross. In accordance with the scheme of the experiment, the first control group was fed a complete feed (CF) by periods of growth. In the second group, inulin was added to the CF for the first 21 days of growth. In the third group prebiotic was added to the CF at the same rate throughout the whole period of rearing the chicks (42 days). In the second and third groups, we found the tendency to increase the intensity of growth rate in poultry by 1.6 and 3.0%, respectively, compared with the control. Feed costs for weight gain were decreased by 2.1-2.7%. In the chime of the blind processes of the intestine of the chickens of 2-3 experimental groups it was found the reduction of staphylococci and enterococci CFU, while similar to the control group lactobacilli CFU. The muscle tissue in the chickens of experimental groups had greater protein content. The optimal range of indicators is the use of inulin for the first 21 days of rearing poultry. Because of the production audit, an increase in live weight of chickens was found, in the experimental group by 2.7% (p ≤ 0.05), a decrease of feed costs by 7.5%, increase of the survival rate of poultry by 2.0% and profitability by 3.1%
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YIELD PREDICTION OF TECHNICAL GRADES OF GRAPES WITH THE WHITE COLOR OF BERRIES ON THE BASIS OF A STUDY OF THE EMBRYONIC FRUITFULNESS OF BUD IN THE CONDITIONS OF ANAPA - TAMAN AREA OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1211607094 issue 121 pp. 1545 – 1582 30.09.2016 ru 466
The article presents the data on the formation of the embryonic fruitfulness of central ovaries of wintering buds of the group of technical grape varieties with white berries - White Muscat; Pinot White, Chardonnay, Citron Magaracha, Pervenets Magaracha; Riesling, Viorica, Riton, Crystal in the conditions of Anapa-Taman zone. There were revealed the rates of embryonic fruitfulness of central ovaries of buds of studied cultivars and fruiting indices of vegetative shoots developed from them. In all studied grape varieties there was revealed a high percentage of fruitful buds from 84,1 in the variety of Riton at 97.2 at Viorica; and the percentage of fertile vegetative shoots from 81,8 at the variety Citron Magaracha to 97.2 in the variety White Muscat. At the leveled load of bushes, vegetative shoots and the same scheme of planting of bushes (3 x 2 m), the highest yield in terms per hectare showed the varieties Pervenets Magaracha, Viorica, Riton, Crystal, Riesling and Citron Magarach. When assessing the economic efficiency the highest net income and level of profitability were identified in the varieties of Citron Magaracha, Pervenets Magaracha, Viorica and Riton. In order to determine which buds will give us shoots with large, well-developed (well-differentiated) buds, and which will not give (weakly differentiated), it is necessary "to look inside a bud". But even already formed germs of inflorescences in the bud are able in a few days in spring or dedifferentiate or degrade depending on the influence of external conditions. Scientists have learned to use this ability to increase the maximum possible yield in years of severe damage of grape by frosts. Firstly, in frosty winters the central buds wither out. The replacing buds usually have poor fruiting and bad productivity during years. In such cases, it is more profitable to conduct a small cutting of angle buds arranged in a circle at the base of a shoot. At the beginning of the second vegetation phase, these buds will obtain the great bulk plastic substances, which will cause the dedifferentiation of rudiments of inflorescences in them. Thus, it is possible not only to restore rapidly the normal shape of a bush, but to obtain a good harvest this year
199 kb

ACCELERATED REPROCESSING TECHNOLOGY FOR RECYCLING PIG MANURE INTO ORGANIC FERTILIZER

abstract 1331709080 issue 133 pp. 1094 – 1113 30.11.2017 ru 467
The article considers the accelerated reprocessing technology for recycling pig manure into organic fertilizer. Today, closely relevant is the matter of environmentally friendly technologies for cattle manure utilization. Export of wastes in its pure form to agricultural land cannot be applied, because disease causing and chemical compound penetrated the soil, entered the groundwater and contaminated many water sources. Experiments for the accelerated reprocessing of the pig manure into organic fertilizer were conducted on the basis of PCF No. 2 of the APC "Maryanskaya" in the Krasnoarmeisky district. With the aim of eliminating the filtering of pollutants in soil and groundwater, the experiment was performed in a concreted area, located within a farm. For the test, we used pig manure of animals, whose age was 2-8 months. The total weight of used manure was 40 t. The accumulation of manure was carried out in containers, containing 4 tons; the total time for the accumulation of necessary amount of manure for 2 months. Comparing the quality of compost obtained by the proposed technology recommended for industrial applications, control, we found differences in the chemical and biological properties. Overall, the conducted experiment has allowed to establish that the best option, given the speed of the flow of chemical and biological processes, demands environmental protection, is composting manure with straw, adding a biological product "Tamir" at the rate of 0.5 l/t. The Obtained results are comparable with data of previous years and indicate the possibility of reducing the quantity of a biological product from 1 to 0.5 l/t of waste without reducing the efficiency of the process of accelerated decomposition of nitrogenous organic compounds
277 kb

INFLUENCE OF RATES AND COMBINATIONS OF MINERAL FERTILIZERS ON YIELD OF CORN AND AGROCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FERTILITY OF THE LEACHED CHERNOZEM OF WESTERN FORECAUCASUS

abstract 1211607107 issue 121 pp. 1732 – 1748 30.09.2016 ru 470
For the purpose of preservation of soil fertility at relatively low economic expenses, we have conducted researches on optimization of doses and combinations of mineral fertilizers by cultivation of field corn hybrid called "Krasnodar 382" in a stationary field experiment of the Department of agrochemistry in the training farm "Kuban", in the conditions of the leached chernozem of Central zone of the Krasnodar region. The main impact on receiving high-quality corn gives the content of plant nutrients in soil. Our researches showed that the application of the complete fertilizer in various doses has had influence on the content of essential plant nutrients in the soil. The maximal values of the content of mineral nitrogen, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium during all phases of vegetation have been got in options with double N60P60K40 and triple N90P90K60 dose of the complete fertilizer. Sufficient supplying the soil with plant nutrients by fertilizing has entailed the enhance of corn yield. Great crop of corn has been reaped during the experiment. After three years of researches, the productivity has reached averaged 58,7 cwt/hectare. The greatest productivity has been received in the option with application of triple and double dose of the complete fertilizer and amounted 68,5 and 68,0 cwt/hectare, what is 47% and 45,9% more, compared to the option without any application of fertilizers. The main substance, which defines nutritional value of corn, is proteins. Application of fertilizers under the conditions of our experiment has promoted enhancing the protein content in corn. The application of mineral fertilizers has promoted increase of the content of crude protein in corn. Maximal it was in option with application of the complete mineral fertilizer in the double dose of N60P60K40 – 9.6%, when reaped protein has amounted 6,5 cwt/hectare. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that it is most expedient to fertilize field corn with the dose of N60P60K40 and N90P90K60
162 kb

WINTER WHEAT PRODUCTIVITY ON THE LEACHED BLACK HUMUS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE WESTERN PRE-CAUCASIAN REGION

abstract 1251701049 issue 125 pp. 724 – 737 31.01.2017 ru 473
The reaction of winter wheat cultivar ‘Antonina’ on the level of fertility and doses of fertilizers on crop productivity was studied. Investigations are carried out in multivariate 11 –course crop and grain-grass rotation stationary: factor ‘A’- the fertility of the soil; factor ‘B’ - fertilizer system; factor ‘C’ - the system of plants protection; factor ‘D’ - the main methods of soil tillage. Four models of soil fertility levels were studied in the experiment: А0 - initial (natural background); А1 - average (200 kg / ha Р2О5 and 200 t / ha of solid manure); А2 - high (double dose); at А3 - high (tripled) on three backgrounds of basic soil cultivation: nonmoldboard, recommended, moldboard with deep bursting and without the application of tillage (direct seeding and the natural rate of soil fertility). The soil is heavy leached black humus with humus content in the arable layer of 2.5% - 2.9%. On the basis of proven researches it was found that for the sustainable yield of winter wheat the dose of mineral fertilizers should be increased and nitrogen - up to 140 kg per hectare. The increase in yield is due the rise of the quantity of grains per ear and weight of grain per ear
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THE SYSTEM OF PROTECTIVE FOREST PLANTATIONS IN THE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL CHERNOZEM REGION IN RUSSIA

abstract 1241610021 issue 124 pp. 403 – 413 30.12.2016 ru 474
The article presents the indicators of the protective afforestation of the Central black earth region, biometric growth index, agricultural and environmental impact of forest belts, efficiency of agroterritories
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THE SHORTAGE OF WINTER WHEAT GRAIN CAUSED by P. triticina

abstract 1221608085 issue 122 pp. 1284 – 1293 31.10.2016 ru 478
The article studies the influence of the interaction of two technologies of plant protection: breeding- immunological and chemical. The studies were conducted on the varieties and lines of soft winter, durum wheat and triticale, established in Krasnodar research institute named after P. P. Lukyanenko, and also, on varieties of an alien and foreign selection. When considering the correlations in the group of genotypes, forming a necrotic type of reaction to the introduction of the pathogen (the first group of varieties), the significant negative correlation (r - 0,76) between the change in the mass of 1000 grains and the number of unproductive stems formed by one plan was established. The model of the severity of brown rust pathogen in sparse crops of wheat has been collaborated. According to the model, the development of the pathogen in the tissues of the leaves of the host plant leads initially to a change in the relations of the productive and unproductive stems. The change of these parameters significantly affects on the variability of indicators such as the mass of grains from one ear, number of grains per ear and 1000 grain weight. Negligible volatility of weight for 1000 grains suggests that the major losses of productivity in the flowering stage are due to abortive flowers. This model can explain the increase in the mass of 1000 grains in some varieties for tolerance change experiments with the defeat of plants of P. Triticina on micro-plots
204 kb

STUDYING THE REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF PLANTS OF BEZOSTAYA 1 WHEAT HAVING ADDITIONAL SPIKELETS ON THE LEDGE OF THE RACHIS

abstract 1201606046 issue 120 pp. 664 – 674 30.06.2016 ru 480
The article discusses the effect of additional spikelets in the variety of Bezostaya 1 on the realization of productivity of the examined plants. We traced the frequency of occurrence of multirov spikes and studied the effect of this phenomenon on the productivity and the main quantitative characteristics of the studied plants. The article demonstrates the structure distinction of productivity for abnormal and normal ears. Experience was one-way vegetation, planted in triplicate, time of experiment - 2013 - 2015 years. The study revealed that the most frequent was the emergence of 1-4 additional spikelets per spike. Some quantitative characters had a slight deviation, these include the number of spiked ledges on the kernek, spike length and plant height. To a large extent we increased the characteristic values such as the number of grains per ear, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains onto the ledge, head weight and the weight of grains spike. We significantly reduced weight of 1000 grains. It was revealed that more localized spikes were mostly in the middle, the most productive part of the ear. As a result, changes have affected not only the quantitative characteristics related to the productivity of the ear, but also its architectonic whole
151 kb

DYNAMICS OF MACRO AND MICRO ELEMENTS UNDER WINTER WHEAT AS A RESULT OF REMINERALIZATION OF LEACHED BLACK SOIL

abstract 1281704007 issue 128 pp. 135 – 145 28.04.2017 ru 480
Remineralization of leached chernozem was carried out by applying such rocks as loess-like loam, shell limestone, apatite phosphogypsum. We have revealed that the introduction of species didn’t change substantially the content of boron during the growing season. We have also displayed the seasonal dynamics of macro variants of the experiment and the increase in the content of food items in the phase of active growth of winter wheat. Seasonal dynamics of trace elements is expressed, but can not be expressed with certain regularity
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