Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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245 kb

PREDICTIVE EVALUATION OF THE EXPECTED RICE YIELD IN THE KUBAN REGION IN 2016-2020

abstract 1201606083 issue 120 pp. 1250 – 1265 30.06.2016 ru 540
The article presents the analysis of variation of daily mean temperatures for the period 1977-2015. Clear tendency for their increasing in pre-sowing and especially in growing period is found. Heat supply of separate months in pre-sowing period increased in the row: April-February-January-December-March, and that of growing period – in a row: May-Juny-JulySeptember-August. Presence of slight correlation (from -0,256 to 0,268) of temperatures in winter-spring months with heat supply of coming spring summer months is found. It is shown that correlation of rice yield with temperatures of pre-sowing (DecemberApril) and growing (May-September) periods varies from weak to average (from 0,016 to 0,524) with a tendency to increasing from winter months to summer ones. Use of analog method made it possible to estimate roughly the nature of t upcoming growing season of rice in the current 2016: after the abnormally warm winter one should expect the value of heat supply of summer months to be close to normal. In the physiological sense, such distribution of summer temperatures is favorable for rice. Use of one of the most effective forecast methods – smoothing the time series (method of «moving decades») – made it possible to evaluate medium-term rhythms of heat supply of rice growing season and yields. It was found that after an abnormally high level of heat supply of the growing season, marked during last decade, we should expect a decrease in spring and summer temperatures - the next attack of the "cold" cycle. If this hypothesis is confirmed, then up to 2020, and later a natural tendency for decrease in rice yields, arising from the adverse factors of temperature, will continue which should also affect the economic efficiency of the industry as a whole
328 kb

YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY OF DIFFERENT WINTER WHEAT CULTIVARS DEPENDING ON PREDECESSORS, FERTILIZERS AND OTHER METHODS OF GROWING

abstract 1201606087 issue 120 pp. 1305 – 1321 30.06.2016 ru 441
The reaction of winter wheat of Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute selection that is included in the State Register of selection achievements in the Russian Federation, on the predecessor, the sowing time and the level of mineral nutrition in 2008 - 2010 was studied in "Severokubanskaya agricultural experimental station" P.P. Lukyanenko Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute, located in the northern area of the region. The objects of research were cultivars ‘Bezostaya 1’, taken as a standard, ‘Tanya’, ‘Grom’, ‘Sila’, ‘Ligue 1’, ‘Irishka’ and ‘Yumpa’, with a specific weight of strong wheat (excluding the cultivar ‘Bezostaya 1’) - 57.1%, essential - 28.6%, weak - 14 3%. The predecessors are winter wheat, sunflower, white mustard. Seed dates: the 20th of September (optimal for determining the originator of the cultivar) the 1st and 10th of October. The background of mineral nutrition is N0P0K0, N60P30K30 and N120-160P90K60. The soil is an ordinary powerful heavy-loam chernozem with humus content in the soil layer 0 - 30 cm 3.95 - 4.00%, of mineral nitrogen - 8.3 - 10.7 mg / kg of soil, of mobile phosphates - 22.4 - 26 6 mg / kg of soil, of exchangeable potassium - 330 - 360 mg / kg of soil. Weather conditions during the research were extremely contrasting, both by the precipitation and by the temperature conditions. Based on these studies, it was found that five or six cultivars of this crop that differ in biological and economic features, the reaction on the predecessor, soil fertility and sowing terms as well as adapted to the specific soil and climatic conditions should be used to obtain consistently high yields of winter wheat. Well-chosen cultivars, predecessors and sowing terms predecessors allow without additional cost on the unfertilized background to increase the yield on 0.20 - 0.79 t / ha. Together with the growth of yield, the technological quality of grain is improved: protein content by 0.5 - 2.4%, fibrin content - 1.7 - 7.6%. The principle of mosaic use of cultivars with specific predominance of strong wheat is 57.1%, essential - 28.6%, weak - 14.3%, it allows to produce the grain when you apply the minimum dose of 12.5% protein content, 20.9% of fibrin content. When using N90P60K60 respectively 13.3 and 23.6% at a dose N120-150P90K60 - 14.4 and 26.8% with an average of 13.5 - 24.0%
322 kb

EFFICIENCY OF CULTIVATION OF DIFFERENT WINTER WHEAT CULTIVARS IN THE CONDITIONS OF INSUFFICIENT HUMIDIFYING IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1201606088 issue 120 pp. 1322 – 1336 30.06.2016 ru 687
The influence on the predecessor, on the time of sowing and various mineral nutrition levels, on the productivity of seven cultivars of winter soft wheat of Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute selection was investigated. On the basis of the obtained experimental data and production audit it was found that all studied cultivars under the total complex of cultivation technological methods are able to form the yield of 6-7 t / ha with the payment of one kg of active ingredient of fertilizer by the grain within 6.50-9.86, and 8.56- 10.71 kg. Soil was ordinary chernozem with a low humus content powerful humus content, depending on the power of backgrounds in the arable (0-30sm) soil layer is 3,95-4,00%, of mineral nitrogen is 5,9-8,3 mg / kg of soil, mobile phosphorus is 22,4 - 26,6 mg / kg of soil, of exchangeable potassium is 330-360 mg / kg of soil. Predecessors are winter wheat, sunflower, white mustard cultivated on seeds. The main tillage is resource-saving with the mulching of 0-10 cm layer. Studied sowing terms are the 20th of September, the 1st and 10th of October. The backgrounds of mineral nutrition: 1-without fertilizer N0P0К0; 2-minimum dose of complete mineral fertilizer N60P30К30; 3-average dose N90P60К60; 4-high dose N120- 160P90К60. Seeding rate is 5 million germinating seeds per hectare. The objects of the research were seven winter soft wheat cultivars of Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute selection. We studied winter wheat cultivars with different combination of biological characteristics and predecessors. This combination is contributed to the yield growing from 4,26-5,82 t / ha up to 6,97-7,2 4,26-5,82 t / ha with the payment of one kilogram of active fertilizer substance with the output of grain within 8,52-12,0kg
170 kb

PRODUCTIVITY AND METABOLISM IN DAIRY COWS WHEN FED WITH HERBS COLLECTION IN THE CONDITIONS OF YAKUTIA

abstract 1201606092 issue 120 pp. 1378 – 1391 30.06.2016 ru 379
Feeding lactating dairy cows of the Simmental breed using the collection of herbs with Тhyмus bituminosus Klok, Achillea millefolium L., Polygonum aviculare L., Galium verum L, Chamerion angustifolium L., Sanguisórba officinális, Stellaria media L. and Amaranthus retraflexus L. contributed to a better digestibility and nutrient utilization of diets. A high level of digestibility by cows experimental compared to the control group is set with respect to the dry and organic matter of 2.0% and a crude protein 1.4 %. When using the collection of herbs, there was an increase in the antioxidant status of erythrocyte cells in blood of dairy cows as expressed in the increasing content of low molecular weight antioxidants in blood cells by 1.4 times in reducing the intensity of lipid peroxidation of erythrocyte membranes in 1,2 times, in comparison with the control values. The use of the collection of herbal increases milk yield of cows of the experimental group by 7.4 %, increases by the 16.2 % yield of milk fat and the protein content of 10.7 % in milk of dairy cows compared to the control group
151 kb

INFLUENCE SOIL AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS FOR GROWING GRAPE VARIETIES BRANDY AND DEFINITION OF AREA OF SPECIALISATION BRANDY PRODUCTION

abstract 1201606093 issue 120 pp. 1392 – 1402 30.06.2016 ru 376
Improving the quality of Russian cognac is of great national importance. It should be noted that about 80% of Russian foreign brandies made from aged cognac distillates. To obtain high-quality products necessary technical-chemical control of production starting from the vine and the conditions of its growth. For a comprehensive evaluation of the totality of important factors: climate, relief, soil and variety. It is important to add that this grading must be accompanied by the release of environmental macro zones with viticulture specialization. In this regard, there has been conducted a soil-cartographic survey of lands of ACE "Fanagoria" in the Temryuk district of the Krasnodar region. Evaluation took place in view of all 4 factors, notably the soil factor; and the content of lime in the soil and the degree of salinity of soils. Soil analyzes were carried out in FGBNU Anapa ZOSViV SKZNIISiV using the latest equipment generally accepted methods for determining indicators of soil characteristics. The purpose of the research - to give a detailed description of the survey area, as well as highlight the boundaries of environmental macro zones for the cultivation of grapes brandy. During the research, it was found that for the selection and evaluation of raw material zones for brandy production we must take into account soil and climatic optimum performance to get quality brandy raw materials
143 kb

HYBRIDOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF PLANT RESISTANCE OF WINTER WHEAT TO P. triticina

abstract 1201606094 issue 120 pp. 1403 – 1413 30.06.2016 ru 264
The article discusses the hybridological analysis of the inheritance of plant resistance of winter wheat to brown rust Putignano. For this purpose, we performed the analysis on the varieties of wheat of local selection, studied immunological reaction to R. triticina in connection with the types of wheat resistance to leaf rust pathogen. In the work, we considered the different immunological parameters (type of plant response to the introduction of the pathogen, the intensity of infection of plants, the size of urediniospores, the number of urediniospores in one urediniomycetes, the amount of time from the time of inoculation until the beginning of the first urediniomycetes (i.e. a measure of latent period) and the area under the curve of disease development). Study of the inheritance of the type of plant responses to the introduction of the pathogen by the method of hybridological analysis revealed that this immunological reaction can be controlled by both dominant and recessive genes. Monogenic control of resistance in our study was fairly uncommon and installed from THERE 200 varieties and Purdue 5396. It is shown that the majority of the examined lines type of plant response to the introduction of the leaf rust pathogen is controlled, as a rule, several genes with different types of interaction. The results of hybridological analysis allow to draw a conclusion about what type of plant response to the introduction of the parasite – an integral indicator that takes into account the morphological peculiarities of urediniomycetes (the size and number of urediniospores produced in them)
301 kb

FEATURES OF CULTIVATION OF BROILERS OF HUBBARD REDBRO CROSS IN FARMS FOR “ORGANIC” MEAT

abstract 1201606105 issue 120 pp. 1576 – 1605 30.06.2016 ru 563
This article is devoted to studying the influence of conditions of keeping and feedings on broilers of Hubbard RedBro cross, and the quality of the received products in case of application of floor and cellular content in the conditions of a farm. It was found that when receiving a feed of its own production with the use of feed ingredients grown in farms without pesticides, recorded a statistically significant reduction in the potentially dangerous health animal substances. As compared with a factory forage therein reduced pesticide content by 14 times, mercury and arsenic is 24 times, 5 times cadmium, lead 10 times. Results of studying of economic indicators of cultivation of broilers of cross Hubbard RedBro and also chemical composition and quality of carcasses demonstrated that the essential difference between a floor and cellular condition of keeping is not established, however use of a diet on the basis of what forages promoted statistically reliable decrease in concentration of toxic metals in muscles of a bird of experienced groups. As a result it was found that use of the researched compound feed in diets of broilers raised indicators of biosafety and provided ecologically safe (“organic”) meat products of poultry farming
233 kb

FEATURES OF LAYING SEED NURSERIES OF LONG-GRAINED RICE VARIETIES FOR INCREASING VOLUMES OF SEEDS PRODUCED IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

abstract 1191605007 issue 119 pp. 117 – 133 31.05.2016 ru 657
The article reviews four variants of laying nurseries of primary branches of seed production of long-grained rice varieties of the Kuban breeding taking into account their biological features, plots area ranges from 0,7 m2 to 1,1 m2 , seeding rate for one family – from 100 pcs./m 2 to 170 pcs./m2 . We have studied traits of long-grained rice varieties of the Kuban breeding - Ivushka, Avstral, Kurazh, affecting the yield and quality of seeds: yield, multiplication factor and fractional composition of seeds depending on laying multiplication nursery of first year progeny. The differences between varieties by the type of tillering, vigor, germination of seeds depending on planting system are shown. Optimal way for laying seed nurseries is found: for long-grained varieties with medium tillering (Kurazh type) – row length – 3,3 m and seeding rate – 120 caryopses/m2 ; for those with intensive tillering (Ivushka type) – row length – 3,8 m and seeding rate - 120 caryopses/m2 . This will allow using mechanical method of sowing using selective cassette seeding-machine in the primary seed production, reducing cost of seed production and increasing efficiency of labor, increasing volume of seed production of long-grained rice varieties in short terms and accelerating their implementation in the Kuban region for import substitution
861 kb

INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF BASIC TREATMENT CONDUCTED UNDER SUNFLOWERS ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL

abstract 1191605017 issue 119 pp. 254 – 263 31.05.2016 ru 724
In the article, we present results of the research of the influence of various processings of soil on accumulation of productive moisture in autumn and winter periods
217 kb

WAYS OF REDUCTION OF ADVERSE FEEDING EFFECT ON ANIMALS

abstract 1191605021 issue 119 pp. 293 – 312 31.05.2016 ru 409
The successful development of livestock requires maintaining and further increasing of the genetic potential, the basis for the manifestation of which is the adequite balanced feeding. Currently, one of the most urgent problems of livestock breeding is to find ways for reduction of the negative impact of various feeding factors on the animals. In industrial conditions, it is difficult to exclude various feed stresses, which lead to a decrease in productivity, survival rate and ill health of animals and poultry. The work summarizes the research in this direction, taking into account the achievements of domestic and foreign authors. A serious problem of feed producing companies and livestock farms is the grain and compound feed affection with fungi and their metabolic products - mycotoxins. Based on the results of the research of several authors, the ways of solving this problem were identified and recommendations on the reduction of the negative effect on the body were provided. It is noted, that one of the best and effective ways to reduce the negative effect of mycotoxins on the body is a method of administration of adsorbents in animal feed. But it should be taken into consideration that in order to maximize the protection against mycotoxins and minimize their harmful effects on the body of animals it is necessary to use preparations, which include adsorbents of organic and inorganic nature, as well as to comply with the dosage of their introduction into the diets of animals and poultry.The progressive forms of preparations of a new generation, solving problems of the negative impact of feeding factors, include probiotics, which contain some bacteria, immobilized on the solid particles, so that they inhabit the intestine faster. Modern biological complexes have immune correcting properties, increase non-specific resistance of the organism, normalize microbiocenosis of gastrointestinal tract, and stimulate the functional activity of the digestive system. Therefore, it is necessary to use feed additives with detoxification properties as part of animal compound feed, according to recommendations on their application in appropriate dosages
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