Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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201 kb

IMPACT OF WAYS OF INCORPORATING RICE STRAW INTO THE SOIL ON RICE YIELD

abstract 1341710051 issue 134 pp. 650 – 660 29.12.2017 ru 71
In the conditions of the two-factor field experiment, the influence of four methods of incorporating straw in the soil on the rice yield was studied: plowing, one-, two- and three-time discs and three ways of "processing" the straw: embedding in the soil of the chopped straw in its pure form, together with compensating nitrogen fertilizer and inoculated stubble biodestructor Stemix ® Niva. It is shown that the lowest yield is formed when straw is plowed, while surface tillage of soil by one-, two- and three-fold discs significantly increases the grain yield in comparison with the plow by 2.4, 4.2 and 5.2 c / ha, respectively. Taking into account that the double disking provided an almost twice increase in the yield of the crop and the absence of statistically significant differences with the triple disking; it is this method of incorporating the straw that should be considered the most expedient. The introduction of a compensating nitrogen fertilizer ensured a reliable increase in yield by 5.1 and 3.7 centners per hectare in comparison with the variants with the introduction of straw in pure form and treatment with biopreparation. Calculation of the share of the influence of the factors studied on the rice yield showed that the method for embedding straw provides 29.9% of the variability of the trait under study, the method of straw treatment is 36.7%, and the residual dispersion accounts for 33.4%. Incorporation of chopped rice straw in the soil together with compensating nitrogen fertilizer in the amount of 1% of the mass of straw, by double discing, ensured the receipt of a conventionally net income of 6940 rubles / ha, the rate of return - 70.4% and the cost recovery - 1.7 rubles / rub
121 kb

ISSUE OF DEVELOPMENT OF NONWEEDING TECHNOLOGY OF GROWING RICE SEEDS

abstract 1341710058 issue 134 pp. 733 – 742 29.12.2017 ru 78
An analysis of the state of contamination of rice crops with red-grained forms was carried out, as well as impurity was found both in the seed material and in the soil. It was shown that there is a need to switch to non-weeding seed growing technology when conducting elite and reproductive seed production. Various variants of soil cultivation in combating the red rice forms are considered, both in the main and in the pre-sowing treatment. It has been found that after harvesting rice on heavily foul areas, it is better to burn straw, and not to carry out autumn tillage of the soil, the seeds of red-grained forms die mostly when wintering on the soil surface. The most effective method of soil cultivation for controlling of red rice forms in seed crops has been identified, in which the yield is increased, and the contamination of crops and the resulting rice grain is significantly reduced. The work carried out will allow reducing manual labor costs in the production of seeds, improving their quality and assortment, speed up variety changing and variety updating
114 kb

STATE AND STRUCTURE OF THE STREET PLANTINGS OF THE CENTRAL PART OF EKATERINBURG

abstract 1341710060 issue 134 pp. 753 – 759 29.12.2017 ru 79
Urban trees can provide multiple environmental benefits. The study of the state of the street tree and shrubby vegetation from the analysis of inventory data and environmental conditions is purpose the article. The structure of 11 types of street roadside vegetation, which determines about 93% of the greenery composition of the city of Ekaterinburg is considered. The structure of the examined tree-shrub vegetation and all vegetation, which is part of the greening of Ekaterinburg, is compared. For each tree (shrub) was measured: species, number of stems, diameter of stem at 1,3 m, tree height, height to base of live crown, crown width, percent of branch dieback in crown, percent of canopy volume devoid of leaves, number of sides of the tree receiving sunlight from above, distance and direction to building, distance to road. As a result, homogeneity of illumination of various plant species is received. Ash ordinary has the largest of all plants values of the percent of the missing crown (61.3%) and closest distance to the road. The effect on the plants (by average distance) of urban buildings (7- 30 meters) and the proximity of the roadway (3-7 meters) was observed
153 kb

THE EXPERIENCE OF CREATING A POPULATION OF MEAT-WOOL SHEEP

abstract 1341710071 issue 134 pp. 884 – 894 29.12.2017 ru 91
The study of the productive qualities of crossbred offspring from different breeding combinations and identifying the most effective ones providing the maximum increase in the production of high quality lamb while reducing its cost is an important problem and is essential for further development of methods of creating a new type of precocious meat and wool sheep. In the Rostov region in the result of the establishment of populations of meat-wool sheep there are several groups of animals with different characteristics and hereditary inclinations. As the base of the work there is a method of mating and breeding of sheep of the desired type. The article presents the results of one of the fragments of a large complex work in which the possibility of using three-pedigree hybrids, created with the involvement of potential salskaya, edilbaevskaya and intense meat-wool breed, which is severokavkazskaya, to improve productive quality in the breeding of sheep. We have evaluated productivity and biological features of hybrids and proved the economic efficiency of their use in the production of mutton. We have given the results of the control slaughter and assessment of qualitative indicators of the meat of young sheep. The set of indicators characterizing meat productivity and meat quality revealed that the superiority of the studied indicators remained for two - and three-bred cross cattle. Hybrids have a higher rate of growth and quality parameters of meat productivity. These options are simple and complex industrial crossing are promising and can be implemented and used on the farms of the zone of breeding Merino sheep. Thus, the use of crossbreeding gives an opportunity to convert a flock of sheep in the desired direction quickly. At the same time, three-pedigree hybrids better combine the valuable qualities of the used species
168 kb

SOIL PRODUCTIVITY OF DRAIN AGROLANDSCAPES DEPENDING ON THEIR MELIORATIVE CONDITION

abstract 1341710088 issue 134 pp. 1083 – 1095 29.12.2017 ru 107
In the soils of rice fields, eluvial gley processes develop, which are manifested in redistribution of silty particles along the profile, water-soluble humus, mobile compounds of iron and phosphorus. Most intensively, these processes are developed in meadowbog soils, confined to closed depressions of the plains plain. Meadow-black soils lying on elevated relief elements have more favorable physical, physicochemical and oxidation-reduction properties for cultivating rice and accompanying crops in crop rotation. The highest yield of rice is formed on high checks and higher at 12,4 c/ha than on low ones
140 kb

PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIAL PIG BREEDING IN RUSSIA THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES

abstract 1341710098 issue 134 pp. 1220 – 1230 29.12.2017 ru 91
The steady development of modern pig farming dictates the need for new priorities, opportunities and requirements, such as reducing harmful environmental impacts, more efficient use of resources, and provision of comfortable conditions for the pig housing. The creation of an appropriate ITS BAT in the branch will optimize the activity of agricultural pig breeding enterprises due to the transition to performance of requirements based on BAT technological parameters, to solve the problem of energy efficiency, import substitution and increase of competitiveness. Their integration will have an effect not only on improving the ecological state of the environment, but also on the economy of agricultural enterprises providing a new approach to agricultural activity
748 kb

RESULTS OF CALVING AND THE COMPOSITION OF THE BLOOD OF HEIFERS OF SIMMENTAL BREED, MOVED TO THE TAMAN PENINSULA FROM THE ASTRAKHAN REGION

abstract 1341710107 issue 134 pp. 1350 – 1367 29.12.2017 ru 89
The article contains data on results of calving and blood tests of heifers moved from the Astrakhan region in the Temryuk district of the Krasnodar region in the condition of early pregnancy. According to the accompanying documents, cell blood count, hemoglobin and biochemical parameters were consistent with species and age normal. Calving took place without complications and did not require delivery; received 36 of 36 calves from cows. The quality of the calves found to be satisfactory. On the 45th day of service period, clinical signs of impaired health status were present in 2 animals, however biochemical markers of liver disease, inflammation, and anemia was identified in 7 heifers. In the context of work on creation of livestock combined milk and meat productivity of inseminated heifers and heifers of the Simmental breed the Simmental semen (25 cows) and Aberdeen Angus (34 cows) breeds. Fruitfully inseminated 55 out of 60 animals; indicator of severity of calving was 8 % for Simmental cows. Calves of Simmental breed and Simmental-Aberdeen Angus cross-breeds meet the requirements for live weight at birth and the exterior. Farming on the formation of herds of milk and meat direction of productivity are found to be effective
587 kb

STRUCTURING THE INFORMATION SYSTEM OF DATABASE "PARAMETERS OF QUALITY OF GRAIN" IN RICE PLANT BREEDING

abstract 1341710111 issue 134 pp. 1437 – 1447 29.12.2017 ru 64
In breeding programs, evaluation of initial material is made on all the stages of developing the variety. Great difficulties for the breeding process are made by absence of modern mechanisms for storing, retrieving, manipulating the relevant data, and using the information previously obtained for use in solving the set breeding task. In order to organize the management of breeding process for development of high-quality rice varieties, based on the urgency of problem of intellectual analysis of data, the Database "Rice Quality" was designed as a set of structured data - the rice quality characteristics identified in the stages of the process of developing variety belonging to the "Rice". In the domain model, the infologic model, a set of parameters for evaluating rice quality in terms of out-of-program components is defined. The program is written in the Microsoft Access database environment using built-in query building tools, forms, reports. The structure of the developed tables includes static and refreshed directories in which the necessary information is stored, the tables are combined into one-to-many relationships, while ensuring data integrity, cascading updates and deletion of fields
165 kb

PERSPECTIVES OF USING VARIETIES OF INDUCED TYPES OF JUNIPERS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FOOTHILL ZONE OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1341710114 issue 134 pp. 1459 – 1472 29.12.2017 ru 93
In the article, long-term data (2007-2015) of biometric parameters of an elevated part of plants are provided. Assessment of prospects of five introduced botanical species of juniper is carried out and recommendations about their use in landscaping are made. From 25 studied grades of junipers of types: Cossack, Sredniy, Virginia, Horizontal and Scaly we have established very perspective, perspective and a little perspective for gardening in the conditions of a foothill zone of the Krasnodar region
230 kb

PECULIARITIES OF AGROBIOLOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TECHNICAL WHITE MUSCAT GRAPES OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

abstract 1341710110 issue 134 pp. 1412 – 1436 29.12.2017 ru 70
The results of comparative analysis of three white muscat grades of grapes Viorika, the Muscat de Yaloven and the Muscat onitskan according to the biological indicators of fructification, productivity, quality of berries, mechanical structure of bunches, suitability for manufacture of direct extraction juice and dry wines are depicted in the article. All studied grades differ by high percent of fruiting runaways and high factors of fruiting and fructification. The highest factors of fruiting and fructification of runaways are reflected at grade Viorika, and the lowest - at a grade the Muscat de Yaloven. Biological indicators of fructification of runaways according to the length of a fruit spear are high and rather levelled at all grades. That is why, depending on bushes forming, it is possible to apply short and average (6-7 buds) length of vine cutting. Biological indicators of fructification of runaways from angular buds and sleeping buds are high enough, that shows to good regenerative ability of studied grades. Grades Viorika and the Muscat de Yaloven are tall, and the Muscat onitskan is average height. Degree of ripening of runaways at grades Viorika and the Muscat onitskan is good, at a grade the Muscat de Yaloven - satisfactory. Productivity of grades Viorika, Muscat de Yaloven and the Muscat onitskan is 77,94; 81,52 and 72,72 centner/hectares, and efficiency of runaway - 199,5; 193 and 221,9 with a significant difference between grades on both indicators. The exit of a mash at grades was 77,5-79,4 %. According to the contents of solids, sugars and acids, grapes of all grades correspond to requirements for manufacture of high-quality direct extraction juice. From grapes of these grades, it is possible to produce high-quality direct extraction juice under the name of ampelographic and blended grades. Sampling estimation of dry wines from grapes of these grades fluctuates from 7,6 to 7,8 points: 7,8 (Viorika), 7,7 (the Muscat onitskan), 7,6 (the Muscat de Yaloven)
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