Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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135 kb

NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF GRAPES OF TECHNICAL GRADES

abstract 1291705027 issue 129 pp. 306 – 314 31.05.2017 ru 208
We have presented opportunities to improve the nutritional value of wine production: improvement of biogenetic soil, using organic fertilizers. The nutritional value is ensured by not only high-quality biochemical diversity of berries, but also the safety of products that do not contain toxic inclusions. Bio-fertilizer stimulates the biotransformation of toxic soil residues to replenish soil nutrients for the plant, providing grape raw material with biologically active substances and improves the nutritional value of wine products. Food safety of grapes is ensured by reducing it residues of hazardous chemicals migrating from the soil into the plant and the grapes. It has been established, that after 3 years of application of biofertilizers we significantly improved food safety and quality in the biochemical parameters, especially important for the classic wine grape varieties. The soil content of toxic residues in grape raw material is reduced to 50%, the amount of organic acids increases by: 4,22 mg/dm3(Gallic, coffee acid, chlorogenic; 0.7 g/cm3 amber; of 1.33 mg/dm3 ascorbic; 0.25 mg/dm3 nicotinic
220 kb

INFLUENCE OF FERTIGATION, DRIP IRRIGATION AND FOLIAR NUTRITION ON PRODUCTIVITY OF APPLE TREES, FRUIT QUALITY AND SOIL PROPERTIES IN INTENSIVE ORCHARD OF THE CENTRAL CHERNOZEM REGION

abstract 1301706070 issue 130 pp. 958 – 974 30.06.2017 ru 209
The trials were conducted in 2013-2015. Research objects: apple trees cv. Zhigulevskoye/62-396, year of planting – 2007, at 4,5x1m. Place of research – experimental orchard of ”I.V. Michurin Federal scientific centre " in Tambov region. The goal of research: to study the effect of fertigation and foliar nutrition in an intensive apple orchard. During the research there were done yield records, was determined the content of nutrients in leaves and soil. In the soil there was also determined humus content and acidity, fruits were analyzed on vitamin C, saccharides and organic acids contents. Nitrogen in leaves and soil was determined by Kjeldahl method, phosphorus by photocalorimeter KFK-3, potassium and calcium by flame photometer Jenway PFP-7. We have established the optimal average application rate for fertigation in conditions of the Central Chernozem zone of Russia, which could be used to calculate specific application rates with data of soil-leaf diagnostics. In our research, it is shown that the use of this application rate had no significant negative impact on the studied parameters of soil. It is shown that the biochemical composition of fruits is largely determined by weather conditions of the year of vegetation and foliar nutrition. Maximum efficiency of measures for mineral supply optimizing is achieved only with the good combination of fertigation and foliar nutrition
2271 kb

DEPENDENCE OF PEACH LEAF CURL DEVELOPMENT ON WEATHER CONDITIONS IN RUSSIAN HUMID SUBTROPICS (APPLYING ASK-ANALYSIS)

abstract 1311707050 issue 131 pp. 572 – 594 29.09.2017 ru 213
In peach orchards of the Russian humid subtropics, leaf curl is the most dangerous and harmful disease. Due to the high degree of danger from the peach leaf curl, for the first time in this region the main task was to analyze peach leaf curl development on weather conditions. In order to solve the problem, it is proposed to apply a new innovative intellectual technology: automated system-cognitive analysis (ASK-analysis) and its software tools - the “Eidos” system. In order to build the model, based on our own observations and the experience of Russian and foreign colleagues, it was decided to use the following factors: the sum of temperatures above +4 ° C of the current year (for the period from January to April), the sum of temperatures above +4 ° C of the previous year (for the whole year), the sum of precipitation of the current year (for the period from January to April), the sum of precipitation of the previous year (for the whole year), the number of hours of infection (in the current year). It was established that such factors as the number of hours of infection, the sum of temperatures above +4 ° C in April and during the period from January to April, as well as the sum of precipitation in March and April, are the most important in the dynamics of peach leaf curl development and spread. High rates of leaf curl spread and development are caused by the number of hours of infection in the range of 1440 ... 2064 hours, as well as by low air temperatures in March and April (the sum of temperatures above +4 °C – 89,4-240,4° and 283,7-316,7°, respectively) and high air temperatures - in January and February (the sum of temperatures above +4 ° C – 155,3-259,6° and 243,5-280,1°, respectively)
170 kb

INFLUENCE OF DYNAMICS OF AGROECOLOGICAL INDEXES OF SOIL OF AZOVKUBAN LOWLAND ON THEIR AGROPRODUCTIVE VALUE AND CADASTRE COST

abstract 1331709054 issue 133 pp. 718 – 729 30.11.2017 ru 215
In the article there were analyzed the different approaches of Soviet and Russian authors to the assessment of soils regarding to agro-ecological factors. There was given the characteristic of natural-economic zones territorially entering the Azov-Kuban lowland by main soil-climatic indexes. There was considered the valuation of soils which determines their relative value and suitability on main factors of natural fertility or their groups, it serves as a criteria of unification of soils into agro-ecological groups. There were shown the main indexes and order of grouping of soils under unification of different soils into agro-ecological groups. There was calculated the “normative” productivity of main agricultural crops on natural-economic zones of Azov-Kuban lowland which defines the agro-productive value of soil. There were revealed the disadvantages of soil assessment method used in the course of state cadastre valuation of agricultural lands asserted by the order of the Ministry of Economic Development from 20.09.2010 № 445. There were cited the specific rates of cadastre cost (SRCC) of agricultural lands on municipal entities of Krasnodar region. There was given the assessment of obtained data regarding to natural-climatic factors of the region, there were made proposals on optimization of trends of further researches on claimed problem
201 kb

IMPACT OF WAYS OF INCORPORATING RICE STRAW INTO THE SOIL ON RICE YIELD

abstract 1341710051 issue 134 pp. 650 – 660 29.12.2017 ru 215
In the conditions of the two-factor field experiment, the influence of four methods of incorporating straw in the soil on the rice yield was studied: plowing, one-, two- and three-time discs and three ways of "processing" the straw: embedding in the soil of the chopped straw in its pure form, together with compensating nitrogen fertilizer and inoculated stubble biodestructor Stemix ® Niva. It is shown that the lowest yield is formed when straw is plowed, while surface tillage of soil by one-, two- and three-fold discs significantly increases the grain yield in comparison with the plow by 2.4, 4.2 and 5.2 c / ha, respectively. Taking into account that the double disking provided an almost twice increase in the yield of the crop and the absence of statistically significant differences with the triple disking; it is this method of incorporating the straw that should be considered the most expedient. The introduction of a compensating nitrogen fertilizer ensured a reliable increase in yield by 5.1 and 3.7 centners per hectare in comparison with the variants with the introduction of straw in pure form and treatment with biopreparation. Calculation of the share of the influence of the factors studied on the rice yield showed that the method for embedding straw provides 29.9% of the variability of the trait under study, the method of straw treatment is 36.7%, and the residual dispersion accounts for 33.4%. Incorporation of chopped rice straw in the soil together with compensating nitrogen fertilizer in the amount of 1% of the mass of straw, by double discing, ensured the receipt of a conventionally net income of 6940 rubles / ha, the rate of return - 70.4% and the cost recovery - 1.7 rubles / rub
143 kb

HYBRIDOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF PLANT RESISTANCE OF WINTER WHEAT TO P. triticina

abstract 1201606094 issue 120 pp. 1403 – 1413 30.06.2016 ru 216
The article discusses the hybridological analysis of the inheritance of plant resistance of winter wheat to brown rust Putignano. For this purpose, we performed the analysis on the varieties of wheat of local selection, studied immunological reaction to R. triticina in connection with the types of wheat resistance to leaf rust pathogen. In the work, we considered the different immunological parameters (type of plant response to the introduction of the pathogen, the intensity of infection of plants, the size of urediniospores, the number of urediniospores in one urediniomycetes, the amount of time from the time of inoculation until the beginning of the first urediniomycetes (i.e. a measure of latent period) and the area under the curve of disease development). Study of the inheritance of the type of plant responses to the introduction of the pathogen by the method of hybridological analysis revealed that this immunological reaction can be controlled by both dominant and recessive genes. Monogenic control of resistance in our study was fairly uncommon and installed from THERE 200 varieties and Purdue 5396. It is shown that the majority of the examined lines type of plant response to the introduction of the leaf rust pathogen is controlled, as a rule, several genes with different types of interaction. The results of hybridological analysis allow to draw a conclusion about what type of plant response to the introduction of the parasite – an integral indicator that takes into account the morphological peculiarities of urediniomycetes (the size and number of urediniospores produced in them)
310 kb

CURRENT STATE AND PROSPECTS OF THE RICE MARKET IN RUSSIA

abstract 1221608031 issue 122 pp. 431 – 447 31.10.2016 ru 216
Analysis of rice market in the country was conducted, as well as assortment of rice products was studied. It is shown that rice is the most popular grain in Russian Federation and in percentage of cereal products in shops they occupy 29% and in diet of Russian people – 41%. It is found that in Russia round grain japonica varieties are the most popular kind. It is mentioned that for the last years consumer market demands diversity of rice products, including long-grain and exclusive varieties, imported from abroad. It is shown that in big cities demand for such products has increased from 5% to 15%. Analysis of milled rice balance was conducted. It is found that volume of milled rice in the domestic market of the country is annually about 680-800 thousand tons exceeding the average demand value by 54,8 to 172,3 thousand tons. Promising breeding directions are observed for increasing assortment of rice products in Russian markets with a view to import substitution. It is mentione that Russian breeders have developed group of exclusive varieties: Rubin, Mars, Viola, Violetta, Avstral, Ivushka, Natasha, Aromir etc. It is shown that special purpose varieties currently occupy 3,5% of rice acreage in the Krasnodar region and their cost is by 20-70% higher than that of traditional rice varieties. It was found that for their implementation into production and promotion on the consumer market we need to develop agricultural techniques of cultivation and seed production scheme in accordance with the biological characteristics, conduct marketing activities, promotion of a healthy diet
121 kb

ISSUE OF DEVELOPMENT OF NONWEEDING TECHNOLOGY OF GROWING RICE SEEDS

abstract 1341710058 issue 134 pp. 733 – 742 29.12.2017 ru 216
An analysis of the state of contamination of rice crops with red-grained forms was carried out, as well as impurity was found both in the seed material and in the soil. It was shown that there is a need to switch to non-weeding seed growing technology when conducting elite and reproductive seed production. Various variants of soil cultivation in combating the red rice forms are considered, both in the main and in the pre-sowing treatment. It has been found that after harvesting rice on heavily foul areas, it is better to burn straw, and not to carry out autumn tillage of the soil, the seeds of red-grained forms die mostly when wintering on the soil surface. The most effective method of soil cultivation for controlling of red rice forms in seed crops has been identified, in which the yield is increased, and the contamination of crops and the resulting rice grain is significantly reduced. The work carried out will allow reducing manual labor costs in the production of seeds, improving their quality and assortment, speed up variety changing and variety updating
484 kb

THE EFFECT OF PERLITE USING ON QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE INDICATOR OF SEED GROWTH

abstract 1311707102 issue 131 pp. 1237 – 1247 29.09.2017 ru 221
An experiment has been carried out on the effect of germination of seeds with perlite on the improvement of the growth force of rye Vyatka-2. The purpose of the experiment was to study the effect of perlite on the growth force of seeds under the conditions of additional fertilizers and changing the volume water during irrigation. The task of the work was to determinate the growth force of seeds with perlite. The growth force of the seeds was determined after 10 days in sprouted seeds in five samples in glass vessels with three different moisture conditions. It was proved that germination of seeds with perlite increased the seed growth force up to 28% in comparison with seeds grown in sand (a control sample). The result also depended on decreasing of humidity rate up to 30-40%
140 kb

PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIAL PIG BREEDING IN RUSSIA THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES

abstract 1341710098 issue 134 pp. 1220 – 1230 29.12.2017 ru 223
The steady development of modern pig farming dictates the need for new priorities, opportunities and requirements, such as reducing harmful environmental impacts, more efficient use of resources, and provision of comfortable conditions for the pig housing. The creation of an appropriate ITS BAT in the branch will optimize the activity of agricultural pig breeding enterprises due to the transition to performance of requirements based on BAT technological parameters, to solve the problem of energy efficiency, import substitution and increase of competitiveness. Their integration will have an effect not only on improving the ecological state of the environment, but also on the economy of agricultural enterprises providing a new approach to agricultural activity
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