Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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abstract 1071503004 issue 107 pp. 86 – 93 31.03.2015 ru 1062
This article describes the results of laboratory experience on the impact of Ecoss enriched Biogumat on the productivity of radish varieties of Corundum in the conditions of artificial climate of Kuban state agrarian University. Sowing was made on November 24, 2014, in two replications. Processing was carried out by humic preparation with a content of humic substances 4 g/L. Humic substances are a special group of organic compounds, the origin of which is associated with the biochemical processes of decomposition and transformation of plant residues (leaves, roots, branches, trunks), animal remains, protein bodies of microorganisms In their composition we have detected humic acids, fulvic acids, salts of these acids, humates and fulvates and Hominy - durable connection of humic and fulvic acids from soil minerals. We have developed different ways of processing plants of radish humic preparation. The influence of this drug on the passage of the phenological stages of plant development was examined for radish and its morphometric characteristics and productivity, depending on processing methods
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abstract 1071503008 issue 107 pp. 142 – 155 31.03.2015 ru 1136
The article describes the results of the complex feed additive based on sunflower husk, enriched with beer wort with the addition of pumpkin pulp. We have studied the chemical composition of sunflower husk, which is the secondary resource of the processing plant raw material, selected methods of enrichment of this raw material with the help of fungi Trichoderma harzianum. Cellulolytic enzyme preparations on the basis of fungi of the genus Trichoderma for use in agriculture and animal feed production is often obtained when the surface method of cultivation. These drugs are cheap and contain a significant number of related hydrolytic enzymes, 29 such as amylase, protease, pectinase and hemicellulase, which are also important and valuable to the consumer. As a vitamin component of the feed additive we have selected a pumpkin pulp, which is a valuable feed for livestock and poultry is a source of carotene, fat and nitrogenous substances. We have also developed elements of technology for complex feed additive. We have created a comprehensive feed additive which can be used in the composition of diets in the feeding of farm animals and poultry
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abstract 1071503013 issue 107 pp. 207 – 218 31.03.2015 ru 855
The article is devoted to the study of growth peculiarities of summer potato on floodplain lands of Southern Russia. High and stable yields in big farms are possible using substantiated planting time of potato which depends on specific soil – climatic conditions of the area as well as potato cultivation technology elements improvement under irrigation. The latter will provide in turn water and power resources economy. The results of field research to determine planting time allow defining the most favorable conditions for potato cultivation in the given soil-climatic zone. The analysis of data obtained on differential irrigation regimes gives a possibility to determine common regularities of irrigation standards impact on potato growth efficiency. The regime proposed is in conformity with the concept of ecological land reclamation and takes into account a moderate anthropogenic impact on landscape processes under a permissible level of summer potato productivity decrease. Therefore proposed optimal time of summer planting and rational irrigation regime will increase industrial efficiency of potato production and provide environmental safety of irrigation on floodplain lands of South Russia while allowing to economize water and power resources
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abstract 1071503039 issue 107 pp. 563 – 577 31.03.2015 ru 1021
The obtained experimental data show that the incorporation of trace elements into the system of the sunflower crop has a positive impact on the mineral nutrition of plants, the number and quality of the crop. Foliar feeding of sunflower crops with micronutrients improves nutrition of plants with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, thus creating the preconditions for the formation of highly agrocenosis. The seed yield of sunflower increased by variants with application of micronutrients 1.2-3.5 t/ha or 4.4-12.9 percent. The greatest impact of treatment with boron and copper, exceeding the background option 3.1-3.5 t/ha or 11.5-12.9% respectively. The crop is least influenced by manganese and molybdenum. The examined elements positively influenced the structure of the sunflower crop. The greatest influence on the diameter of the basket, the number of seeds, weight of seeds in the basket, the weight of 1000 seeds was provided by the zinc and copper. Trace elements contributed to the improvement of quality indicators of sunflower. For husk content, the greatest positive effect was cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper, increasing the background option 10.1, 10.4, 10.5 and 10, and 6%, respectively, on the oil content of sunflower seeds had cobalt, copper and zinc. The oil content on these options amounted 55,0, with 55.1 and 55.2%, respectively, increasing this figure by 1.5 to 1.7 %. The acid number at variants with boron, manganese and zinc was the same with the background option and amounted to 1.8. The greatest influence on iodine number provided molybdenum, zinc and copper, which accounted for 170,5, 171,2 and 171,4, exceeding the background option 10.2 and 11.1
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abstract 1071503066 issue 107 pp. 967 – 983 31.03.2015 ru 1254
The results of study of groups and forms of iron compounds in leached chernozemic soils of Western Ciscaucasia for three crop rotations according to scheme grain-grass-hoeing are presented. With long-term use of leached black soil in terms of Agrigento there is a substantial change in the contents of the various groups and iron compounds. On the non-fertilized variant of rotation, the total content of this element in the 0-20 cm 21-40 cm soil layer by 69.4 and 66.5% of silicate and by 30.6% and 33.5% free group of compounds of iron. The applied system of fertilizer crop rotation helps reduce the silicate and increase of free group its compounds. In leached black soil a group of desilicated iron in the 0-20 cm layer 24.8 % presents crystallizability and to 75.2% amorphous compounds, 21-40 cm layer, respectively, 26.2 and 73,8 %. Under the influence of fertilizers we have noticed increasing of amorphous and reducing the number of cristallizing forms of the compounds of this element the soil. The number of different groups and forms of iron compounds in leached black soil with systematic use of fertilizers in crop rotation is determined not by the size of introducing this element as impurities, and processes such as the alienation of iron with additional derived products, increase its mobility in the soil due to a shift in the reaction of the soil solution, changes in fractional-group composition of humus. Diagnostic criteria state of iron in the soil are leached quantitative ratio of the content of the various groups and forms of the compounds of this element
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abstract 1071503073 issue 107 pp. 1092 – 1115 31.03.2015 ru 947
This article is a review work where the role of microelements in life of plants is observed and theoretical and practical issues concerning application of complex microfertilizers enhancing productivity, quality of seeds and grain on rice crops are highlighted. The complexions of the metals used as micronutrients, are an effective form of trace elements and means of regulation of the production process of agricultural crops as seed treatment before sowing, and when conducting foliar vegetating plants. Their inclusion in the system of fertilizer rice to balance mineral nutrients necessary for plant life, providing increased productivity, quality seeds and grains
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abstract 1071503092 issue 107 pp. 1416 – 1425 31.03.2015 ru 1212
The article presents materials on comparative study of the nutritional value of chickpeas and peas which are widespread in the arid zone of the Southern Urals. The scheme of the scientific and economic experiments involved the assessment of yield formation of chickpeas and peas during the vegetation. The study showed that different varieties of chickpea and pea have considerable difference in the content of nutrients. The amount of crude protein in the pea grain ranged from 25.1 to 26.8%, and chickpea – 21.7 - 22.9%. With regard to the fat, its highest concentration was in chickpea grain - 3.63%, on average, which is 1.16% higher than on average in the pea grain. The chemical composition of the pea and chickpea grain of different varieties points to differences in their composition and homogeneity within the culture. Basing on the study, we recommend to sow chickpea and pea grain in the middle of May to obtain the highest yield, this, in turn, has a positive effect on the nutritional value of the crops. When selecting plants for cultivation in the conditions of the Southern Urals, it is preferable to choose the variety of Madonna pea, which has a higher potential for yield than the chickpea variety Krasnokutsky-123. It has been experimentally found that chickpea grain has better moisture-retaining power in a bound condition during the vegetation period as compared to the relevant characteristics of pea grain, which is a positive drought-resistant value of crop. In structural elements of the harvest the peas showed the trend of the highest rates in comparison with the corresponding elements in chickpeas
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abstract 1071503097 issue 107 pp. 1493 – 1511 31.03.2015 ru 1051
We attempt to combine professional agronomic knowledge with familiarity with graphic art presented in the form of a poster in the paper. The term "poster" is considered a large loose-leaf edition, combines visual and typographic elements and execute graphic communications. The main idea of the poster is to convey the information to the reader quickly and accurately. In the study of the material we have formed complex scientific and educational resources on the history of agricultural science, including the history of the popularization of agronomic knowledge. In our work, the poster is treated as an object of analysis, as the material of social and cultural analysis and as a tool to gather information on the development of agronomic knowledge through their visualization. In the course "History and methodology of scientific agronomy" one of the competencies of students is familiarity with the methodology popularization of agronomic knowledge, understanding of what is happening. In this regard, an attempt was made to consider the Soviet poster as a source of information on the development of scientific agriculture in the period from 1917 to 1980. The aim was to analyze the main events of this period, elements of the technology of agricultural production, species and varietal diversity of crops, as well as various events in the agricultural sector. The article considers four basic types of posters: promotional, political, instructional, scientific and educational. Each of these types of posters performs its function. The poster covered all stages of agrarian sector of the country, was a historical reflection of the Soviet period and always remained mobile, online and popular art form. Today, his role is small, because it has changed the ways of presenting information. However, its historical role unchanged, he has served as the Foundation of the modern advertising industry, including agronomic knowledge
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abstract 1071503099 issue 107 pp. 1523 – 1537 31.03.2015 ru 1101
he article discusses postcards with images related to agro-botanic illustration, the possibility of their use as an information resource in the process of the study course on the history of agriculture. We have given the extensive understanding of agro-botanic illustrations, reviewed the goals and objectives of this type of image. History of agriculture in postcards considered on three types of images: art (reproduction and original) and documentary (photo). For each type of images we have illustrative examples with brief comments. The review is presented with a combined collection covering different countries of the world. The article contains examples of postcards with brief comments. It presents an overview of the collection of postcards from different countries, and an analysis of the examples from the series named "Giant vegetables at the farm" and "Apple family". Thus, the images presented on postcards allow us to obtain the following information: the orientation of the agricultural sector areas (main activities: crop production, livestock, horticulture, viticulture, vegetable growing, etc.); Botanical characteristics of crops (agro-botanic illustration; illustration of certain types of technologies of cultivation of crops (cleaning, plant care, plowing, irrigation); documentary image separate record harvests; historical and cultural traditions associated with the agricultural sector, or in separate areas; the promotion of new crops, varieties, and hybrids of agricultural plants and flower crops; information about crops grown in the region, state, specific areas; paintings covering the agricultural labor of a particular country; promotion of local flora; develops observation; teaches us to think and analyze the information
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abstract 1071503108 issue 107 pp. 1661 – 1678 31.03.2015 ru 827
This article presents the results of the chick peas use instead of sunflower cake, in feeding young and adult livestock hens-layers of the cross "Hajseks brown". The researches were carried out in the JSC "Agrofirm Vostok" of the Nikolayevskiy district in the Volgograd region. The sunflower cake replacement with legumes - chickpeas as the part of the experimental animal fodder for young and adult livestock hens-layers had a positive influence on productivity, physiological state of the birds, product quality and economic performance. Chick peas’ use in young hens feeding improves live weight at 1.03-4.68%, egg production in 0.99-4.7%, the average weight in 0.99-3.75% and eggs quality indicators. Morphological and biochemical indices in experimental young hens and laying hens in all the groups were within the physiological range, indicating normally occurring redox processes in the body of a bird. However, the chick peas’ application in fodder for experimental young hens and laying hens contributed to the increase of total protein, calcium, phosphorus content in serum compared with counterparts in the control group that received sunflower cake. As the researches result, the economic effect in the experimental groups was 833.01-3821.87 rubles