Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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157 kb

CONTENT AND FORMS OF CALCIUM COMPOUNDS IN THE LEACHED BLACK SOIL OF WESTERN CISCAUCASIA UNDER AGROGENESIS

abstract 1051501035 issue 105 pp. 603 – 614 30.01.2015 ru 762
Great practical and theoretical interest comes with a study of the transformation of calcium agrobiogeochemical in agro-ecosystems. The basis of the stability of the soil, as an element of the structure and functioning of the biosphere, constitutes historically approved biochemical cycles and flows of matter and energy, which remain unchanged under anthropogenic impact. Comparative analysis of the total content of calcium leached black soil allowed us to establish its decline after three rotations of grain and grass-tilled crop rotation. Without the use of fertilizers its reduction from baseline was 5.25% in the layer 0-20 cm and 3.87% in the 20-40 cm layer, with their introduction - 9.14 and 9.35%, respectively. This trend suggests a decrease in calcium reserves in the root zone of leached black soil in its agricultural use; this process is more active when using mineral fertilizers. This is obviously due to a large outflow of elements in the fertilizer background with harvest crops, and partly due to the influence of mineral fertilizers as chemical reagents on mineral soils, resulting in the release of calcium and moving it into the lower soil horizons. Along with the total content of calcium and its forms, we have analyzed the activity of calcium ions and calcium potential
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CREATING THE LOW BUDGET INTENSIVE APPLE ORCHARDS IN THE REPUBLIC OF DAGESTAN

abstract 1051501037 issue 105 pp. 623 – 634 30.01.2015 ru 883
In the conditions of foothill soil-climatic zones of the Republic of Dagestan we have explored the creation of low-cost intensive apple orchards. This work was initiated by the authors in 2011 due to the Republic "Horticulture Development Program for 2011-2016", according to which, it was planned to plant 6,200 hectares of new gardens. However, the experience of gardening in the Republic, taking into account recently prevailing socio-economic relations, subsidized nature of the economic and a chronic lack of funds, shows the riskiness of the creation of high-tech pillar-dwarf plants with the cost of 1-1,5 million rubles per hectare. Inability to overcome quickly the existing problems in the development of the industry sharp gardening at this stage, forced us to seek a way in a single direction - reducing the cost of the creation of apple orchards, while maintaining their high economic efficiency. Theoretical studies were realized as a planting of the apple garden in the district of Karabudakhkent of Dagestan of four perspective late-ripening varieties on the medium growing rootstock in the spring of 2013. The results of the three years of scientific research were embodied in the creation of intensive apple garden on the medium growing rootstock which allow now to make the following preliminary conclusions: 1.It is possible here in Dagestan to create intensive apple orchards, with an estimated yield of 30-40 tons per hectare, on the medium growing rootstock already at a density of 666 trees per hectare. 2. Cost of such a garden, without compromising quality indicators, can be reduced in the current market price of labor and the necessary materials, up to 214 thousand rubles per hectare, with access to the full return of all costs in the seventh year of operation. Such intensive garden, according to common practice, during the period of operation is able to give at least 22 full-weighty harvests and provide a net profit about 6.6 million rubles per hectare, or 236,000 rubles per hectare per year for the entire period of alienation of the land for a garden
146 kb

DYNAMICS OF AGROCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF LEACHED BLACK SOIL AND PRODUCTIVITY OF WINTER WHEAT DEPENDING ON PREDECESSORS

abstract 1051501039 issue 105 pp. 647 – 657 30.01.2015 ru 756
The article presents three-year data on the influence of different fertilization systems and predecessors (corn for silage and peas) of winter wheat in the rotation on the dynamics of content in the 0-20 cm layer of black leached soil of mineral nitrogen, of available phosphorus, of potassium, and yield of winter wheat. The materials presented in this article indicate that, regardless of its predecessor in all phases of plant development, the under study fertilizer systems significantly increased the content of mineral nitrogen on the indicators of natural agrochemical background on 1,1-29,3 mg/kg; maximum contents was registered in the settlement system of fertilizer. After a seeded fallow predecessor the fertilizer systems significantly increased the content of available phosphorus in the soil at 1,5-16,6 mg/kg and exchangeable potassium in the 6-57 mg/kg. The maximum indices of both indicators were observed in the settlement system of fertilizer. Analyzed fertilizer systems contributed to a significant increase in wheat yield relatively to control 0,82-2,24 t/ha on a busy couple 0,74-1,6 t/ha for maize silage, 1,44-2,42 t/ha peas. Maximum productivity of winter wheat in the experiment was fixed at the fertilizer system after a busy couple, and was 6,19 t/ha
907 kb

STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF OZONE ON THE GROWTH PROCESSES OF MAIZE SEEDS

abstract 1051501046 issue 105 pp. 759 – 773 30.01.2015 ru 814
Increasing the yield of crops is a global challenge substantiated by the scientists from all over the world. To achieve this goal, there are various ways, one of which is the ozonation of seeds before sowing. This method inhibits harmful microflora, which could be formed on the seed during the period of storage, and excites the chemical processes within the seed that can accelerate the process of growth. But despite the positive effect of ozone-air mixture of seeds and a variety of conducting research there is still no reliable data on the technological parameters of ozone effects on seed crops (e.g., corn). In this regard, we have conducted experimental studies to determine the effective parameters of the ozonation of corn seeds, such as the concentration of ozone in the ozone-air mixture, exposure time and binning after treatment. The influence of these parameters was assessed by changes in growth performance of seed, such as germination, germination and growth of strength. Just at the end of the pilot study we carried out a statistical analysis of the data, which allowed us to estimate the degree of influence of each independent parameter (ozone concentration, exposure time, binning after treatment) for each dependent parameter (germination energy, germination, growth force). The data obtained is presented in the article
790 kb

MECHANISM OF IMPACT OF OZONE AND AIR MIX ON SEEDS OF CORN AND TECHNIQUE OF CARRYING OUT THE PILOT STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF ELECTRIC OZONIZATION ON GROWTH PROCESSES OF SEEDS

abstract 1051501047 issue 105 pp. 774 – 786 30.01.2015 ru 909
Increasing the yield of crops is a global challenge posed by the scientists from all over the world. To achieve this goal, we use various methods such as: engineering, agro-technical, agronomic, chemical, physico-chemical and so on. We conducted a theoretical study, which showed that the use of physical and chemical methods of treating seed before sowing has a positive effect on the growth processes of seeds. One of such methods is an ozone treatment, which has established itself as a quality growth stimulator of agricultural plants. But despite numerous studies there is no clear description of the mechanism of ozone effects on seeds. In this article, based on our theoretical study, we have presented a material that allows revealing the positive effects of ozone exposure to the seed. To confirm these theoretical results, we have decided to conduct a pilot study. In connection with what, in this article we have included the materials containing information on laboratory equipment and methods of the experiment. We have also presented measuring equipment and methods of iodine-metric method for determining the concentration of ozone in the ozone-air mixture, exact conformance with calibration gas analyzer which will allow to obtain reliable data on the dose effects of ozone on the grain
147 kb

MEAT PRODUCTIVITY OF CROSSBRED SHEEP CALVES

abstract 1051501049 issue 105 pp. 802 – 812 30.01.2015 ru 808
The article presents the results of the control slaughter of purebred and crossbred lambs. It was found that the index of compactness and the main killer performance superiority had two or three breed lambs obtained from crosses involving sheep southern meat breed. The experimental animals were taken measurements of carcasses, which give a fairly complete and objective view of the differences in the length of the torso, hips, mascara and hip girth. There are specific differences in the yield of the most valuable cuts of the first grade the rams depending on the origin. The superiority of crossbred calves over the control for this indicator amounted to 16.4 and 33.4%. The chemical composition of the meat fine-wool lambs contained more moisture and less fat and less calories than meat crossbred animals. Increasing the hybrids values of the protein quality index indicates an increase in meat share of muscle proteins and the reduction of connective tissue, and consequently, improving the quality of the raw meat. Animals obtained by crossing, have wide and deep body, well-developed muscles of the thighs, the best quality characteristics of meat productivity
146 kb

COMPOSITION OF THE CLUSTERS ANDBIOCHEMISTRY OF FLORA, NIZINA AND ANYUTA TABLE GRAPES

abstract 1051501055 issue 105 pp. 909 – 920 30.01.2015 ru 900
The article presents the characteristics of the mechanical composition of clusters, the chemical composition of grape juice and fresh grapes and wine tasting evaluation of three varieties of table. We have identified the following uvologic indicators of clusters of cultivars Flora, Nisina and Anyuta: structure - 90.0; 91.5; 87.3; addition - 8.0; 6.6; 10.8; structural - 6.4; 5.4; 8.1; berries - 17.6; 15.0; 10.4. In the studied berries of grape varieties the mass concentrations of sugars and titratable acids were in the range 18,1-23,5 and 0,73-0,78 g/100 cm3 respectively. The combination of sweetness and acidity causes high taste properties of grapes. In grape berries of Flora and Nizina the concentration of fructose was two times more than glucose. Differences in the content wine, malic, lemon and succinic acids in berries varieties of Flora and Nizina were insignificant. In the berries of Anyuta variety, the concentration of lemon and succinic acids was more, malic was less than other varieties. Most of the studied varieties of berries contain malic and wine acids. More of cations of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium then in other varieties and it contain less than Anyuta berries. The difference in the content of various cations in the berries of varieties of Flora and Nizina is negligible. Tasting score of fresh grape of Flora variety was 7.0, Nisina - 7.8 and Aniyta - 7.6 points
166 kb

REVISITING THE RICE SALT RESISTANCE (REVIEW)

abstract 1051501057 issue 105 pp. 932 – 947 30.01.2015 ru 782
The total area of saline soils of rice irrigation systems in the Kuban region reaches almost 80 thousands hectares. Salinization and alkalinization here become a limiting factor for cultivating rice and companion crops. In this regard, the tolerance of plants to soil salinity is a current problem of plant breeding that attracts the attention of many agricultural researchers whereas it is necessary to increase the yield in saline soils. Salt tolerance of crop plants is defined by a combination of properties which are based on the specific adaptation mechanisms. These mechanisms differ in nature and are associated with different levels of structural organization of the plant – from molecular to organismic one. The study of adaptation mechanisms at different levels of structural organization of plants is very important for increasing yield in saline soils. This article is a review giving a detailed analysis of plant salt tolerance research, particularly rice, which addresses the issues of inhibition of plant growth under saline conditions, the mechanisms of salt tolerance, the achievements and development of this branch of scientific research, as well as the application results of work found in the scientific literature
466 kb

OPTIMIZATION OF GRAPE GROWING TECHNOLOGY BASED ON USING THE METHOD OF YIELD PROGNOSIS

abstract 1051501061 issue 105 pp. 999 – 1033 30.01.2015 ru 831
The article highlights the questions of preliminary determination of the yield of vineyards, grape harvest prediction method to determine the optimal length of fruit cutting of shoots and load bushes wintering eyes, kidneys examined productivity index wintering buds (CP), which shows how many inflorescences have an average for each left eye escape when cutting to length, including the dead. It was found that the yield of grapes has a great influence the degree of differentiation of inflorescence of rudiments in the central buds overwintering buds. From the moment of laying the harvest of grapes in hibernating little eyes in the form of embryonic inflorescences until commercial harvest takes two growing seasons. During this period the generative organs of grape plants are affected by many factors of the environment. Heterogeneity was found of buds along the length of one-year matured shoots. It is expressed in the fact that many grape varieties fruitfulness buds at the base of the shoot are much lower compared with upstream eyes. A certain death of wintering buds (primarily, the main kidney) at the end of the growing season, before the autumn frosts. The main reason for the death of buds during the growing season - from defeat fungal diseases. Taking into account the percentage of deaths of buds proposed a new exponent forming embryonic kidney main inflorescence - productivity index of buds by the ratio of embryonic stems to the number of buds, including the dead. Thus, annual forecasting of grape harvest next year to cutting the bushes by the proposed method makes it possible to scientifically establish the optimal cut length of shoots and fruit load on the bush eyes. This helps to realize directly the potential of each variety and vineyard site and get maximum yields even in years with low fruit tab formations
163 kb

PEAR AS A SOURCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES FOR PRODUCTS OF FUNCTIONAL PURPOSES

abstract 1051501062 issue 105 pp. 1034 – 1045 30.01.2015 ru 900
Biochemical quantitative and qualitative indices of pear fruit have been investigated in six varieties of pears grown in Prikybanskoy horticultural zone of the Krasnodar region. The investigation has been done with pear fruit in the stage of maturity for harvesting and after 90 days after storage in refrigerator. Quantitative content of dry matter, sugars, vitamins C and P and fraction pectin content in fruits and squeezing of fruits as well as changes in the process of storage have been established
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