Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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152 kb

PROCESSING METHODS OF THE INTENSIFICATION OF EXTRACTION OF NUTRIENTS FROM FRUITS OF WILD PLANTS

abstract 1321708035 issue 132 pp. 442 – 451 31.10.2017 ru 74
The nutrient structure of fruits of the Mountain ash of ordinary Sorbus aucuparia L., sloe of Prunus spinosa and their extracts is investigated. Inside them, the standard methods in biochemistry have determined the content of extractive substances, sugars, titrable acids, vitamins C and P, phenolic and pectinaceous substances. Results of analyses demonstrate that the fruits of wild plants ripening in the conditions of Dagestan – mountain ashes and sloe - can be effectively used as raw materials for receiving extracts which are rich in vitamins, carbohydrates and phenolic connections. The possibility of production of highquality nutrient-rich extracts from these fruits with application of various technological modes and ways of extraction is revealed: duration of insisting of raw materials; various concentration of ethanol in an extractant and ratios raw materials/ extractant. Results of researches demonstrate that at a ratio of raw materials/extractant 1:3 and the 70% content of ethanol in the extractant have come the greatest extraction from vitamin fruits P (routine) and phenols which made respectively 56,0-65,7% and 51,4-68,3%. Increase in extraction of titrable acids and vitamin C is noted at 50% concentration of ethanol in the extractant. The maximum release of sugars has come from all fruit substrata at 30% ethanol in the extractant. Results of biochemical analyses of extracts have shown that carrying out extraction in the way of double insisting on condition of selection of optimum: concentration of ethanol in the extractant, ratios of the raw materials/ extractant and the best time of insisting, allow to provide on average a 55-60% exit of nutrients from the studied fruit raw materials
195 kb

MODERN TOOLS OF STATE REGULATION FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

abstract 1321708038 issue 132 pp. 464 – 483 31.10.2017 ru 372
This article notes that agricultural production is not a self-regulating system. The article highlights specific features of agricultural production and forms of ownership of the major productive resource – land, ineffective policies of promoting development and introduction of innovative technologies. It is noted that the system of measures and tools of state regulation of agricultural production have two directions of influence: governmental regulation of the agricultural market mechanism and industrial governmental support for manufacturers. The authors give classification of methods and instruments of state regulation, liberalization of the agricultural sector in the WTO, levels of aggregate support for agriculture; as well as identifies the key growth areas of the governmental support and discusses the basic institutions of governmental regulation: ownership, legal Institute of economic management and the Institute of organization management. It's pointed out that the current dynamics of the development of agricultural production in our country is determined by four major external factors: the Institute of Western sanctions imposed against our country, Russia's integration into the international market by joining the World Trade Organization, the functioning of the Single Economic Space within the Customs Union, and the necessity of solving problems of import substitution and food security of our country. Implementation of these methods requires significant institutional transformation and transition into the new levels of legal, commercial, and economic regulation with observance of equitable international cooperation. In conclusion, the authors discuss an insufficient level of development stimulation in domestic agriculture
151 kb

FEED CONCENTRATES: TRADITIONS AND PURPOSES OF THEIR APPLICATION IN POULTRY

abstract 1321708046 issue 132 pp. 569 – 580 31.10.2017 ru 228
The article shows the historically developed situation and the actual state of the production practice in chronic mycotoxicosis of a bird. The main feed problems in poultry farming are shown through the prism of a review of market proposals for feed concentrates. An overview of preventive and compensating agents on the market, as well as a brief description of feed concentrates based on beta-carotene for fighting mycotoxicosis. It is shown that the vitamin-mineral fodder concentrate "Tetra +" is an alternative to the existing feed concentrates on the market, the effectiveness of which has been confirmed in experiments on laboratory animals and in poultry feeding. Based on the analysis, a conclusion was made about the relevance of studies to identify the effectiveness of vitamin-mineral concentrate "Tetra +" in livestock
287 kb

ANALYSIS OF RESPONSE OF THE YIELD DEPENDING ON THE DURATION OF VEGETATIVE PERIOD OF WINTER BARLEY VARIETIES

abstract 1321708074 issue 132 pp. 951 – 964 31.10.2017 ru 155
Duration of vegetation period is one of the main adaptive traits for any crop or variety. Reasonability of cultivation of a variety in a particular soil and climate zone is determined by the duration of the vegetative period. One of the aims of breeding is the creation of the varieties with the main vegetative phases lasting at more favorable climatic conditions. The most accurate way to determine maturity group of a variety is by estimation of starting of heading phase, which can be defined with the greatest precision. The article covers the analysis of the duration of the vegetative period of the lines and varieties of winter barley of local and foreign selection in the central zone of Krasnodar region. All the varieties were divided into three maturity groups. The vegetative periods of the varieties were studied during four years. The most favorable and adverse conditions for yield formation were determined. The interactions between the productivity of the varieties depending on maturity group were identified. The varieties of the early maturity group which are more productive than the check were selected, which is most valuable for the breeding of the crop. The best varieties with the high and stable yield and the positive traits are regularly involved in the breeding programs with the porpoise of making new varieties of the winter barley
280 kb

BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF FUNGICIDES IN WINTER WHEAT CROPS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON CROP YIELD

abstract 1321708080 issue 132 pp. 1035 – 1044 31.10.2017 ru 108
For the production of high quality winter wheat grain, it is necessary to observe the technology of growing the crop and creating optimal conditions for the growth and development of plants. An important role in it is played not only by agrotechnical measures, but also by effective protection of crops from pests. The phytosanitary state of winter wheat sowings has worsened significantly in recent years, however, the degree of damage to crops and the harmfulness of fungal diseases can be significantly reduced, and in some cases completely prevented by treatment of crops with fungicides. The range of fungicides is improved annually by incorporating more effective and less environmentally hazardous preparations. The research is aimed at determining the optimal rates of consumption, the biological effectiveness of new fungicides and assessing their effect on the yield of winter wheat. As a result, it has been established that treatment with Abucus Ultra with a rate of 1.0 l / ha has protective properties, but does not treat plants (72.2%). This further leads to a loss of an average of about 0.5 tons of grain per hectare. Fungicide Akanto Plus in the investigated rates of consumption has good protective and eradicating (healing) properties and with a decrease in the rate of consumption of less loss of yield. Thus, the choice of the preparation and its consumption rate should be based on an understanding of the phytosanitary situation, taking into account the condition of crops and the agroclimatic situation
180 kb

DEPENDENCE OF THE PRODUCTIVITY AND THE QUALITY OF WINES FROM THE PLANTING PLAN

abstract 1321708092 issue 132 pp. 1155 – 1165 31.10.2017 ru 115
The dependence of the productivity of the Riesling Rennel vineyards and the quality of table wine from it under the conditions of the Anapa-Taman Winegrowing Zone was studied. It is established that the vineyards of the Riesling Rhine variety are planted with the highest yield, planted according to the scheme of 3.5x1 m. In this embodiment, at a density planting shrubs 2857 pcs. / Ha, the yield of grapes was the highest - 131.4 c / ha. Maximum accumulation of sugars in the grapes observed in the variants with a width of 2.5 m aisle highest extract content from different wine stocks options with row spacing of 2.5 m where the amount of extractables amounted to 17.1 - 19.2 g / dm3 . The increase in the total concentration of aromatic compounds of up to 540 mg / dm 3 helps to improve the quality of white table wine, and further growth of aromatics to 1090 mg / dm3 - it reduces the organoleptic evaluation. High tasting marks (7.88-8.29 points) received wine materials from sites having a spacing of 3.5 m. Thus, considering the quality of the wine, the cost of planting material, laying and care of vineyards, it is worth considering the 3.5x1 planting scheme , 5 m more suitable for the production of quality table wines in the Black Sea agroecological zone of viticulture in the south of Russia
204 kb

DEPENDANCE OF YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY OF THE WINTER WHEAT FROM CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGIES IN LEACHED BLACK SOIL UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE WESTERN PRE-CAUCASIAN REGION

abstract 1321708117 issue 132 pp. 1425 – 1442 31.10.2017 ru 105
Elements of the cultivation technology of winter wheat variety called ‘Antonina’ with the application of different backgrounds of soil fertility, norms of fertilizers, system of plant protection from weeds, pests and diseases were studied. The studies are conducted in a polyfactorial stationary experiment: factor A - soil fertility; factor B - system of fertilizers; factor C - plant protection system; factor D - methods of basic soil cultivation. In the experiment four models of soil fertility levels were studied: А0 - the initial (natural background); А1 - average (200 kg / ha Р2О5 and 200 t / ha of litter manure); А2 - increased (doses are doubled); when А3 - high (tripled). Based on the studies it has been established that to obtain a stable yield of winter wheat, an increased dose of mineral fertilizers should be used, which also ensures high grain quality indicators. The maximum yield increase of 37% was achieved on varieties in comparison with extensive technology. A significant increase of the protein content in the grain from 12.8 to 15.3% and gluten from 22.0 to 27.8% was found in the intensive technology - triple doses of fertilizers (NPK) and the use of integrated protection against diseases, pests and weeds. The introduction of high doses of mineral fertilizers contributes to the accumulation in the soil and grain of nitrogen, and also reduces the content of copper and zinc
140 kb

COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF DELICACIES FROM MEAT OF IMPORTED PIGS

abstract 1311707003 issue 131 pp. 19 – 28 29.09.2017 ru 293
In recent years, many pigs of specialized breeds, characterized by increased meat qualities, have been brought to Russia from Canada and a number of European countries. The article presents the results of the assessment of slaughter and meat qualities of pigs of different genotypes. Danish pig meat was used as research objects: purebred landrace (CHL), benthic hybrid Landrasx yorkshire (LxY), three-breed hybrid landrace hyorkshire x dyurok (LxXxD), removed from control fattening, and developed prototypes of delicacy products. The commission evaluation of meat and broth showed that the boiled meat from the three breed animals received the highest score, and the quality of the broth significantly exceeded the samples of purebred landrace and two-breed animals. As a result of the tasting evaluation of the Voronezh ham, it was established that the samples of meat from threebreeded pigs, in comparison with the samples from purebred meat, show the most pronounced flavor, aroma and soft consistency
141 kb

ROLE OF ALIMENTARY FIBERS IN TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF THE OBESITY

abstract 1311707025 issue 131 pp. 248 – 259 29.09.2017 ru 361
Excess body weight is a serious problem, involving a set of diseases presently. For this reason, taking into account demands of science there was a development of production of food with the lowered energy value for the people having first of all obesity that led to production of substitutes. Even more often producers resort to use of nutritional supplements, which generally receive in synthetic way. In this article, we analyzed multiple references and summarized the material regarding beet fibers. As a result of numerous researches it has been proved that food fibers make favorable impact both on the separate systems of a human body, and on all organism. The use of the minor products of processing of the plant raw material is also critical; they allow improving the preventive properties of products and enriching them with dietary fibers, protein, and mineral elements and also development of food development of curative and preventive action. Citri-Fi food fibers which are received from dried-up orange pulp are well-known, they can keep a large amount of water throughout technological process. They exert positive impact on structure of fat that gives the chance to create a product with the lowered content of fat
138 kb

SOME ASPECTS OF INTRODUCING IN VITRO OF NEW CLONAL ROOTSTOCKS FOR STONE FRUIT CROPS

abstract 1311707042 issue 131 pp. 472 – 478 29.09.2017 ru 415
The article presents the results of the study of the effect of the size of the explant clonal rootstocks for stone fruit crops of the Krymskaya OSS VIR VSL-1, VSL-2, LC-52, RVL-1, RVL-7, VVA-1, AP-1 injected in vitro and concentration vitamins and phytohormones in a nutrient medium on the efficiency of introducing in vitro of these rootstocks. The optimal size of the injected in vitro explant was determined and nutrient medium in the first stage of micropropagation was optimized. The optimal size of the dissected meristem, which provides the maximum percentage of explant initiation is 0.4 mm. The modified version of the nutrient medium based on the Murashige and Skug prescriptions with a reduced content of vitamins B1 0.1 mg / l, B6 0.4 mg / l, PP- 0.4 mg / l, and phytohormone 6-BAP - 0.3 mg / l. at the first stage of cultivation of explants of clonal rootstocks for stone fruit crops is optimal. The survival rate of explants in all tested samples of clonal rootstocks on this modified nutrient medium was in the range of 92.5-97.5%
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