Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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2271 kb

DEPENDENCE OF PEACH LEAF CURL DEVELOPMENT ON WEATHER CONDITIONS IN RUSSIAN HUMID SUBTROPICS (APPLYING ASK-ANALYSIS)

abstract 1311707050 issue 131 pp. 572 – 594 29.09.2017 ru 122
In peach orchards of the Russian humid subtropics, leaf curl is the most dangerous and harmful disease. Due to the high degree of danger from the peach leaf curl, for the first time in this region the main task was to analyze peach leaf curl development on weather conditions. In order to solve the problem, it is proposed to apply a new innovative intellectual technology: automated system-cognitive analysis (ASK-analysis) and its software tools - the “Eidos” system. In order to build the model, based on our own observations and the experience of Russian and foreign colleagues, it was decided to use the following factors: the sum of temperatures above +4 ° C of the current year (for the period from January to April), the sum of temperatures above +4 ° C of the previous year (for the whole year), the sum of precipitation of the current year (for the period from January to April), the sum of precipitation of the previous year (for the whole year), the number of hours of infection (in the current year). It was established that such factors as the number of hours of infection, the sum of temperatures above +4 ° C in April and during the period from January to April, as well as the sum of precipitation in March and April, are the most important in the dynamics of peach leaf curl development and spread. High rates of leaf curl spread and development are caused by the number of hours of infection in the range of 1440 ... 2064 hours, as well as by low air temperatures in March and April (the sum of temperatures above +4 °C – 89,4-240,4° and 283,7-316,7°, respectively) and high air temperatures - in January and February (the sum of temperatures above +4 ° C – 155,3-259,6° and 243,5-280,1°, respectively)
163 kb

RESULTS OF FEIJOA HYBRIDIZATION IN THE HUMID SUBTROPICS OF KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1311707051 issue 131 pp. 595 – 603 29.09.2017 ru 190
Feijoa crop is valuable due to the complex of useful traits (high frost resistance, big yield, ornamental value and long profitable period). These fruits have delicate flavor, nutritional and dietary properties. The fruits are juicy with a pleasant, gentle, refreshing sweet and sour taste, specific strawberry-pineapple flavor and contain significant quantities of important substances for the human body. Pectin (up to 2.5%), sugars (6-14%), proteins, vitamins, organic acids, mineral salts, etc. are among them. However, the challenge of its cultivation is the lack of cultivars and plantations are represented by a mixture of hybrids originated from free pollination, and characterized by a great variety in biological and morphological traits, differing not only in yield, but in size, shape and yield period. In this connection, the breeders faced the objective to create new cultivars of feijoa, using classical and modern breeding methods and available genetic resources for commercial gardening and production. Development of the core hybrid diversity material and selection of promising forms are the most important stages of the breeding process, providing success of further breeding programs. The breeding of varieties and forms for crossings was carried out according to the principle of combining the desirable traits of the obtained offspring. There are direct and reverse crosses in six combinations ('Dachnaya' x 'Superba', 'September' x 'Superba', 'Dagomysskaya' x 'Superba', 'Superba' x 'Dachnaya', 'Superba' x 'September', Superba ; X 'Dachnaya'). The viability of the pollen was evaluated prior to pollination, by germination on a nutrient medium - 1% agar-agar + 15% sucrose. The degree of fertility varied year by year: in 2015 - 60-62%, and in 2016 - 68-77-88%. The best crossing combinations were established 'September' x 'Superba' and the 'Superba' x 'Dagomyskaya for the creation of the hybrid genepool of Feijoa sellowiana. A high percentage of germination of the feijoa seeds was noted in combinations of 'Dagomyskaya' x 'Superba' (74%) and 'Superba' x 'Dagomysskaya' (70%).
177 kb

SPECIES COMPOSITION AND EFFICIENCY OF STEPPE MEADOWS IN DEPENDENCE ON THE DIETARY REGIME IN THE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL YAKUTIA

abstract 1311707057 issue 131 pp. 672 – 683 29.09.2017 ru 146
In the conditions of middle valley of the Lena River on the cryogenic, inundated, cespitose and chernozemic soils different steppe communities differently react on dietary regime. Herb-grass phytocenosis at organic dietary regime is reformed in cereal phytocenosis with the contents of cereals to 76% and bean types 19% of dry basis with productivity to 20 centner of hectare of dry basis. At the same time the efficiency of the improved phytocenosis was on charge exchange energy of 17,3 mega joule of hectare, feed units 1032 and a crude protein of 247 kilo of hectare. The whetgrasses phytocenosis has provided productivity to 19,4 centner of hectare and the content of perevarimy protein in 1 feed unit up to 118 gram. So the most effective for the steppe meadows is using complex fertilizer (humus of 20 tons of hectare + N60P60K60), increasing the productivity twice with a high quality of food
462 kb

ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIES AND THE STRUCTURE OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY IN THE BRYANSK REGION

abstract 1311707068 issue 131 pp. 807 – 819 29.09.2017 ru 160
The article identifies the value of livestock in the economy of the Bryansk region; we have also given the spatial-temporal analysis state of the industry and identified the key trends in its development over the past 25 years. This work considers the geography of industries and production of major livestock products
204 kb

GRAPE VARIETIES OF THE ANAPA AMPELOGRAPHIC COLLECTION AND THEIR USE IN BREEDING WORK

abstract 1311707090 issue 131 pp. 1083 – 1092 29.09.2017 ru 261
In the world, huge work is being done to create global information banks of plant genetic resources. The need for conservation and rational use of genetic resources in modern conditions has become very relevant. Genetic collections are the basis for selection work: creating new varieties, replenishing the assortment with new, classic, introduced and native varieties, adapted to the natural (soil and climatic) conditions of the cultivation sites. In the Anapa ampelographic collection, 4911 varieties of various ecogeographical and genetic origin are represented, the use of which provides great opportunities for creating and breeding new varieties, their state testing and zoning. In the gene pool of the ampelographic collection, most varieties of V. vinifera L. grapes are represented by local honeycombs of different regions of the grape culture, and more than one fourth of varieties of V. vinifera L. are obtained from intraspecific crossings. Despite the value of local varieties of grapes, they do not always meet all the requirements of production. Therefore, to improve the local assortment, it is necessary to carry out selection - breeding new varieties of grapes. This article presents the long-term results of the work on the selection of varieties of table and technical directions in the Anapa ampelographic collection used for breeding. Also, the role of the genetic collection in the creation of new generation varieties by combinative selection is shown - as donors for creating new varieties of grapes. Dedicated varieties are the sources of valuable traits, which are given primary importance and are especially important for the viticulture of the Russian Federation
152 kb

SCREENING OF SUGARBEET NEW RESISTANCE INDUCTORS WITHIN THE RANGE OF NAPHTHALENESULFON-AMIDES DERIVATIVES

abstract 1311707091 issue 131 pp. 1093 – 1101 29.09.2017 ru 139
In order to find compounds that increase sugar beet resistance to the adverse effects of herbicides, a series of naphthalenesulfonamides derivatives have been synthesized. The protective effect of new compounds for the herbicide mixture Betanal, Lontrel and Super Zeleke was studied in field conditions. The effect of pyridylhydrazones on the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments in leaves was investigated. Substances with a high protective effect were found
187 kb

CENTURY-OLD SIBERIAN STONE PINE CROPS GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY IN THE ZONE OF CONIFEROUS-BROADLEAVED FORESTS OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION

abstract 1311707097 issue 131 pp. 1168 – 1180 29.09.2017 ru 142
The purpose of the study was to examine a century of experience of growing of forest cultures of the Siberian stone pine in forest conditions in the region of the Middle Volga. To achieve these objectives, we have investigated old growth culture of Siberian stone pine in the conditions of fresh oak forests in the territory of Rootka forestry of the Mari El Republic. Culture of Siberian stone pine was planted after continuous tillage. The distance between rows was 2,5 m, step landing – 1,0 m. The site was divided into five options, depending on variations in the width of planting strip (I-48 m, II-44 m, in III-40 m, IV - 36 m, V - 32 m). The studies have shown that the Siberian stone pine trees, regardless of the variant, are characterized by good clean ability from twigs, which increases with decreasing of the width of the curtain. It can be noted that in the 100-year-old age, the average height of trees reaches of 28,7 m, an average diameter of 49,8 cm. Stock of forest reaches 795,3 m3 /ha. Best annual increase is observed in growing cultures of cedar in the wings with a width of 40 m and is 7,95-of 7,93 m3 /ha. Based оn the research, we have concluded that Siberian stone pine should be recommended for introduction into the zone of coniferous-broadleaved forests of the Middle Volga region. When creating crops, it is necessary to use larger seedlings and plant density is not more than 1,0 thousand pieces/ha, and the width of the planting strip shall be not less than 40,0 m.
1116 kb

THE ROLE OF THE AMBROSIA LEAF BEETLE ZYGOGRMMA SUTURALIS (F.) (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE), IN THE SUPPRESSION OF RAGWEED AMBROSIA IN THE PRIMORSKY REGION OF RUSSIA

abstract 1311707100 issue 131 pp. 1204 – 1224 29.09.2017 ru 98
Intensification of agriculture during the twentieth century was accompanied by an increase in international trade, resulting in the resettlement of many species across continents. As a result of these processes, many adventives species have become economically significant and dangerous plants in agro and urban biosensors. One such plant is Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., imported from North America to Russia. The use of chemical means of suppression of A. artemisiifolia L. often does not give positive results in agrocenoses, because of its biomorphological features. In urban areas, within the boundaries of sanitary zones, the use of chemicals is prohibited. Therefore, the most promising direction in the suppression of ragweed ambrosia is the ecologies method. The article discusses the possibility of using an ambrosia leaf beetle in the feeding of ragweed in the territory of Russia
484 kb

THE EFFECT OF PERLITE USING ON QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE INDICATOR OF SEED GROWTH

abstract 1311707102 issue 131 pp. 1237 – 1247 29.09.2017 ru 135
An experiment has been carried out on the effect of germination of seeds with perlite on the improvement of the growth force of rye Vyatka-2. The purpose of the experiment was to study the effect of perlite on the growth force of seeds under the conditions of additional fertilizers and changing the volume water during irrigation. The task of the work was to determinate the growth force of seeds with perlite. The growth force of the seeds was determined after 10 days in sprouted seeds in five samples in glass vessels with three different moisture conditions. It was proved that germination of seeds with perlite increased the seed growth force up to 28% in comparison with seeds grown in sand (a control sample). The result also depended on decreasing of humidity rate up to 30-40%
274 kb

ECOLOGICAL AND AGRONOMIC EVALUATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL FARMING MEANS ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF WINTER WHEAT GRAIN

abstract 1311707115 issue 131 pp. 1405 – 1424 29.09.2017 ru 370
The proposed agro technology for the cultivation of soft winter wheat contributes to the reproduction of fertility of leached Chernozem of the Western Ciscaucasia. As a result of application of fertilizers in the arable layer of soil hydrolytic acidity decreased by 21.8%, humus content increased by 10.3%, mobile phosphorus - by 54.8%, mineral nitrogen by 10.3% and potassium - by 9.6% compared to the control. Studied agricultural technology allowed to increase the yield of winter wheat to 81.8 kg/ha and protein to 15.3 per cent, of gluten, to 27.8%. We have noticed exceeded concentration of mobile phosphorus in the upper soil horizon (1.5 MРС) in the cultivation of wheat after alfalfa, which contributed to reduced grain yield. Under conditions of prolonged application of fertilizers and pesticides reduced the content of mobile forms of trace elements - copper and zinc. The content of mobile forms of Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Co, Pb and Cd below the limit values of environmental and Toxicological regulations clayey and loamy soils for agricultural purposes. The trend of accumulation of cadmium in the green mass of plants (~ 1.2 MPC) and winter wheat grain up to 1.5 MPC for baby food
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