Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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177 kb

CROP YIELD AND PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY OF WINTER BARLEY GRAIN IN THE HEAVY LEACHED BLACK HUMUS OF THE WESTERN PRE-CAUCASIAN REGION

abstract 1311707132 issue 131 pp. 1612 – 1626 29.09.2017 ru 142
The influence of different agricultural technologies on the yield of winter barley variety ‘Gordei’ was studied. Economic evaluation was given to the researched factors. The studies were carried out at the experimental station of Kuban State Agrarian University in the conditions of polyfactorial long-term soil monitoring. The soil is represented by strongly leached, light-clay black humus with an average thickness of the humus horizon - 150 cm. It was found that with the change of technology (fertilizer, tillage, sowing method, means of protection) winter barley yields increases to 50% in comparison with the control. According to the analysis of bioenergetic and economic evaluation it makes sense to use the variants 022, 111 and 222 at plowing, where the maximum net efficiency ratio and net income are noticed
209 kb

MUSTARD PROTEIN-CONTAINING FODDER CONCENTRATE "GORLINKA" USE IN DAIRY COWS’ DIET

abstract 1311707134 issue 131 pp. 1638 – 1652 29.09.2017 ru 172
The researches on the mustard protein-containing fodder concentrate "Gorlinka" use were carried out during 2015-2016 in the laboratories of Volgograd state agrarian university, as well as at LLC "Donagrogaz" in the Frolovsky district of the Volgograd region. During the research, the authors studied the new high protein fodder additive influence on the digestibility and feeds absorbency, as well as on the blood morphological and biochemical parameters. During the research, it was established that the used fodder additive has a positive influence on the dynamics of the digestibility coefficients and the nitrogen balance. During the physiological experiment, all the experimental cows had a positive nitrogen balance, in the control group it was 9.8 g (the lowest value), in the second group, it was 12.6 g, and in the first one, it was 12.0. When determining the experimental animals’ blood biochemical and morphological parameters the content of the studied components corresponds to the physiological norms. The average daily milk yield for the analogues from the 1st test group was higher as compared to the control, by 1.01 kg, or 5.1%. The mean daily milk yield of the control group was also lower than for the cows of the 2nd test group by 1.45 kg, or 7.4%
440 kb

FODDER ADDITIVE «NUTOVIT» USE IN DIET AND ITS INFLUENCE ON GROWING CHICKEN BODY PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES

abstract 1311707135 issue 131 pp. 1653 – 1667 29.09.2017 ru 223
The researches were carried out with the support of the Federal state budget establishment "The development assistance fund of small forms enterprises in scientific-technical sphere" (Fund for the innovation promotion), contract number 0019671. The fodder additive «Nutovit» in growing chickens feeding application enriched mixed fodder for farm poultry with protein and especially with the amino acid such as lysine. Scientific-economic experiment was carried out at the poultry-farm enterprise of the Volgograd region in 2015-2016. 4 growing chicken groups with 54 heads in each group were selected for the experiment. The growing chickens were selected according to the cross, age, living body weight, health status. The difference in experimental poultries feeding was that in the experimental groups the sunflower oil cake in the feed mixture was replaced by fodder additive "Nutovit". It was established, that the essential amino acids availability and the saturation of fodder additives with vitamins influence positively on: young chickens live weight and average daily growth, the live weight to 120-days age in the second experimental group amounted to 1657 g, and average daily growth was to 12.46 g, which is higher compared to the control group by 4.48 % at 100% poultry livability; blood morphological and biochemical composition: formed elements of blood, namely erythrocytes, in the experimental groups young chickens blood were more in 0.02 to 0.05×1012/l compared with the control one. The researches established that blood leukocytes reduction in growing chickens of the experimental group was little, in 0.04, 0.09, 0.08 ×109 l. Calcium content in growing chickens blood in the control group was 2.6 mmol/L. The experimental group surpassed the control on 0.14-0.21 mmol/L. The phosphorus content in chickens blood in the experimental groups exceeded the control one by 0.08-0.24 mmol/l. In addition, the feeding cost reduction was established due to the fodder additive "Nutovit" use
556 kb

PREMIXES ON THE BASIS OF OIL-CROPS SEEDS PROCESSING PRODUCTS USE EFFICIENCY IN PARENT FLOCK LAYING HENS FEEDING

abstract 1311707136 issue 131 pp. 1668 – 1680 29.09.2017 ru 174
This article presents the studying results of new premixes of domestic production using efficiency based on processed products, in particular - oil cakes. The research was carried out in the conditions of the second-order pedigree reproductor in LLC "Svetly" in the Svetloyarsky district of the Volgograd region in the period from 2015 to 2017. During the scientific and economic experience, the authors revealed the new fodder additives positive influence on the laying hens’ egg productivity, on the eggs morphological and incubation rates and on the got young birds. The use of premixes in layer diet, which included the fodder concentrate from the plant raw material "Sarepta" and Camelina seed oil cake, contributed to the increase in the hens laying capacity, in general, the group received in 249 and 310 pieces more than in the control one. The egg average weight from the chickens of the control group was 60.89 g; from the first experimental it was 61.33 g; from the second experimental it was 61.39 g, which was higher than in the control one, respectively, by 0.44 g and 0.50 g. While the hatching eggs morphological indices analysis, it was revealed that all parameters are within the permissible limits of the physiological norm. Fertilization of eggs in the control group was at the level of 89.33%, which is lower than in the experimental groups. As a whole, the eggs' production in groups was 20.00% in the control, 17.33% in the 1st group, and 16.00% in the 2nd test group
219 kb

INFLUENCE OF MINERAL FERTILIZERS ON PRODUCTIVITY OF MERLO TECHNICAL GRADE IN THE CONDITIONS OF ANAPA-TAMAN ZONE

abstract 1311707129 issue 131 pp. 1571 – 1586 29.09.2017 ru 168
The article reviews the results of studying the influence of mineral fertilizers on the uvological, yielding and qualitative indices of the Merlot grape variety in the Anapo-Taman zone of the Krasnodar region. The technology of cultivation of grapes on the experimental plot was performed in accordance with the accepted for the given zone and culture. Agrobiological work was carried out at the optimal time and had a high quality of execution. Grape bushes were laid in a 3.0 x 2.0 m pattern. Formation - a two-shoulder horizontal cordon. On the bushes, there was formed the same load shoots and bunches. Scheme of experience: option 1 – no fertilizers (control); option 2 - superphosphate with a mixture of potassium salt (P90K90) from the autumn; option 3 – nitroammofoska (N120P120K120) from autumn; option 4 – ammonium nitrate (N60) in early spring. Analysis of the results of the studies on the study of biological features of growth, fruiting, yield and quality of Merlot grape varieties on the background of the use of mineral fertilizers shows their high efficiency in the conditions of the Anapo-Tamanskaya zone of the Krasnodar region and can be recommended for use in production conditions. Autumn application of nitroammofoski (N120P120K120) provides an increase in yield by 68.3%, increases the yield of mash from a hectare by 76.7% and the collection of sugar by 97.6%. Autumn application of phosphate-potassium fertilizers (P90K90) and early spring application of ammonium nitrate (N60) also contributed to an increase in yields by 33.3 and 40.6%, respectively. On the output of the wort, these options are equal, and for the collection of sugar phosphate-potassium fertilizers exceed ammonia nitrate
376 kb

THE QUALITY OF THE MUSCULAR TISSUE OF YOUNG GEESE

abstract 1301706016 issue 130 pp. 243 – 252 30.06.2017 ru 355
The article presents the materials of research on studying of influence of various levels of crude fat in the complete feed (CF) for the young geese of Lindovskaya breed on chemical composition and organoleptic quality of goose meat. In the experimental groups we increased the concentration of crude fat in the start and finish of the CF to 7.4 % and 6,85 %, respectively. As the lipid supplement, we used sunflower oil. It is established that muscle tissue of geese, consuming finishing CF with sunflower oil, has a more pronounced taste, odour, tenderness and juiciness. We may highlight the tendency to increase the proportion of monounsaturated oleic acid, in the background of the decrease of specific weight of palmitic acid in the fat muscle 60 day goslings who received the start and finish of CFs with the addition of sunflower oil
374 kb

ANALYZING THE COMPLEX OF HARMFUL ORGANISMS IN AGROCOENOSIS OF SOUTHERN FRUIT CROPS IN HUMID RUSSIAN SUBTROPICS

abstract 1301706024 issue 130 pp. 321 – 334 30.06.2017 ru 379
For the research period (2003-2016), 57 pest species and 46 pathogens were recorded on stone and pomaceous fruits in humid Russian subtropics, among which the representatives of the order Lepidoptera and the division Ascomycota predominate. The greatest number of the species was recorded on the apple tree - 35 pests and 25 pathogens, the smallest - on cherry and sweet cherry trees (13 and 10, respectively). 43,7 per cent of the species are polyphages, while the relative abundance of monophages among fungi is higher than among arthropods. The species with activity in the summer are prevalent. A group of species that are harmful in humid subtropical environments all year round (11 species of phytophages and 19 pathogens) was identified. Analyzing the changes in the species composition of the complex through the time, we can speak about the relative stability of the dominant species. The group of the typical dominant species of pests for almost a century has included Grapholita molesta Busck., G. funebrana Tr., Cydia pomonella L., Taphrina deformans (Berk.) Tul., Stigmina carpophila (Lév.) M.B. Ellis, Monilinia laxa (Aderh. et Ruhland) Honey, M. fructigena Honey, Podosphaera leucotricha (Ellis & Everh.) E.S. Salmon, Venturia carpophila E.E. Fisher and pear V. pyrina Aderh. Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm., Scolytus mali Bechst. and Tranzschelia prunispinosae (Pers.) Dietel are currently dropped out from the group of the dominants; Halyomorpha halys Stål, which is a new pest for Russia, was added. Groups of the species with sharp fluctuations in abundance or frequently encountered were distinguished
159 kb

THE CONTENTS AND FORMS OF LEAD COMPOUNDS IN LEACHED CHERNOZEM OF THE WESTERN CISCAUCASIA IN TERMS OF AGRICULTURAL SOIL GENESIS

abstract 1301706059 issue 130 pp. 833 – 845 30.06.2017 ru 255
The contents of lead in soils are primarily determined by regional factors: the composition of parent rocks, relief, climate, vegetation. In recent years, these factors have increased the anthropogenic source of element. In order to assess its impact, requires knowledge of the natural, i.e., background lead levels, the so-called reference points, which can later be used to monitor changes occurring in the soil. Under background refers to the content of the element in soils at a great distance from the areas of receipt of contamination. Background content of lead in each type of soil depends mainly on composition of parent rocks. The correlation coefficient between the content of lead in parent rocks and soils, with the background contents is equal to 0,86±0,17 at p=0,95. For each soil type there are low variations in lead content due to the composition of parent rocks. Lead concentrations in the soils increased at the expense of its receipt from the atmosphere, irrigation water, drainage during mining, as a result of agricultural use, lead containing chemicals. Comparing the obtained results with existing currently permissible concentrations (APC, MPC) it is necessary to note that the lead content in leached chernozem soil after three rotations of the rotation may not cause any pathological changes or anomalies in the course of biological processes and lead to accumulation in the agricultural plants, and therefore may interfere with biological optimum
187 kb

BIOENERGETICS ESTIMATION OF LONGTIME FERTILIZERS’ APPLICATION IN THE CROP ROTATION

abstract 1301706061 issue 130 pp. 856 – 872 30.06.2017 ru 286
The influence of the crop rotation type, predecessor and different doses of mineral fertilizers on the yield of winter wheat varieties was investigated and bioenergetics estimation was given. Investigations were carried out in the North-Kuban Agricultural Experiment Station in two ten field crop rotation: grain tillage and grain - grass tillage rotation of prolonged stationary experience. The soil is the black soil, low in humus, powerful, with humus content (0-30sm), depending on the power of nutrition backgrounds in the arable soil layer. It was found that the selection of predecessors and the differentiated application of mineral fertilizers ensure stable high yields of grain and they exceed the varieties without fertilizers by 40-79%. Winter wheat yield depends on the crop rotation of 8-15%; from its predecessor - 15-18% and 27-31% of the fertilizer. A strong correlation between yield and agronomic methods was determined. The most effective predecessor for the wheat cultivation by the turnover of furrow slice is sainfoin, peas and wheat. More labor intensive and energy-consuming predecessors are grain maize and sugar beet
220 kb

INFLUENCE OF FERTIGATION, DRIP IRRIGATION AND FOLIAR NUTRITION ON PRODUCTIVITY OF APPLE TREES, FRUIT QUALITY AND SOIL PROPERTIES IN INTENSIVE ORCHARD OF THE CENTRAL CHERNOZEM REGION

abstract 1301706070 issue 130 pp. 958 – 974 30.06.2017 ru 119
The trials were conducted in 2013-2015. Research objects: apple trees cv. Zhigulevskoye/62-396, year of planting – 2007, at 4,5x1m. Place of research – experimental orchard of ”I.V. Michurin Federal scientific centre " in Tambov region. The goal of research: to study the effect of fertigation and foliar nutrition in an intensive apple orchard. During the research there were done yield records, was determined the content of nutrients in leaves and soil. In the soil there was also determined humus content and acidity, fruits were analyzed on vitamin C, saccharides and organic acids contents. Nitrogen in leaves and soil was determined by Kjeldahl method, phosphorus by photocalorimeter KFK-3, potassium and calcium by flame photometer Jenway PFP-7. We have established the optimal average application rate for fertigation in conditions of the Central Chernozem zone of Russia, which could be used to calculate specific application rates with data of soil-leaf diagnostics. In our research, it is shown that the use of this application rate had no significant negative impact on the studied parameters of soil. It is shown that the biochemical composition of fruits is largely determined by weather conditions of the year of vegetation and foliar nutrition. Maximum efficiency of measures for mineral supply optimizing is achieved only with the good combination of fertigation and foliar nutrition
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