Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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abstract 1141510018 issue 114 pp. 248 – 260 30.12.2015 ru 937
The article substantiates a necessity to apply the method of interspecific hybridization in durum winter wheat breeding, using the present soft winter varieties for improvement of frost and drought tolerance at the beginning of germination; resistance to snow mold, fusariosis and bacteriosis of ears and grain. The article presents the results of a comparative study of different types of crossbreeding at interspecific and intraspecific hybridization due to germination, emergence, productivity. It has been shown that intraspecific hybrids ‘T. durum оз. х T. durum оз.’, interspecific hybrids ‘T. durum оз. х Т. аestivum оз’ and ‘Т. аestivum оз. х T. durum оз.’ possessed the highest germination and emergence with 71,8/75,3% for direct and 60,4/82,5% for backward, 42,8 and 35,5% and 55,4 and 64,1% respectively. In backward (triplecross) cross-breeding of F1 interspecific hybrids with durum winter wheat the grain germination was down to 37,4 and 36,6%, but the emergence was up to 64,1 and 69,7% and reached the level of intraspecific hybrids. According to the elements of ear (head) productivity (grain mass per head, number of seeds per head), interspecific double-cross hybrids of the first and the second generation significantly conceded to intraspecific hybrids, but they matched them in a number of spikelets and grain size. The triple-cross hybrids exceed the double interspecific hybrids in this respect, but they concede to double-cross and triple-cross intraspecific hybrids. We studied the principle of splitting of interspecific hybrids of the second generation ‘T. durum оз. х Т. аestivum оз.’ and ‘T. durum оз. х T. durum оз.’ (direct and backward) and the triple-cross hybrids obtained from cross-breeding of interspecific and intraspecific double-cross hybrids F1 with durum winter wheat
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abstract 1141510021 issue 114 pp. 288 – 297 30.12.2015 ru 886
The organization of animal feeding in the summer and procurement of fodder for the winter are of great importance. The sowings of sugar sorghum can become a reliable and stable source of fodder even in the regions with insufficient humidity. It is a unique drought tolerant crop, which can be used as green mass, hay, silage, grain, mono fodder, briquettes. The article gives the study results of green mass and absolutely dry substance, and the assessment of cultivation efficiency of such sugar sorghum varieties and hybrids grown in FSBSI ‘I.G. Kalinenko ARRIGC’ as ‘Zernogradsky yantar’, ‘Debyut’, ‘Listvenit’, ‘Zersil F1’, ‘Elisey F1’. The productivity of green mass and dry substance of the new variety ‘Listvenit’ and the hybrid ‘Elisey’ exceeded the standard variety on 7,0-5,0 t/ha and 2,30-0,74 t/ha respectively. The cultivation technologies of sweet sorghum varieties and hybrids produced the high net energy of 69,6-121,9 GJ/ha with the coefficient of energy efficiency of 3,72- 5,08. As for the energy, the cultivation technology of the sweet sorghum hybrid ‘Elisey’ can be considered as the most efficient variant, as it produced the maximum net energy of 121,9 GJ/ha with the coefficient of energy efficiency of 5,08
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abstract 1141510040 issue 114 pp. 551 – 560 30.12.2015 ru 972
After World War II, in 1946, our country understands the problem - a terrible drought. To protect themselves against such disasters in the future, on October 20th , 1948, by the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the Central Committee of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of the Bolsheviks a resolution "On the plan of shelterbelts, the introduction of grass crop rotation, construction of ponds and reservoirs to ensure high crop yields in the steppe and forest-steppe regions of the European part of the USSR " was adopted, later known as the "Great Plan for the Transformation of Nature". During the years 1950- 1965 it was planned to create the next big state protective forest strips from Saratov to Astrakhan on both banks of the Volga River; - in the direction of cities and towns: Penza - Ekaterinovka - Veshenskaya - Kamensky, in watersheds of the rivers Khoper and Medveditsa, Kalitva and Berezovaya; in the direction of cities Kamyshin - Volgograd, in the watershed of the rivers Volga and Ilovlya; in the direction of towns Chapayevsk - Vladimirovka; in the direction of cities Cherkessk - Elista - Volgograd; - in the direction of the mountain Vishnevaya, Orenburg, Uralsk and the Caspian Sea on the banks of the Ural River; in the direction of cities: Voronezh - Rostov - on - Don; on both banks of the Don River; on both banks of the river Seversky Donets from the city of Belgorod to the Don River. Strips were created in the steppe and forest steppe areas. It was the first, in the history of humankind, largest environmental program of impacts on the climate of the huge territory, designed to protect permanently fertile agricultural lands from harmful dry winds, dust storms, lack of moisture and soil erosion. We have studied the site of the State protective forest strip "Cherkessk - Elista - Volgograd" located in the "Kuban forest districts" of the Karachay-Cherkessia Republic. In this area the analysis of taxation indicators was made, the dynamics of change in the stock of plantations connected with age was studied
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abstract 1141510054 issue 114 pp. 711 – 719 30.12.2015 ru 756
Based on the analysis of the nature of some flowering test crosses which have been resulted in the hybridization with purposely chosen sterile sources (analyzers), the new self - pollinated lines of maize have been identified according to the content of fertility-restorer genes of ‘C’ type of CMS. Genotype of the line RD 257 - rf4rf4rf5rf5Ff6Rf6 (class II), genotype of the line RD 245 - rf4 rf4 Rf5 Rf5 rf6 rf6 (class III), genotype of the line RD 274 - rf4rf4Rf5Rf5Rf6Rf6 (class V), genotype of the line RD 231 - Rf4Rf4rf5rf5Rf6Rf6 (class VI ) genotype of the line RD 261 - Rf4Rf4Rf5Rf5Rf6Rf6 (class VII). The identification of the content of the alleles of fertility - restorer genes allows forecasting the nature of flowering hybrid progeny resulted in the hybridization with a known genotype. We have created a catalog of self - pollinated lines of maize according to the fertilityrestorer genes, which consists of 18 lines, which have been studied in all the years of research. We have identified the lines belonging to classes I, II, III, V, VI, VII and VIII. During the transfer of maize hybrids on a sterile basis the lines of classes I and VIII are those ones which have been of great interest. The self - pollinated lines KV 204, SP 286 (class I) are the reliable fixers of «C» type of CMS. The progeny resulted in the hybridization with any sterile lines is characterized by complete sterility. The new self - pollinated lines KV 498, KV 272, KV 227, SP 357, RD 261 (class VIII) are constant natural fertility-restorers. They are able to fully restore fertility in hybridization with any sterile lines and in any growing conditions
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abstract 1141510076 issue 114 pp. 1004 – 1020 30.12.2015 ru 1035
The article contains the experience of the development of the methodology and the computer program for calculation of regional and local systems of pigs hybridization at the example of the Rostov region (Russia). Crossing the GP lines for F1 should be organized in multiplier farm, which may be separate farms and to be part of large commercial farms. For the production of F1 in a multiplier farm, we must breed a purebred specialized paternal and a maternal line, selected on the effect of combining ability. For the successful functioning of the system of hybridization, it is necessary to build a genetic pyramid, including breeding and genetic centers (nucleus farm), multiplier farm, reproducing the baseline. The article gives a detailed calculation of sow population of levels of P, GP, GGP for maternal and paternal breeds of pigs. The program uses user-defined parameters of pigs productivity, of the simulated population, and the parameters characterizing the intensity of selection of young animals. To ensure annual production of 1,822 million pigs in the Rostov region it is necessary to provide the availability of brood stock in the amount of 89 thousand heads, 6 800 heads in the structure of grandparent flocks (GP), 730 heads in the structure of the Grand-Grand-parent stock (GGP), excluding sows second maternal and paternal breeds
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abstract 1141510083 issue 114 pp. 1093 – 1108 30.12.2015 ru 891
Progress of breeding for resistance to diseases, pests and low temperatures is provided by cross-species hybridization. Institute of Vine and Wine "Magarach" is one of the leading centers of selection of grapes in the world. The breeding program of deducing grapes at the institute is based on the study and attracting the world's gene pool, including and industrial of the Russian Federation assortment of grapes. Analysis assortment shows that the share of productive, highquality varieties with group resistance to diseases, pests and extreme environmental factors is very small. The main method of selection of grapes of a new generation who have genetically determined traits earliness, resistance to biotic and abiotic factors is crossing complex interspecific hybrids and forms of their involvement with each other and with the forms of species Vitis vinifera, belonging to different ecogeographical groups, saturating crossing between hybrid forms with complex features, the appropriate selection of reference. For vigorous offspring is most effective as a parent to use a local variety of forms of Crohn and father - interspecific cultivar Alminsky
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abstract 1141510102 issue 114 pp. 1409 – 1419 30.12.2015 ru 998
The value of the initial material for selection for heterosis is primarily defined by the combining ability in respect to the main economically valuable characteristics. Combining ability with respect to “grain productivity” has been studied among fourteen selfpollinated lines of maize of early ripening and three testers in the system of hybrid combinations. We have proved that weather conditions have an influence on the variability of the estimates of the combining ability. We have identified the new self-pollinated lines of maize SP 165 and SP 175, which are characterized by invariably high evaluations in the effects of GCA (gi) in different years. The new self-pollinated line SP 167 has got high variants of SCA (δ2si). The new lines SP 161, SP 163, SP 167 and SP 174 have been characterized by the variability of the evaluations in the effects of GCA. They are related to the first or second rank in respect of GCA, depending on the year of the conducted evaluation. These are SP 163, SP 164, SP 170, SP 171 and SP 173 that have differed by their variability of the variants of SCA (from the low variants to the high ones). The highly productive testcross hybrids: Madonna M × SP 165 (4.88 t / ha), Madonna M × SP 171 (4.85 t / ha), Madonna M × SP 167 (4.80 t / ha), T 7M × SP 165 (4.78 t / ha) have been obtained based on the self-pollinated lines having invariably high figures of GCA and SCA
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abstract 1141510112 issue 114 pp. 1550 – 1568 30.12.2015 ru 869
The article discusses the various technologies of cultivation of winter barley at two ways of main tillage (recommended and zero-level) with different backgrounds of soil fertility, fertilization rates, protection from weeds, pests and diseases. Consistent improvement of soil fertility and other fertilizers resulted in an increase in crop productivity. Nutrition is the basis of life of a living organism, including plants. The value of crop yield and its chemical composition depend on the conditions of nutrition. It is achieved with the optimum combination of light, heat, air, water, food, etc. In this connection, in the development of methods of cultivation of this crop, we may not only increase the yield of grain, but also pay due attention to the quality of cultivated products. Thus, studies in the experiment showed that the intensification of cultivation technology of one phenomenon substantially and significantly affects the productivity of the given culture
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abstract 1151601001 issue 115 pp. 1 – 10 27.01.2016 ru 713
The experiment studied the use of an herbal component in feeding of young geese, consisting of hay meal and alfalfa juices coagulate. The replacement of 50 % of complete feed by the studied feeding stuff reduced the protein content in the diet by 9.9-14.9 % and increased the content of crude fiber 1.76-2.01 times. Gross weight gain in the experimental group decreased by 3.9 %, with an increase in feed cost by 17.1 %. However, carcasses of geese in experimental group increased absolute weight of muscles of the breast and legs by 28.6%, and the relative – 5.6 % (Р˃0.05). Using of herbal ingredients tended to increase the yield of dressed carcass by 4.8 %, while the share of internal fat and skin with subcutaneous fat was decreased. There were no differences in the chemical composition of poultry muscle tissue in the groups. Using of herbal ingredients decreased the cost of 1 kg of feed by 0.7 rubles, but the cost price of weight gain increased by 5.0 %. It was concluded that it is necessary to carry out additional studies involving the feeding of poultry with the identical by nutritional value compound feed with the additive under study or without it
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abstract 1151601004 issue 115 pp. 76 – 86 27.01.2016 ru 583
Under the current conditions, it is very important to boost the production of pork and improve its sanitary and hygienic quality for the successful handling of problems subjected to import substitution of meat products. This can be reached by means of strengthening of food reserve. For that purposes, in the frame of two experiments yacon tubers in combination with enzymatic agent protosubtilin GZx have been introduced in the intakes of fattening pork stores instead of fodder beat, and various doses of carbitox adsorbent have been additionally added when superfluous background of heavy metals was observed. During the 1st experiment, the substitution of fodder beet with the similar quantity of yacon tubers has allowed the animals of experimental group to outweigh the ones from the control group on 7,5% in the terms of gross formation of body weight, and to gain 100 kg of body weight for 7 days ahead of the animals from control group as well. Additionally, fodder costs per product have been reduced and the morphological and biochemical values of animals blood have been optimized. Based on the data from 2 nd experiment, it has been defined that the better dose for feeding of adsorbent carbitox was 2,0 kg per tonne of concentrates thereby the animals of 3rd experimental group had reasonably higher body weight gain and thereby higher feed-conversion ratio by products. Therewith, the animals intermediary metabolism has been speeded up due to optimization of morphological and biochemical values of blood and reduction of heavy metals content in blood serum, in other words level of zinc, lead and cadmium was not exceeding maximum allowable concentration