Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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abstract 1301706078 issue 130 pp. 1058 – 1065 30.06.2017 ru 368
The extensive path for development in the country in the twentieth century caused low competitiveness of Russian pig production. The productivity of domestic pig production was significantly lower than in Europe, US, Canada and China. Feed costs per 1 kg of gain were 2-3 times higher with a low yield of piglets from a sow per year: 14-16 with an average European 25-27 heads. The country did not have enough meat; as a result, a significant amount of meat products was imported to Russia. Restrictions on imports in connection to the imposition of embargoes contributed to the increase in demand for domestic products and opened new opportunities for Russian producers. One way to increase the production of pork is to use pigs with a high genetic potential for productivity, imported for breeding from Canada and Europe. Based on the conducted studies, it has been established that pigs of foreign breeding have high reproductive qualities, which proves the expediency of their application in commercial pig production to increase the efficiency of the industry development and reduce the import of pedigree youngsters from abroad. The implementation of two breed gilts will help increase productivity in the industrial pig production
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abstract 1301706090 issue 130 pp. 1236 – 1248 30.06.2017 ru 361
The article reviews the results of studying the influence of mineral fertilizers on the qualitative indices of the Merlot grape variety in the Anapo-Taman zone of the Krasnodar region. The technology of cultivation of grapes on the experimental plot was in accordance with the accepted for the given zone and culture. Agrobiological work was carried out at the optimal time and had a high quality of execution. Grape bushes are laid in a 3.0 x 2.0 m pattern. Formation - a twoshoulder horizontal cordon. On the bushes we formed the same load of shoots and bunches. Scheme of the experiment: option 1 – no fertilizers (control); option 2-superphosphate with a mixture of potassium salt (P90K90) from the autumn; option 3 –nitroammofoska (N120P120K120) from autumn; option 4 – ammonium nitrate (N60) in early spring. Analysis of the results of studies on the study of biological features of growth, fruiting, yield and quality of Merlot grape varieties on the background of the use of mineral fertilizers shows their high efficiency in the conditions of the AnapoTamanskaya zone of the Krasnodar region and can be recommended for use in production conditions. Mineral fertilizers ensures the receipt of dry bulk wine of superior quality control sample (without fertilizers) the concentration of tartaric acid 17.3 25.1 percent, phenolic compounds 17.1 – 40.0 %, and alcohol content of 7.2 and 9.3 %, titratable acids 11.8 and 13.7 %, given extract by 17.4 %, with a decrease of the mass concentration of total sulfur dioxide and pH. The most effective is the introduction of NPK (N120P120K120)
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abstract 1291705006 issue 129 pp. 68 – 78 31.05.2017 ru 379
The article presents brief results of the introduction of Hibiscus syriacus L. varieties for a signs collection in the south of Russia. Since 2007, Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution North Caucasian Regional Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture (Krasnodar) has been working on the introduction and researching of Hibiscus Syriacus varieties and signs collection is being formed. Introduced varieties of hibiscus are obtained in zones with a moderate temperature-humidity regime, therefore not all are easily adapted in the conditions of the south of Russia. According to the results of the research, several varieties of sources of valuable traits have been identified. Varieties with pure white petals: Totus Alba, William R. Smith, White Chiffon, White Pillar. Varieties with bright crimson color petals: Freedom, Carneus Plenus, Woodbridge, Duc de Brabant. The Blue Chiffon variety is the source of bright blue petals, Sanchonyo is a source of bright purple-crimson petals. Of great value are varieties that have an unusual combination in the color of petals, like the varieties Monstrosus and Hamabo. By the sign: a large flower (d of a flower more than 12 cm), the collection includes varieties White Chiffon, Chaina Chiffon, Pink Giant. Variety Dorothi Crane and hybrids: T-16-11, T-7-11, K-16-12 are identified as sources of round, wheel-shaped flower. With a double flower type, the varieties are represented by varieties: Blue Chiffon, White Chiffon, China Chiffon, Leopoldii, Speciosus, Lucci, Sanchonyo, Freedom, Carneus Plenus. Varieties: Woodbrige, Russion Violet, Ledy Stenly, White Chiffon, China Chiffon, Purple Pillar are sources of abundant long (more than 3 months) flowering. With a high degree of self-purification after flowering, varieties are distinguished: White Chiffon, Sanchonyo, Purple Pillar, White Pillar, Freedom. Varieties: China Chiffon, Freedom, Lucii, Leopoldii, RussionViolet, hybrid forms: T-16-11, T-18-11, T-21- 12 are characterized by increased adaptability to abiotic factors in south of Russia. Dedicated varieties and forms - sources of valuable economic and biological characteristics are of interest for involving in selection and allow to model varieties with given properties
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abstract 1291705020 issue 129 pp. 225 – 236 31.05.2017 ru 519
The presented research is devoted to the development of the import-substituting production technology of the proteins dresser for food from local vegetable resources, in particular, of lupine. Lupine seeds contain about 40% of protein rich in all irreplaceable amino acids. Protein of lupine noticeably differs from protein of soy in inhibitors content, and namely, proteases, that does not cause allergic reactions. The main part of oil composition of oil of lupine is maid up of linolenic, linoleic and olein acids. Use of lupine seeds in production of complex raw structure products will allow to increase the biological value of a proteins component of a traditional type of raw materials of phytogenesis and to reduce the available deficit of protein. It is a will-know fact, that lupine is added to the recipes of buns, fermented milk and cottage cheese products, rich crackers and long cookies. Technologists have recently received a certain concentrate from lupine seeds of high biological value, and a pastelike concentrate of lupine which can be used as a filler in milk, meat, baking and confectionery industries is being under development. The results of the research show that seeds of lupine can be considered as one of the perspective sources of white and competitive ingredient for developing new recipes and technologies of different types of multicomponent food. It is necessary to continue the research on creation of different types of food with use of lupine seeds. Thus, the products received from lupine seeds can be used as raw materials for improvement of quality of food and as additives for creation of compoundings of new types of foodstuff
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abstract 1291705023 issue 129 pp. 265 – 275 31.05.2017 ru 238
The article shows the ninth year of research on the remineralization of leached chernozem. In the plants of winter wheat, the content of macro and micronutrients of nutrition under remineralization of leached chernozem was investigated. It is established that when introducing rocks, the content of food elements in plants rises
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abstract 1291705027 issue 129 pp. 306 – 314 31.05.2017 ru 302
We have presented opportunities to improve the nutritional value of wine production: improvement of biogenetic soil, using organic fertilizers. The nutritional value is ensured by not only high-quality biochemical diversity of berries, but also the safety of products that do not contain toxic inclusions. Bio-fertilizer stimulates the biotransformation of toxic soil residues to replenish soil nutrients for the plant, providing grape raw material with biologically active substances and improves the nutritional value of wine products. Food safety of grapes is ensured by reducing it residues of hazardous chemicals migrating from the soil into the plant and the grapes. It has been established, that after 3 years of application of biofertilizers we significantly improved food safety and quality in the biochemical parameters, especially important for the classic wine grape varieties. The soil content of toxic residues in grape raw material is reduced to 50%, the amount of organic acids increases by: 4,22 mg/dm3(Gallic, coffee acid, chlorogenic; 0.7 g/cm3 amber; of 1.33 mg/dm3 ascorbic; 0.25 mg/dm3 nicotinic
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abstract 1291705077 issue 129 pp. 1070 – 1078 31.05.2017 ru 519
The use of resource-saving technologies for cultivation of basic crops does not make sense without the use of microelement fertilizers, biologics and growth regulators. All this fully applies to the technology of cultivation of the main bean culture – pea. In the current market conditions of agrochemical products, microfertilizers are presented in a wide range. Identifying the most effective of them at a price and yield increase is a defining task for agricultural producers. In this connection, the purpose of the research was to study the influence of biologics and growth regulators on the development and productivity of peas with the definition of their most effective them. The studies were conducted in 2014-2016 on the fields of the training and demonstration center on the introduction of resource-saving technologies of the IPCC APK VO "DGAU" in Zernograd, Rostov Region. As the studied drugs there were used Rizotorfin, Extrasol, Vigor Fort, Miwal Agro, Flavobacterin, Biogumat Kubansky, KU-8 Agrofon. As a result of the research, it was established that all the preparations studied showed a positive effect on the development of pea plants grade Angela. The yield gain was 0,34-0,56 t/ha in comparison with the control. The most effective are the following ones: Extrasol with a yield increase of 0,56 t / ha (14,6%) and a profitability level of 232%, Mival Agro – 0,54 t/ha (14,1%) and a profitability level of 192%, Biohumat Kuban – 0,55 t/ha (14,3%) and the level of profitability of 271%. A good level of profitability was noted at KU-8 Agrofon – 224%
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abstract 1291705083 issue 129 pp. 1140 – 1157 31.05.2017 ru 811
The article presents results of studying the oenology and the biochemistry of the Cabernet-Sauvignon grapes in different areas of the Krasnodar region - Taman, Anapa, Abrau-Dyurso, Gelendzhik and Krasnodar. The yields, the mechanical composition of the grapes, the biochemical indicators of the juice of berries were compared. The cultivation zone affects the yield, the average mass of the bunch, the number and mass of berries in the bunch, the mass of the crest, but according to the percentage of berries and crest in the bunch, the bunch structure (ratio of mass of berries to mass of the ridge) does not significantly differ between growing zones. The mass of 100 berries and 100 seeds, the weight of seeds in 100 berries, the clustering index (the ratio of pulp with juice to peel) can differ in different places of growth, but with insignificant coefficients of variation. The composition of the bunch as a percentage of the total mass varies little over the growing zones: the ridges make up 5.6- 5.7%, the skin 4.9-5.2%, the seeds 4.8-4.9%, the pulp with the juice - 84.3-84.5%. Structural and berry indicators varied in the range of 5.4-5.5 and 76.84, respectively. Depending on the place of cultivation, the yield of the grape must in laboratory conditions was 75.1-75.7%. Analysis of the structure, composition and the structure of bunches showed that the mechanical composition of Cabernet-Sauvignon refers to the first group of varieties that retain their valuable characteristics when changing the growing conditions. When harvesting, the mass concentration of sugars was 19-19.8%, titrated acidity - 8.1-9.2 g / dm3, pH - 3.3- 3.4. Depending on the place of cultivation of the content of organic acids in the juice of berries was: wine - 4917-5918 mg / dm3, apple - 1926-2763, lemon - 215-416 mg / dm3. In different places of cultivation in% of the total amount of organic acids studied, the content of tartaric acid varied from 61.7 to 71.4%, apple - from 24.7 to 33.3%, lemon - from 3 to 5%. Thus, the content of organic acids in the juice of Cabernet-Sauvignon berries depends on the specific growing conditions. Depending on the growing places, the mass concentration of potassium cations is 2630-3508 mg / dm3, sodium 162-436, magnesium 171-230, calcium 185-255 mg / dm3. However, in most cases, as a percentage of the total cation content, there are no differences depending on the site of growth. Thus, the biochemical parameters of the juice of CabernetSauvignon berries depend on the specific natural conditions of the terrain and, according to these parameters, the variety belongs to the second group of varieties with less plasticity to different growing conditions
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abstract 1291705085 issue 129 pp. 1172 – 1182 31.05.2017 ru 265
Soil profiles were made in intensive apple orchard in the agricultural enterprises in Lipetsk and Tambov regions in 2015. Drip irrigation in year rates of 500-550 m3 was carried out since 2010. During the research we determined the soil density, the solid phase density, aggregate composition, particle size distribution, the content of hydrolyzable nitrogen and humus by conventional methods. As a result of drip irrigation can increase dust-like fraction in dark gray forest soil, whereas in chernozems this index did not change significantly. In the black earth soil was noted the process of increasing the proportion of mud fraction due to mineral part chernozem destruction. In both soil types was increased sand content. It was found that drip irrigation improves some of the soil water-physical properties, such as a soil structure coefficient and the content of agronomical valuable aggregates in a layer of 20-40 cm. There was also noted that with increasing soil depth was reduced humus and hydrolyzable nitrogen content. In aggregate analysis, it was found that dark-gray forest soil the amount of water-stable aggregates increased, while meadow chernozem leached soil decreased. Data of the aggregate analysis revealed that in the dark-gray forest soil the amount of water-stable aggregates increased as a result of drip irrigation, while in meadow chernozem leached soil decreased. It recommends by drip irrigation application permanent monitoring of the soil humus content
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abstract 1291705089 issue 129 pp. 1235 – 1244 31.05.2017 ru 572
The article deals with the issue of improving the profitability of sheep breeding by using improved mutant genotypes in the breeding system. The results of studies of the main indicators of economic-useful traits are given, the dynamics of growth, level and quality of wool productivity of sheep of improved genotypes obtained on the basis of such breeds as Soviet merino and Stavropolskaya, as well as firstgeneration daughters cultivated in themselves are estimated. It was found that at birth, the live weight in the groups of the 3 group (the breeding of half-blooded hybrids "in oneself") was higher than that of the females from the 1 and 2 groups, respectively, by 0.50 kg, or 13.1%, and by 0.20 kg or 5.2% (P> 0.95). At a more senior age, the young, having a large live mass at birth, retained its rank position. The highest indicator of the cutting of physical wool was observed in animals of the 2 group, obtained as a result of the use of sheepproducers of Stavropolskaya breed on sheep of the Soviet merino. The parameters of the 1 and 3 group were lower by 0.6 kg - 12.3% and 0.17 kg - 3.5% (P> 0.95), respectively. The conclusion is made that the use of sheep-producers of the Stavropolskaya breed on the uterus of the Soviet merinos breed had a positive effect on the wool productivity and the live weight of the hybrid offspring. Further breeding of half-blooded hybrids “in oneself” showed the possibility of reproducing improved genotypes without losing the acquired qualities