Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
AGRIS logo UlrichsWeb logo DOAJ logo
Search by author's name Search by title
Sort by: Date Title Views
196 kb

BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY AS AN ELEMENT OF ECOLOGICAL MODERNIZATION OF PIG-BREEDING

abstract 1261702041 issue 126 pp. 582 – 599 28.02.2017 ru 576
The article analyzes the main factors of the negative impact of pig farms on the environment, for the characteristics of which are used criteria such as emissions of ammonia, methane, nitrous oxide, dust, loss of nitrogen and phosphorus in manure output, feed consumption and water consumption, economic evaluation, capital costs of reducing emissions, operational cost. The technical level, resource and energy consumption in the production of pork have been analyzed in a comparative perspective. The necessity of implementation of best available techniques in order to ensure environmentally oriented production growth has been provided. The importance of the development of technology selection algorithm and clarification the basic criteria for the selection has been emphasized. Also, there was detected the role of technical regulation for the prevention of excess pollution. The necessity of a comprehensive approach was proven for the implementation of NDT in the framework of environmental and industrial policies. Implementing NDT will provide the ecological modernization of pig production, which is confirmed by the experience of European countries, successfully implementing the concept of NDT from the 70s of the twentieth century. At the same time, not only economic measures should be used (exemption from pollution charges, grants and subsidies), but also the administrative tools (based on a valuation of NDT, integrated permits). Daylight technological regulation will provide "green" economic growth and will contribute to solving social and economic problems. Implementation of the project is not possible without the exchange of information, the definition of time and economic characteristics of the implementation of NDT, comparative analysis and classification technologies to NDT. In 2017, it has already been planned to publish the NDT reference "Intensive breeding of pigs,” while the implementation of best available technologies will become the basis of ecological modernization of the industry. The inclusion of the author to the technical working group on development of the handbook "Intensive breeding of pigs" allows to participate on-line in the discussion of topical issues
860 kb

YELD AND QUALITY OF ARTEMIS, INKROCHE TAMANSKII, SAUVIGNON TAMANSKII, NEWEST TECHNICAL GRAPEVINE VARIETIES

abstract 1261702044 issue 126 pp. 620 – 631 28.02.2017 ru 420
The article presents results of the study of yield, mechanical composition and quality of bunches of newest white grapevine varieties called Artemis, Sauvignon tamanskii and Inkroche tamanskii, in the conditions of Taman in the Krasnodar region. The yield of the studied genotypes ranged from 10.4 to 13.3 t / ha: the highest yield was in Artemis, and the lowest – in Sauvignon tamanskii. The average weight of the bunch was in Sauvignon tamanskii (152 g), the variety Artemis had 143 g and Inkroche tamanskii had 130 g of bunch weight. The percentage of berries in clusters ranged from 95.3 in Artemis to 95.9 in Inkroche tamanskii and Sauvignon tamanskii. The ratio of fruit mass to the mass of crests was 20.3 in the varieties of Artemis and 23.5 in Inkroche tamanskii and Sauvignon tamanskii. In genotypes of Artemis, Sauvignon and Inkroche Taman Taman the weight of 100 berries was 200, 160 and 130 g, respectively, the mass of 100 seeds - 4.6; 3.1 and 2.9 g, the average weight of the pulp from the juice to the weight of the skin - 24.3; 19.5; 15.9. The percentage of pulp and juice in clusters of the studied varieties was 85,9-89,1%, and the ratio of pulp to juice to the solid residue 6,1-8,2. Yield of musts from the studied sample was 74,5-75,4%. The content of sugars in the berries (17,5-19,6 g / 100 cm3) was dependent on the yield, the characteristics of varieties and timing of the harvest, but the harvest was favorable for the production of beverages and wine materials
214 kb

THE METHOD OF THE DRYING GRAIN INTENSIFICATION WITH ACTIVE VENTILATION USING MICROWAVERECYCLING

abstract 1261702051 issue 126 pp. 723 – 734 28.02.2017 ru 675
The need of improving the grain drying technology is due to a significant volume of this operation, high specific energy and high standards to preserve quality of grain. In this regard, the development of new technologies and equipment aimed at reducing the cost of fuel and electricity, providing the preservation of grain quality has essential meaning to reduce the drying cost. Usually, the electrophysical effects on the dehydrated material not only contribute to the thickness reduction or destruction of the boundary layers and increase the surface of phase contact, i.e. they cause the combined effects of the intensification of the drying process that is economically favorable and they say for a broader practical use of electrotechnologies. Method of grain drying using microwave recycling in installations of active aeration bunker type allows increasing productivity compared with standard technology for up to 30% and reducing process energy consumption by 17%
155 kb

DEVELOPMENT OF COMPOSITION OF PARAFFIN - WAX PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR PRESOWING PROCESSING OF WINTER WHEAT SEEDS

abstract 1261702058 issue 126 pp. 832 – 843 28.02.2017 ru 379
We have proposed the method of presowing processing of seeds of winter wheat using a hydrophobic paraffin-wax system of the new composition. Water protected paraffinceresin coating has been used before for storage of garlic. However, the paraffin coating were not applied to wheat seeds and were not investigated their effect on germination, growth and further development of plants of winter wheat. This work has been done for the first time. The ceresin wax is replaced by sunflower wax. New component composition of the hydrophobic waterproof coating winter wheat seeds: sunflower wax – 15-20 % wt .; paraffin – all the rest of it. Sunflower wax is a surfaceactive substance and has the properties of the plasticizer and the dispersant of the dispersed structure of the paraffin. The advantages of this coating: it protects the seeds from moisture loss, regulates the timing of their germination, contributes to the preservation of accumulated nutrients, and enhances plant growth and development; it increases the yield of wheat. In the field, we have set growth stimulating ability of paraffin-wax coating of winter wheat seeds of variety called Charade. The resulting increase in yield was 20% (control of 52.6 с / ha), while maintaining the quality of grain. This use of sunflower wax solves an important environmental problem – disposal of oilseed production waste
243 kb

THE PRODUCTIVITY OF PERENNIAL GRASS HERBAGE IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER DURING THE VEGETATION PERIOD

abstract 1271703014 issue 127 pp. 246 – 259 31.03.2017 ru 647
The article is devoted to the estimation of the dependence of perennial grass herbage’s productivity on the dose and distribution of nitrogen fertilizers during the vegetation, as well as from the dynamics of the species composition by years of use. It was revealed that for cocksfoot-timothy grass mixture an increase in the rate of nitrogen fertilizer for every 10 kg of active ingredient leads to an increase of yield by 0.27 tons/ha. The selection of components of grass mixtures and rational fertilizer doses forms the herbage which provides a yield of about 7,0-12,0 tons/ha of dry mass and 58,1-99,6 GJ of energy exchange. It is established that competitive relations in grass mixtures are exacerbated with increasing doses of fertilizers. The timothy grass develops successfully in a mixture with the cocksfoot with a low level of mineral nutrition (N80). A high level of mineral nutrition speeds up the formation of single-species herbage - the cocksfoot. Meadow fescue grass provides sustainable yields on medium and high backgrounds of mineral fertilizers in combination with the cocksfoot. Recommendations for a nitrogen dose of more than 200 kg per hectare for fertilizing mixed grass crops with the cocksfoot and about 100 kg per hectare for clover-cereals mixtures without cocksfoot are suggested
346 kb

ORIGIN OF SORGHUM AND DEVELOPMENT OF ITS BREEDING

abstract 1271703017 issue 127 pp. 281 – 294 31.03.2017 ru 904
Sorghum is cultivated in many countries of the world on around 50 ml hectares. The main producers of sorghum are India, Nigeria, Sudan and the USA. Sorghum comes from equatorial Africa. India and China are the secondary places of origin and formation. The USA achieved great success in breeding, seedgrowing and agro technologies of grain sorghum. In the country sorghum occupies 14.4% of the world amount of sowing areas; the gross yield is 40%. Sorghum breeding on Don was started by E.S. Yakushevsky in 1938. In 1963 after a long break the work was restarted at the Zernograd Breeding Station headed by Ya.I. Issakov. At present the amount of sowing areas for sorghum is constantly increasing in RF (220.3 thousand ha in 2015). It occurs due to aridity of climate and more frequent use of the crop as insurance. Besides, the development of white kernel varieties gave an opportunity to use sorghum for starch and spirit. There are 221 varieties and hybrids of sorghum registered in the State List. The main directions of breeding work with grain sorghum are early maturity, suitability for mechanical harvesting, productivity and grain quality. The ARRIGC developed the white kernel early maturing varieties ‘Velikan’, ‘Zernogradskoe 88’, ‘Ataman’ without necessity to be dried after harvesting, with productivity of 8 t/ha. The main directions of breeding work with sweet sorghum are early maturity, high intensity of initial growth, low height, resistance to lodging, high productivity and quality of green chop. The ARRIGC developed the varieties for fodder use (‘Listvenit’), for spirit and treacle (‘Debyut’ and ‘Zernogradsky Yantar’). Sorghum due to origin and varietal diversity even in dry and hot parts of the world allow obtaining stable, high yields of grain and green chop. This makes sorghum the leading grain-forage and food crop
1924 kb

3D MODELING OF THE HISTORICAL OBJECT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE EXEMPLIFIED BY PETROVSKY GARDEN IN PETROZAVODSK

abstract 1271703023 issue 127 pp. 353 – 362 31.03.2017 ru 712
Petrovsky garden was founded in 1703 and is the most important historical object of landscape architecture in Petrozavodsk. Tikhon Balandin made a description and drawing of Petrovsky garden at the beginning of the 19th century. He completed his work by studying and measuring the fragments of the earthen fortress, blast furnace and the location of the destroyed palace, pond and birch garden. On the basis of the historical documents, we created a 3D model of Petrovsky garden using of modern computer-aided design. Threedimensional model of the garden allows viewing the object from different angles, gives an idea about structure and compositions of the garden on a new visual level. Some examples of visualization garden fragments were presented at the article. Now the garden doesn’t have its original structure. The historical garden layout and 3D model of object can be used for reconstruction of Petrovsky garden
316 kb

THE ACCUMULATION OF 90SR IN CHERRYPLUM DEPENDING ON THE DEPTH OF ITS DISPOSITION IN THE SOIL

abstract 1271703028 issue 127 pp. 416 – 431 31.03.2017 ru 608
With the possible radioactive contamination of the territory, as a result of emergency situations at enterprises of the nuclear fuel cycle, there occurs a task of further use of the soil for agricultural purposes. Researches on the cultivation on contaminated areas of fruit plants in the conditions of the Krasnodar region were not carried out. As a result of the experiment in the field we received experimental material on migration and 90Sr accumulation in vegetative and generative organs of cherry-plum. Research lasted for 8 years. The accumulation of 90Sr, placed on the surface of the soil, in the bark, wood, leaves, and fruit was 7,0×102 ; 4,8×102 ; 9,7×102 and 1.8 ×102Bq/kg. With the penetration of 90Sr in soil at 50 cm accumulation in the bark, wood, leaves, and fruit were: 5,1×102 ; 3,0×102 ; 6,9×102 ; 1,4×102Bq/kg. The experimental material obtained in the field makes it possible to calculate the coefficients of the nuclide transition from polluted soil to the various organs of the studied plant and to make a forecast of the possible use of contaminated areas for the cultivation of fruit crops. Radioactive contaminated areas cannot be left without proper control, since, firstly, non-planted fields are exposed to wind and water erosion of soils, which leads to rapid and large-scale pollution of the environment and, secondly, if it is possible to obtain products from such fields, this should be done for economic reasons
142 kb

THE INFLUENCE OF THE PLUM POX POTYVIRUS (PPV) ON THE CONTENT OF PIGMENTS, PROTEIN, LIGNIN, WATER IN TISSUES OF LEAVES OF PRUNUS DOMESTICA

abstract 1271703029 issue 127 pp. 432 – 441 31.03.2017 ru 516
The results of the study of physiological and biochemical parameters of plum plants, changing when infecting plants Plum pox potyvirus (PPV) are shown. It was found that the infected leaves at the stage of full development of the content chlorophyll a reduced by 30 % in variety Stanley and by 6 % in Kabardinskaya rannaya, chlorophyll b in less than 49 % at Stanley, 37% in Kabardinskaya rannaya, carotenoids are less than 22 % in the variety Stanley and by 11% in the variety Kabardinskaya rannaya . Leaves infected with the virus pox (PPV), in comparison with not infected, the amount of protein were decreasing: in the variety Stanley by 21 %, in the variety Kabardinskaya rannaya by 28 %. In the period of active growth of the leaves change in the content of pigments and protein is more intense. The content of lignin in the tissues of leaves, infected with the virus pox (PPV), in comparison with not infected in the variety Stanley was below on 13 % and in the variety Kabardinskaya rannaya - 8 %. The total content of water of infected tissue on the stage of a full-time development is reduced in patients leaves as compared with not infected 11 % in the variety Stanley and by 1 % in the variety of Kabardinskaya rannaya. Throughout the period of development of foliage studied parameters vary depending on the variety
211 kb

INCREASING OF BIOLOGICAL POTENTIAL IN POULTRY DUE TO THE USE OF PROBIOTICS

abstract 1271703036 issue 127 pp. 527 – 545 31.03.2017 ru 610
To improve the quality, safety and competitiveness of the domestic raw materials of animal origin the use of probiotics in the poultry industry is a priority and promising direction of the development of organic agriculture. One of the key problems of the production of probiotics is to provide actively stable preparations. Biocompatibility of the indigenous microflora with probiotics, medical form and individual range of antibacterial activity of probiotics have a significant impact on the introduction of probiotics in new habitat conditions and its effectiveness. Consideration of these factors can enhance the effectiveness of probiotics. Currently, the available literature has insufficient justification of certain doses of administration and methods of using different probiotic preparations. The materials present and summarize the results of the research concerning the use of probiotics in the poultry industry, based on the achievements of Russian and foreign scientists. In addition, based on the analysis of various sources of scientific literature, we suggest ways to solve the problem of probiotic therapy and give some recommendations on the organization of the technological process of selection and application of different probiotics in poultryfeeding. Raw meat from poultry reared with the use of probiotic preparations is safe, because metabolites of probiotic microorganisms are not accumulate in the body tissues. Researches of biosynthesis regularities of probiotics were made at the cellular level, including genetic aspects, features of regulation of secretion, dependence on the cultivation conditions, interaction with binding sites on the cell surface, participation in the vital activity of the population of individual cells. The use of probiotics contributes to normalization of the intestinal microflora, activation of protein metabolism, productivity increase, reduction of feed costs per unit of production and increasing of poultry industry economic efficiency as a whole
.