The scarcity of natural resources has become a serious
problem in terms of security in the world. This article
examines the role of the limited resources in conflicts in
Africa. The main source of conflict is the issue of
control of resources and the right to a healthy
environment. Here we consider the case of the regional
conflicts in the African context. A large number of
major rivers in Africa also have been the cause of
conflicts between the riparian countries. However, most
of these problems have been successfully solved, and in
many cases, this process led to the formation of regional
blocs for economic and diplomatic cooperation in the
region. In addition to inter-State disputes, there are also
internal disputes among regions or states within the
same country for the control of resources. However, in
some cases these regions have developed wellcoordinated
approaches to resolving the disputes: either
by judicial apportionment, congressional action or based
on negotiated compacts. In general, we believe that a
careful application of equitable resource-sharing formula
to volatile areas is a basic condition for peace and
stability in Africa

In the article we consider the results of the study of
climatic attractiveness of the South of Russia from the
point of view of tourism development. Formal
definition of attractiveness was reached by using a
wide spread concept of climatic indices. Any climatic
index is calculated by a set of medical and biological
characteristics. The latter are defined on the basis of
human physiology. Indices, which are used for
evaluation of attractiveness of one or another region
from the point of view of recreation and tourism, have
certain peculiarities. Very often they are calculated
using poorly formalized and arguable indications like
psychological feeling of meteorological characteristics
and even aesthetic perception. Taking into account
above mentioned experience we have suggested a new
approach for evaluation of climatic tourist indices
basing on initial (standard 3 hour discretion)
meteorological observations with maximum possible
exclusion from a calculation scheme all subjective
parameters. Our approach is based on a well-known
method of Mieczkowski [4]. The method was
developed more than 30 ears ago and is still widely
applied. Our method allows objectively evaluate nonsmoothed
index values because it takes into account
combinations of meteorological characteristics with
maximum available discretion during the day. A
method demonstrated its capability for evaluation of regional variations in tourist attractiveness. We
analyzed 40â€“year dynamics of attractiveness in the
region being in the focus of the study

One of the main problems at engineering-geological
researches is the choice of the most suitable territory
for construction of designed projects and
constructions. The most dangerous threat to the
economy and the security of the Krasnodar region are
geohazards. The article provides an expert evaluation
of engineering-geological conditions of the territory,
the map-scheme of evaluation of engineeringgeological
zoning of the region. The characteristic is
given to the engineering-geological taxons allocated
on degree of usefulness of conditions

Increasing of tea production in the foothills of
Adygea should be based on potential soil properties
suitable for tea plant. The goal was achieved using
modern methods of soil evaluation of tea plantations.
The evaluation criteria were the following
agrochemical and agro indicators: soil acidity (pH
KCl); hydrolytic acidity; the sum of exchangeable
bases; bases saturation; granulometric composition. It
was found that the soil under tea plantation in
Adygeya classifies as brown forest poorly
unsaturated with the level of potential fertility rated
as satisfactory (bonitet rating 40-60). However, the
low supply of nutrients in the layer 0-40 cm:
phosphorus (19,04 Â± 2,42 mg / 100 g soil), potassium
(17,70 Â± 1,60 mg / 100 g soil) and a sufficiently high
degree of saturation of soil bases in the layer of 50-
100 cm (67,10 Â± 11,67%) in combination with a soil
moisture deficit determine their low productivity of
16,0 Â± 5,0 kg / ha, whereas their potential
productivity of 30-50 t / ha. The development of
scientifically grounded, targeted ameliorative and
agro-technical measures (irrigation, nutrition systems
using physiologically acidic forms of nitrogen and
potash fertilizers that reduce the degree of saturation
of the soil bases) will help to increase the effective
soil fertility and allow the tea plants reach its
biological potential and achieve predicted
productivity in Adygea region

It is assumed that in the primordial state of the Universe
was missing the elements of matter, it was submitted to
electromagnetic photon field in a broad frequency band.
Photons with energy ε=1,02 born MeV electrons and
positrons, and photons with energy ε=1,87 born ÐœeV
protons and antiprotons. The Association of protons,
electrons and essential spectrum of photons created a
sustainable hydrogen atoms and neutrons. Association
of hydrogen atoms led to the creation of hydrogen
clusters, and merging neutron â€“ neutron creation of
clusters (pulsars). As a result, the concentration of
photons in the Universe decreased and the universe
were compressed. The gravitational interactions
between the hydrogen and neutron clusters was coming
off of a mass of matter from both. The torn mass of
hydrogen clusters were created on the planet.
Separation of the mass from neutron clusters led to the
neutron exposure of the main hydrogen clusters and
loose parts from him (future planets). The latter, being
closer to the main hydrogen accumulation, under the
influence of neutron flux were redesigned to all
elements of the periodic table. The article describes
nuclear reactions convert one chemical element to
another. After irradiation of the primary hydrogen
clusters of neutrons and the emergence of the heavy and
superheavy hydrogen, started fusion reactions with the
release of photon energy and the transition of hydrogen
clusters in Stellar condition. They began to glow. The
selection of the photon energy of the Stars led to the
increase in the concentration of photons in the
Universe, the increase of the pressure and the expansion
of the Universe, which is what happens at the present
stage of its development. Combining antiprotons,
electrons (positrons) with the required spectrum of
photons created sustainable antihydrogen and
antineutrons, and their clusters â€“ clumps of antimatter
in the Universe

Even with the modern development of geodetic
techniques to abandon traditional ways a
condensation of planned networks is not possible.
Therefore, the article describes the case of
determination of coordinates of points using
backwards the angular notch and the accuracy of
their determination. In the classical methods of
solving the backwards the angular notch are
calculated coefficients, and get the coordinates of the
designated point. The authors propose to use
auxiliary angles that will reduce the amount of
calculation. In addition, the article gives examples of
solutions to well-known formulas of Gauss and
through the calculation of direct geodetic purpose

Recently, there have been satellite-based methods
widely used to determine the coordinates of points,
which allow, without mutual visibility between
points, to pursue their coordinates. However, in
some cases, for example in forests, in urban buildings
the application of these methods becomes a
problem and it is easier to apply traditional methods.
The article describes the case of using the method of
calculation of coordinates for "the approach of Hansen"
and held to evaluate the accuracy of determining
the coordinates of the points. Some studies provide
only recommendation guidelines that the most
accurate results are obtained when the shape of the
building is shaped similar to a square. In our case, on
the basis of obtained formulae we had an analysis of
the influence of the length of the corresponding base,
and its distance from the source side on the accuracy
of determination of coordinates of the original
points. The conclusion is that the accuracy of determination
of coordinates of required points depends
on the ratio of the length of the original basis and the
baseline. The optimal can be considered the distance
equal to 0.3-0.6 of the length of the baseline. The
holding data in the study can successfully be used
for the drafting of geodetic reference polygonometries
moves and thickening of networks

The article examines an important matter of topical
problems of the thickening of planned justification
from the starting points, for which we have known or
predetermined locations using satellite-surveying instruments.
The authors present a method of solving the
problem of two geodetic reference points using two
sources (the approach of the Hansen) by determining
the true adjoining corners and converting the problem
to the solution of direct angular notches. We have also
given a numerical example of the solution and the
estimated accuracy of the obtained coordinates of the
points P and Q using found valid adjoining corners
and edge lengths of the resulting triangles

The article examines the development of a planned
study on the clearings and roads in built-up and
forested areas, as well as for building networks. Most
often, it is recommended to use the method without
diagonal quadrangles, where in each figure measured
all four corners and the length of one of the parties,
and in the first and last rectangles â€“ four corners and
two sides. The length of the other sides is obtained by
computing, previously having leveraged the angles in
the quadrilaterals. The disadvantage of this method is
the adjustment of such circuits in a simplified manner,
namely: the distribution of residuals arising in the
augmentation of coordinates fx and fy equally to all
augmentation. The article proposes formulas of Gauss
for direct angular notches to make the conditional
equation of directional angles, deciding which method
of least squares, find the amendments to the measured
directional angles. Introducing these amendments, I
get the coordinates of the desired points of successive
angular intersection. As it may be seen from
preliminary calculations, the errors resulting from the
use of differential corrections in the coordinates are
very small and may not have a significant influence on
the measurement result

The article is devoted to the study of the spatial
distribution of air temperature, precipitation and their
ratio in the form of moisturizing factor of the Mayma
river basin. Calculations of the vertical and horizontal
gradients are hold. Cartographic models of the
distribution basic climatic indices are also constructed