Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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abstract 1511907003 issue 151 pp. 24 – 32 30.09.2019 ru 3
Planetary mechanisms are used to create the working movement of the Executive bodies of metallurgical and mining machines. Roller working bodies, for the drive of which planetary mechanisms are used, are increasingly being used in the designs of harvesting machines. The processes occurring in the differential threshing devices of harvesting machines are poorly understood, due to the lack of information about the properties of the material in the event of rapidly changing stresses in them. This work is the result of the analysis of previous theoretical as well as experimental studies in the field of threshing. We describe the technological scheme of the shock-vibration threshing device and the principle of its operation. The possible variants of arrangement of drum rolls and drumming are considered. The relationship between the angular velocities of the drum, the drum rolls and the sub-drum is elucidated. Installation of three-sided rollers on the threshing device according to the scheme proposed by us allows additional shaking of the whole threshed rice mass from 75 to 110 times per second
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abstract 1511907011 issue 151 pp. 116 – 129 30.09.2019 ru 2
The objective of the research was to study the patterns of deformation with the different internal structure in a tire envelope with the standard size of 30.5-32 in propulsion units for modern mobile farm vehicles. The research method is experimental with the use of «a tire tester» and specially developed devices for determining the deformations of the tire envelope concerning the rim in circular and radial directions. Output indicators of a wheel with the pneumatic tire are determined by the ability of the tire to be deformed so that at small hysteresis losses in the rubber-cord envelope the largest area of the contact with a substructure have been created. This circumstance has special significance when developing the tires for mobile farm vehicles with the high power saturation, the patterns of deformation of which are poorly studied now. The analysis of the carried out experimental researches has shown the expediency of application of the experimental tires with the same standard size, offered in the work, on the propulsion units of the mobile farm vehicles instead of diagonal and radial tires. The rolling resistance of the experimental tires 30.5E-32 is lower than the rolling resistance of serially produced tires, and the developed area of contact is higher and that provides the decrease in the condensing impact on the soil
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abstract 1511907019 issue 151 pp. 221 – 231 30.09.2019 ru 3
The purpose of this research is to increase the production of concentrated (protein) feed in agricultural enterprises through the use of electronic equipment or robotics and precise precision livestock technology, which will reduce the unit cost of their production. According to the academician L. P. Kormakovsky, accurate, precision technology enables economical use of material resources, which are feeds and their ingredients in the feed, and to obtain optimum results at the highest cost. The most important direction of development of accurate technologies in animal husbandry is the preparation of complete feed mixtures and normalized feeding of groups of animals formed by its productivity. One of the key conditions of efficiency of precise breeding and the use of sophisticated electronic means of control of technological processes is the quality of the feed. Over the past 15 years, concentrated feed forms have been the basis of the diet of most types of farm animals and is the main reserve for increasing their productivity. The article considers models of robotic means of different countries of producers, used in agricultural enterprises for the preparation and distribution of protein feed. The use of robotics currently makes it possible to facilitate human work, and in some cases to replace it. Replacement of a human in all the spheres of activity, for example in preparation of protein forages, at agricultural companies will allow to increase productivity of forage preparation equipment, quality of forages and to provide agriculture of the country with the domestic forages. However, the production of domestic robotics, which are designed for the preparation of protein feed on the basis of oilseeds (sunflower meal, soybean, etc.) is absent, which is a scientific problem. The production of robotics is most developed in European countries. Robotic means which carry out distribution of protein forages, are applied to a lesser extent at the domestic agricultural enterprises, in connection with their features
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abstract 1511907020 issue 151 pp. 232 – 243 30.09.2019 ru 3
Reserves of expansion of the areas under fruit plantings in the central part of the North Caucasus are limited, one of solutions of this problem is involvement in an agricultural turn and, in particular, under fruit plantings a little or the slope lands, absolutely inconvenient for one-year cultures, having optimum climatic conditions. Currently, scientifically based technologies of cultivation of gardens on slopes are developed for foothill and mountainous areas of the North Caucasus in relation to zones. Large corporations, as well as medium and small business are engaged in production of fruits in the North Caucasian Federal District. One of problems which vendors of fruits face it is the shortage of the equipment on care of trunk strips and row-spacings of fruit plantings. Mechanized technologies of flat gardening are a little effective in specific conditions of mountain and foothill agriculture where the main limiting factor is the soil fertility. At the same time, the question of the accelerated creation of a humic layer in the trunk strips, improvements of the water and food modes of fruit plantings on slope lands is particularly acute. The carried-out analysis of a system of maintenance of the soil in gardens showed that the most rational is the cespitose and humous system providing bevelling of vegetation with its leaving on the surface of the soil in the form of mulch. However, lots the mower-grinders produced by the industry have rather low rotating speed of a rotational operating part (540 … 840 min-1); they do not provide high-quality crushing of grass vegetation, are incapable to transport crushed grassy masses in trunk strips of fruit-trees. In this regard, we offer a construction of a unit for processing of row-spacings and the trunk strips of fruit plantings. As a result of the conducted theoretical researches, we have set rational values of key parameters of the offered unit
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abstract 1501906001 issue 150 pp. 1 – 9 28.06.2019 ru 86
The article considers the possibility of reducing the cost of tillage in the production of grain crops. The most important economic characteristic of production is operating costs. In terms of agricultural production, they represent the amount of contributions to wages, depreciation, repairs, and the cost of fuel, lubricants and other consumables. In this regard, the aim of the research was to determine the dynamics of operating costs in the production of legumes. Determination of the dynamics of operating costs was carried out on the basis of the results of studies of energy-saving technologies in a stationary experience. Variants of processing of the soil on the conventional technology was layered subsurface tillage combined unit, UNS-3, the layered subsurface tillage unit CUO-2 and conventional tillage (PN-5-35). No provision was made for zero tillage technology. As a result of the research it was found that on pre-sowing tillage and sowing, the value of operating costs varies for the crops under consideration, but has almost the same values (within each crop) for the methods of the main tillage. More preferable for this type of work is zero tillage, as it provides 21-29% lower operating costs due to direct sowing of crops. The highest operating costs for all the crops under consideration are observed in the main tillage. In the same technological period of work operating costs are the most variable. Thus, depending on the technology of the tillage when growing winter wheat, they change within 117,2-5229,2, the production of spring barley - to 167,8-4517,4 and in the production of peas – to 136,6-4517,4 thousand rubles
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abstract 1501906002 issue 150 pp. 10 – 29 28.06.2019 ru 141
Due to the disconnectedness of production processes, prevention of soil degradation and plant diseases, as well as the difficult establishment of functional dependencies between the parameters of the working bodies and the physicomechanical properties of the soil, the richness of foreign technology, there is the problem of creating innovative structural and technological solutions for basic soil tillage including for the purpose of import substitution. To solve it, KubGAU has developed: “Multifunctional plow” (patent of the Russian Federation No. 2618342); “Plow with rotary bar” (utility model RF patent No. 184196); “Multifunctional plow with a rotary bruce” (positive decision on the patent application of the Russian Federation). Formal models, schemes and descriptions are given
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abstract 1491905001 issue 149 pp. 1 – 13 31.05.2019 ru 150
The urgency of the task in creating a reliable plant protection system is the improvement and development of new technologies for spraying crops on the basis of fundamentally new agricultural requirements at a higher quality level, increasing productivity, reducing energy costs and greening protective measures. Pneumatic slotted sprayers have great design capabilities allowing obtaining operating parameters necessary for the specific task of the sprayer. In this regard, we have proposed a technological scheme of the sprayer in the garden-vineyard version. To do this, the sprayers are placed in pneumatic ducts of the fans mounted on the sprayers. It is possible to reduce energy and resource costs, to achieve high quality indicators of the process and to increase the level of environmental friendliness by developing technical means for ultra-low-volume spraying. The principal novelty in solving the problem of ultra-low volume spraying is the use of KubSAU design pneumatic sprayers on the sprayer, and the scheme of the technological process, allowing the reduction of the working fluid and pesticides doses rate, resulting in reduced operating costs to support operations: preparation of working fluids and filling the sprayers. To process two rows simultaneously, it is possible to use sprayers equipped with two centrifugal fans with the installation of pneumatic slit sprayers with fixation in the ducts that they overlap, forcing the air from the fan to pass through the atomizer body, mixing with drops of working fluid. In this case, the speed of the air-droplet jets increases and more efficient use of the air jet from the fan occur. Along with the use of sprayers, equipped with KubSAU design pneumatic sprayers, to combat pests and diseases, we propose to use a sprayer to combat weeds in the trunk area of perennial plantations. Thus we have a family of ultra-low volume sprayers with pneumatic slotted sprayers of the Kuban State Agrarian University design
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abstract 1491905002 issue 149 pp. 14 – 22 31.05.2019 ru 79
The article presents the results of a study of the influence of the processing method before storage on the commercial quality of carrot roots during storage. The object of the research was carrot of the Abaco variety. Objects of study were stored for 21 days at + (25 ± 1) ° C and 56 days at + (2 ± 1) ° C. Roots were treated with extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF ELF) and Vitaplan biopreparation separately and in combination. As a result of the research, it was established that the complex treatment of EMF ELF and biopreparation allows increasing the yield of standard carrot products compared to the control: 11.8% at storage temperature + (2 ± 1) ° C, 24.1% at storage temperature + (25 ± 1) ° C. A reduction in the total losses of carrots, treated with complex EMF ELF and biological product, was found by 5.8% at storage temperature + (2 ± 1) ° C and by 12.4% at storage temperature + (25 ± 1) ° C
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abstract 1481904001 issue 148 pp. 1 – 15 30.04.2019 ru 61
The aim of the work is to establish rational parameters on the basis of analytical and experimental research, in terms of obtaining the maximum performance of the unit based on a class 5 tractor, an automatic gear shift system. We have proposed a device for automatic gear shifting, in which the pressure of the working fluid in the pneumatic-hydraulic accumulator installed in the power transmission of the tractor of the elastic-damping mechanism, equivalent to the engine torque, was used as an input signal. The task of optimizing the tracking device and the actuator of the automatic shift system is the definition based on the theory of automatic regulation of the rational flow cross section of the damper throttle and the time delay of the system response to ensure the input signal with the necessary filtering in frequency and phase. The study presents the results of the tests carried out under laboratory conditions, which showed that the automatic gear shift system provides gear shifting at an external load frequency in the range from 0 to 0.24 s-1, direct assessments of the quality of the automatic gear shift system: oscillation (0), overshoot (0%) and time of the transition process (2...4 s), meet the requirements for their work. The analysis of the results obtained in experimental studies showed that the productivity of the machine-tractor plowing unit with a class 5 tractor-model equipped with the developed system of automatic gear change is higher by 10.6%, and the specific fuel consumption is 8.1% lower compared to the serial version
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abstract 1481904002 issue 148 pp. 16 – 30 30.04.2019 ru 60
The quality of feed is one of the main factors determining the development of industries necessary for the country. In this regard, extrusion technologies for processing raw materials of plant origin are of great interest. The prospect of processing plant raw materials using thermoplastic extrusion is due to two main reasons: first, the large volume and variety of products produced using this technology, and, secondly, the economic effect that gives the production of extrusion products by expanding the consumer properties of the feed produced. Extrusion equipment not only expands the range of feed, but also increases the employment of the rural population during the off-season. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to assess the prospects for the introduction of protein feed production by extruders from sunflower seeds in small agricultural enterprises. The study used an analytical review and analysis of published and patent information on technical means – extruders used for the production of protein feed from oilseeds, such as sunflower. The analysis of literature sources on the work of the existing forage preparation equipment showed that serial machines are metal-consuming, energy-consuming, used with low efficiency, due to technical and technological shortcomings. The analytical review of patent sources of extruders for preparation of compound feeds for the purpose of identification of the direction of their development and elimination of shortcomings of the existing is given. Modernization of extruders for the preparation of feed in the patent information goes in different ways, depending on the goal, which will improve their productivity and quality of protein feed. Serial production of technical equipment for the preparation of protein feed allows you to compete with foreign technology. Therefore, the development and improvement of serial domestic equipment for the preparation of protein feed from sunflower seeds for functional purposes are competitive and significantly cheaper and can reduce energy costs for their extrusion, which is an urgent task