Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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145 kb

INFLUENCE OF BASIC TREATMENT ON AGROPHYSICAL SOIL PROPERTIES IN CROPS OF WINTER BARLEY

abstract 1531909002 issue 153 pp. 8 – 18 29.11.2019 ru 13
The article presents the results of studies on the influence of the main tillage in the technology of cultivating winter barley on its agrophysical properties. The object of research was winter barley, sort Rubezh, the predecessor - winter wheat. Soil - heavy duty, low humus, typical leached chernozems. The studies were carried out in a stationary experiment on the basis of the experimental field of the Department of General and Irrigated Agriculture at KubSAU in accordance with generally accepted methods for experiments with grain crops. Scheme of experience (primary tillage): option 1 (A0) - dump plowing to a depth of 20-22 cm (control); option 2 (A1) - chisel for 20-22 cm; option 3 (A2) - disk peeling at 8-10 cm; option 4 (A3) - zero treatment (direct sowing). Based on the research, a general orientation is revealed in the technology of cultivating winter barley to reduce the agrophysical indicators of the soil throughout the growing season of the development of its plants while lowering the tension of its main processing. So, the density of the soil was minimal, and the structure and moisture of the soil, as well as the reserves of productive moisture were maximum on the option with dump plowing to a depth of 20-22 cm. Conducting deep loosening at the same depth (chiseling by 20-22 cm) somewhat worsened these parameters . Implementation of disk peeling in the main tillage (by 8-10 cm) contributed to the deterioration of these parameters. The option of zero tillage was in last place according to these indicators. And only before harvesting, zero tillage contributed to the formation of higher soil moisture and productive moisture reserves
938 kb

CURRENT STATE AND EFFICIENCY OF BLACK LEACHED SOILS OF WESTERN CAUCASUS

abstract 1531909005 issue 153 pp. 52 – 65 29.11.2019 ru 18
The article studies current state of fertility and productivity of leached chernozem used in the 11-field grain-grass-row crop rotation. Under the conditions of a stationary field experiment, a soil section was laid, a morphological description of the soil was carried out, its magnetic susceptibility χ was measured, soil samples were selected from soil-genetic horizons, in which the particle size distribution, physical and chemical parameters were determined. Studies have shown that leached chernozem is characterized by an addition density of 1.30 g/cm3, a solid phase density of 2.67 g/cm3, a total porosity of 51.9 %, χ = 1,045 × 10-3 units SI, pHwat. 6.5 units, humus content 3.2 %, its stock in the layer A + B = 468.2 t/ha, the sum of the exchange Ca2+ and Mg2+ 42.8 mg.eq./100 g. The use of mineral fertilizers increases the productivity of leached chernozem: the yield of sunflower of 11-field grain-grass-row cultivated crop rotation exceeds the control without fertilizers by 1.02-1.62 t/ha
239 kb

AGROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF MID-SEASON LINES AND HYBRIDS OF MAIZE IN THE CENTRAL ZONE OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1531909019 issue 153 pp. 179 – 191 29.11.2019 ru 15
This article presents the results of a study of new me-dium-ripe lines obtained using the donor line Kl7427 for reduced grain harvesting moisture. According to the results of this study, the lines recommended as a starting material for the selection of lines and hybrids of maize of the middle group of ripeness with low grain moisture at the time of harvesting without signif-icant loss of productivity were identified
1189 kb

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY POTATOES DEPENDING ON THE BACKGROUND OF NUTRITION AND WAYS OF USING THE GROWTH STIMULANT BERKE MR. IN THE CONDITIONS OF SOUTHERN KYRGYZSTAN

abstract 1531909020 issue 153 pp. 192 – 201 29.11.2019 ru 6
In southern Kyrgyzstan, the growth and development of early potatoes has been studied, depending on nutrition background and the methods of growth stimulant Bereke GN, aiming to improve the yield and quality of potatoes. There were no scientific studies on growth stimulants impacts on potatoes, the productivity of early potatoes in southern Kyrgyzstan conducted. Field experiments were carried out on the experimental site of the Osh Technological University in the Kyrgyz Republic Osh region Aravan district Mangyt village in 2016-2018. In case of increasing the nutrition background, in terms of experiments on methods of using the growth stimulant Bereke GN in the phases of development of early potato plants, natural differences in variants were observed. Increased duration of interfacial periods is detected in increased power supply background. In all years of experiments in the variant complex application of growth stimulator, respectively increased nutrition backgrounds, green, thick and strong sprouts of 1.5-2.1mm length were formed. As well as complex use of growth stimulant contributed to accelerated emergence of sprouts. According to the results of our research, we have identified the dependence of plant preservation on harvesting from the application of fertilizers and the method of use of growth stimulant. Consequently, with the complex application of Bereke GN growth stimulant to early potato crops, there was an increase in the number of preserved plants for early potato harvesting by 0.7-1.6%, with seed tuber growth stimulant treatment by 0.3-0.6%, and with leaf spraying by 0.1-0.3%
162 kb

TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SOIL DEPLOYMENT

abstract 1531909021 issue 153 pp. 202 – 210 29.11.2019 ru 7
The article presents the results of research on the impact of tillage technologies on the value of its density in the cultivation of winter wheat in conditions of insufficient and unstable wetting of the south of Russia. Experimental studies were carried out in the conditions of a long-term stationary experiment with a four-field crop rotation with different variants of tillage (dump, layer-by-layer, small, surface). The soil density was fixed at spring tillering of winter wheat and at the end of the growing season. Conducted analysis of variance shows that the soil has relaxation abilities, i.e. over time, it restores its properties by compaction ability, since studies conducted during the period of tillering of winter wheat show that Ffact. Ftable. (5,794,76), i.e. methods of treatment have an impact on soil compaction, which cannot be said for the case at the end of the growing season of winter wheat. The ability to restore its properties is a remarkable property of the soil, as it prevents them from over-compaction. The energy intensity of the compacted soil treatment increases to 30%, while the degree of crumbling is significantly reduced and its lumpiness increases. The most fundamental way to reduce the density of the soil is its timely loosening by working bodies of agricultural tools. Tillage methods affect soil density, the correlation coefficient between tillage methods and soil density varies between 0,929-0,979. The most radical way of soil decompression is exposure to it by a certain type of working bodies
227 kb

ECONOMIC AND QUALITATIVE INDICATORS OF EARLY POTATO HARVEST DEPENDING ON THE NUTRITION BACKGROUND AND WAYS OF USING BEREKE GN GROWTH STIMULANT IN CONDITIONS OF SOUTHERN KYRGYZSTAN

abstract 1531909027 issue 153 pp. 271 – 280 29.11.2019 ru 7
This article presents the results of studies on the influence of the fertilizer application rate and methods of using Bereke GN growth stimulant on the biochemical and economic indicators of early potato harvest in southern Kyrgyzstan. Due to the lack of scientific data of complex use of fertilizers and growth-stimulators in the conditions of the Southern Kyrgyzstan, we considered it necessary to specify ways and rates of application of a growth stimulator Bereke GN by production of early potatoes in plain zones on typical gray soils. In the conditions of the South of Kyrgyzstan similar researches in the production technology of early potatoes are conducted for the first time. Field experiments are made on a plot of the Osh technology university in the Kyrgyz Republic Osh region Aravan district Mangyt village in 2016-2018. Complex use of a growth stimulator Bereke GN on crops of early potatoes in a growing season promoted increase in accumulation of starch in potatoes tubers. The analysis of these experiences shows that in options on routes of administration of a growth regulator Bereke GN accumulation of vitamin "C" in tubers in all three years of carrying out researches not considerably raised and averaged 15.98-16.66 mg of %. Concentration of nitrates in tubers of early potatoes, in the conducted researches did not exceed the number of maximum allowable concentration. Economic effect showed, experience option complex uses of a growth-promoting factor of Bereke GN. Therefore, at the same time high net income – 199.18 thousand som/hectare is gained, and profitability equaled 124.13%
418 kb

INFLUENCE OF ABIOTIC FACTORS ON THE FORMATION OF COMMERCIAL APPLE CROPES AND WAYS OF ITS OPTIMIZATION IN THE SOUTH OF EUROPEAN PART OF RUSSIA

abstract 1531909029 issue 153 pp. 294 – 305 29.11.2019 ru 8
The work is devoted to studying the nature of the influence of individual abiotic factors of the southern territories of Russia on the features of the formation of an economic apple yield in adjacent years and the justification of the possibility of adjusting the course of this process in adverse environmental conditions. The studies were carried out in 2018-2019, which are distinguished by the manifestation of weather anomalies in the summer-autumn period. Field experiments were performed at the farms of the Kuban horticultural zone on soils suitable for planting fruit stands: leached and typical chernozems. The features of the development of plants of apple trees of winter varieties Kuban crimson and Fuji on the stock M9 were studied. In the experiments, an option is provided using foliar treatment of plants with Pomaset fertilizer. The effectiveness of the formation of the economic apple crop depends on the biological characteristics of the used pomological variety, as well as the temperature and moisture conditions during the growing season of the plants. Soil conditions do not significantly affect the course of this process. The probability of losing the potential apple crop at the XII stage of organogenesis (pre-harvest decay) under the influence of abiotic summer stressors: high air temperatures and water deficiency is noted. With the manifestation of extremely high air temperatures in late summer and during the autumn months, a significant increase in the duration of vegetation of various (especially strong-growing) apple varieties was recorded, causing a shift in the process of differentiation of generative buds (stages III-IV of organogenesis) to a later date, and, as a result, - decrease in potential plant productivity in the next season. With the manifestation of abnormal weather conditions, the prospects of foliar treatment of trees in the second half of the growing season with Pomaset fertilizer, which optimizes the fruiting of the apple tree in adjacent years, are shown. At the same time, the fruit yield in the current year is increasing by 9-14%, and in the next season - by 7-10% in comparison with the control values
2377 kb

PROSPECTS FOR GROWING RUSSIAN LILAC CULTIVARS (SYRINGA VULGARIS L.) IN FINLAND

abstract 1531909030 issue 153 pp. 306 – 314 29.11.2019 ru 7
Common lilac (Syringa vulgaris L.), is one of the most essential landscape plants throughout the whole cool and temperate region and also in Finland very popular and traditional ornamental. The diversity of the lilacs available for research use and growth in Finland could be broadened by introducing Russian winter hardy cultivars to Finland. Their winter hardiness and survival in the Finnish climate has to be studied in order to proceed to using Russian cultivars in the Finnish climate. Lilacs that grow at the Central Siberian Botanical Garden Siberian Branche of the Russian Academy of Sciences at Novosibirsk were introduced to Finland within the framework of the collaborative project in 2012. Currently, the collection of Syringa vulgaris in CSBG SB RAS has 26 cultivars of 116 tested ones, most resistant to the conditions of Novosibirsk city. In project “Syreenimaja” (2016-2018) small scale plantations with Russian lilac cultivars were made at several locations in Finland and the freezing tolerance of the cultivars was tested. The survival and growth of the lilac plants in these plantings in landscape gardening areas in old gardens is being observed. The lilac plants are still young and have not been flowering broadly. The preliminary results have shown that the Russian lilacs have potential to grow in Finland, but at least cultivar ‘Daphna’ has suffered from winter injuries. Descriptions of 10 tested lilac cultivars from the collection of the CSBG SB RAS are given
264 kb

INFLUENCE OF THE DENSITY OF STALKS OF WINTER BARLEY VARIETIES ON THE FORMATION OF SOWING QUALITIES OF SEEDS

abstract 1521908005 issue 152 pp. 35 – 44 31.10.2019 ru 4
The quality of the seed largely depends on the value of the future crop. For sowing, it is necessary to use seeds with high sowing qualities. This article is devoted to the study of the formation of high-quality seed of new varieties of winter barley, depending on the controlled compaction of crops. The paper describes in detail the importance of sowing qualities of seeds for the formation of high productivity of barley crops. The questions of influence of different seeding rates on laboratory and field germination of seeds are considered. The correlation between the four variants of seeding rates and field and laboratory germination was determined. The purity of seeds of winter barley varieties Kubagro – 1 and Kubagro – 3 was studied and it was determined that the change in the density of the formed stem does not affect the purity of seeds of these varieties. The use of highly productive seeds for sowing and further qualitative cleaning of the obtained grain contributes to the production of seed material with high purity. When considering the weight of 1000 grains in the studied varieties, it was determined that with an increase in the number of productive stems per unit area and a decrease in the area of plant nutrition, both varieties reduced the mass of grains. The highest rates of weight of 1000 grains were determined when sowing with the norm of 3.5 million germinating seeds per 1 ha, such a pattern was observed for both varieties
134 kb

BREAD-MAKING FROM MIXES OF HIGHEST QUALITY WHEAT FLOUR, WHOLEMEAL FLUOR FROM HULLESS GRAIN OF BARLEY NUDUM 95 AND WHOLEMEAL FLUOR FROM TRITICALE GRAIN OF CECAD 90

abstract 1521908007 issue 152 pp. 45 – 53 31.10.2019 ru 5
As a prospect in baking, a number of researchers propose to expand the range of products in the formulation of which include natural food dressers. The article presents the results of research on the development of the optimal formulation of bread from mixtures of wheat flour, wholemeal flour from grains of naked barley varieties Nudum 95 and wholemeal flour from grain triticale varieties Tsekad 90. To select the optimal mixture of wheat, barley and triticale flour, the following variants of the ratios were studied– 70:10:20; 60:20:20; 50:30:20; 50:20:30. As control we took flour of the highest grade from grain of strong wheat Novosibirsk 29. Flour mixtures studied by the gluten content is significantly inferior to the control version of the flour. In the version where 70% of wheat flour was used, gluten decreased by 5.1%, in the version with the amount of wheat flour 60%, gluten decreased by 8.0%. In subsequent variants, the difference in gluten content with the control variant was more than 10%. The lowest rate of flour strength (145 e.a.) in the version where barley flour reached 30% of the mixture. In other embodiments, the flour strength level 209-250 e.a., that is slightly different from the standards on valuable wheat (not less than 260 e.a.). In terms of baking quality has distinguished the case where the proportion of wheat flour was 70%, barley – 10% and triticale – 20% (the volume of bread 500 ml, total score of bread 4 points). In subsequent versions, the performance of baking qualities decreased. As a result of evaluation of mixtures of wheat, barley and triticale flour revealed the most optimal ratio – 70:10:20. This option is recommended for introduction into production for enrichment of wheat flour with nutritious components of barley and triticale grain
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