Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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104 kb

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE INSTALLATION OF PROTECTIVE PLANTINGS ALONG ROADS (SNOW BREAKAGE)

abstract 1451901011 issue 145 pp. 1 – 6 31.01.2019 ru 53
The significant part of our country's roads is subject to snowdrifts in winter. To ensure smooth and uninterrupted traffic in road transport during winter time, road facilities have to use vast amounts of mechanized and manual labor, as well as spend large sums of money. There are cases of snowdrifts on roads and interruptions in the traffic of road transport causing serious damage to the national economy of the country. Road workers face an important task of ensuring uninterrupted traffic in road transport in winter and reduce the cost of the road maintenance. In this regard, road facilities use a variety of means in order to protect motor roads from snow drifts: installation of portable shields, permanent fences, snow-protective plantings of various widths and structures. The evidence from practice shows that forest stand is the most durable, reliable and economical means of protecting roads from snowdrifts (snow breaking tree belts)
258 kb

HYGROSCOPICITY OF MATURE GRAIN AS A MARKER OF WINTER BARLEY AND SUNFLOWER FROST RESISTANCE

abstract 1451901012 issue 145 pp. 7 – 30 31.01.2019 ru 63
In the review article we present a comparative analysis of frost resistance of varieties of winter barley and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by the results of freezing in the refrigerating chambers and by the hygroscopicity of mature grain. On the example of a number of varieties of both cultures, it is shown that the higher the frost resistance of the variety, the smaller the volume of the supernatant can be obtained by extracting the press cake with a solution containing magnesium cations. It is assumed that increased hygroscopicity of winter barley and sunflower press cake is associated with a relatively high content of so - called "water-soluble starch" - β-glucan polysaccharides in its grain. The possibility of regulation of the degree of hygroscopicity under the influence of potassium (KNO3), zinc (ZnSO4) and gibberellic acid (GA3) was studied on a number of sunflower varieties. It was shown that treatment with a solution of potassium (a concentration of 50 ppm KNO3) of sunflower plants at the stage of 4 leaves leads to a significant increase in hygroscopicity of grain and hardiness of plants, little effect was given treatment with zinc (30 ppm ZnSO4) and a lesser effect was observed when treating plants gibberellovaja acid (20 ppm). Potassium treatment significantly intensified the biosynthesis of free Proline, phenolic compounds and soluble proteins. When processing zinc significantly increased the content of carbohydrates in sunflower plants. Hygroscopicity showed a significant correlation with the content of free Proline (R2=0.621), phenolic compounds (R2=0.907), total carbohydrates (R2=0.673) and soluble proteins (R2=0.708). It is assumed that the treatment of plants with potassium and zinc plays a key role in increasing the hygroscopicity of grain. The results of comparative studies of frost resistance on the degree of survival of plants during freezing in cold rooms and the degree of hygroscopicity of mature grain showed that these two methods of assessing frost resistance give very close data. At the same time, in terms of simplicity and low economic costs, the proposed method of assessing frost resistance is many times superior to the method of direct freezing of plants
426 kb

CHANGE OF INDICATORS OF FERTILITY OF BLACK SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES OF CULTIVATION OF MAIZE IN TERMS OF SEED FARMING

abstract 1441810011 issue 144 pp. 1 – 18 28.12.2018 ru 47
The article presents the results of a study to determine the changes in fertility in the typical black soil of the Belgorod region with different technologies of maize cultivation in seed farming
157 kb

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE APPLE MOTH NUMBER BASED ON ENTOMOPATHOGENIC VIRUSES (REVIEW)

abstract 1441810012 issue 144 pp. 19 – 31 28.12.2018 ru 17
The article considers the data on the applicability of bioinsecticides based on the granulovirus as an active ingredient against the apple moth. The methods for producing strains of the Cydia pomonella granulovirus to develop bioinsecticides are explained. The methods for the reproduction of laboratory populations of insects, the method of their infection and isolation of viral onset are described. The stages of obtaining bioinsecticides in vitro, as well as methods for their storage are provided
222 kb

DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIPLEX SETS OF SSR MARKERS FOR GENOTYPING APRICOT VARIETIES (PRUNUS ARMENIACA L.)

abstract 1441810013 issue 144 pp. 32 – 43 28.12.2018 ru 16
Genetic studies of apricot are the actual direction in the genetics of fruit crops. In this regard, the improvement of the collection of SSR markers for the genotyping of this culture is an objectively significant task. In a study for the 16 SSR-markers previously developed on almonds (PdUnchar2, PdSLD1, PdGMGT1, PdTrTFGT1, PdUnchar2, PdSLD1, PdGMGT1, PdTrTFGT1) and Siberian apricot (A3-72, A1-63, H2-22, A3- 7-1, H2-5, A1-7, A3-9, H2-45), approbation and evaluation of the prospects of using for genotyping Prunus armeniaca L. were performed. Approbation, performed on 3 varieties of different origin, revealed markers and their combinations optimal for their use. During the study, all tested DNA markers were grouped into multiplex sets, including 4 markers. This allows carrying out genotyping simultaneously on 4 loci in the formulation of one reaction. One marker (PdUnchar2) from the studied sample included in the multiplex set did not show amplification. Five markers gave a monomorphic product. The remaining 11 SSR markers allowed us to obtain polymorphic, cultivar-specific SSR fingerprints for all the studied cultivar. These multiplex sets are proposed for use in studying the genetic polymorphism of the species Prunus armeniaca L.
188 kb

SEED PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGICAL METHODS OF PRODUCTION OF SUGAR BEET SEEDS IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1431809011 issue 143 pp. 1 – 15 30.11.2018 ru 149
The article discusses the organizational scheme of sugar beet seed production, as well as technological methods of seed production using the stick method and the cultivation of basic seeds in NRU. We substantiate the key elements of the cultivation of uterine sugar beet of summer sowing season
429 kb

A MODIFIED PROTOCOL OF RNA ISOLATION FROM MATURE LEAVES OF GRAPES FOR RT-PCR

abstract 1431809012 issue 143 pp. 16 – 30 30.11.2018 ru 148
Isolation of high-quality RNA from the tissues of perennial woody plants, including woody grape vines, is very difficult due to the high content of phenolic compounds, secondary metabolites and polysaccharides and the ribonuclease activity of destroyed tissues. Most of the existing methods require either large time or financial costs, or do not give reproducible results in the case of RNA extraction from mature grape tissues. The modified isolation protocol is based on a combination and modification of the known RNA extraction methods, taking into account the characteristics of mature grape tissues. Existing commercial kits for the isolation of RNA from plant tissues showed a low efficiency of RNA extraction from mature grape tissues, primarily associated with "varietal specificity". Reproducible results in the extraction of RNA showed CTAB-method, however, it has several significant drawbacks associated with the duration of the extraction and the complexity of the processing of an RNA preparation with a DNAase. The developed method is based on increasing the concentration of mercaptoethanol and polyvinylpyrrolidone in the extraction buffer, eliminating the stage of RNA selective precipitation via LiCl, and replacing it with deposition on a silica-based membrane (SiO2) followed by processing with DNA-ase. and increase the purity of the preparation of RNA from genomic DNA in comparison with the original method. A modified isolation protocol was developed based on a combination and modification of known RNA extraction methods, taking into account the characteristics of mature grape tissues. This solution allows to obtain reproducible quantity and quality of RNA for the subsequent synthesis of cDNA and RT-PCR
162 kb

CLONALE MICROPROPOGATION AND SANITATION OF PRUNUS DOMESTICA FROM THE PLUM POX POTYVIRUS (PPV)

abstract 1431809013 issue 143 pp. 31 – 40 30.11.2018 ru 210
In the article we present the analysis of the results of studies of russian, foreign scientists, as well as our own data, obtained in the clonal micro-multiplication and sanitation of the plum domestic from Sharkey's virus (PPV). The urgency of work is determined by the fact that the plum is the second on the significance culture in horticulture of the south of Russia. One of the most economically significant objects of virus etiology on the discharge of relative is considered to be Sharkey's virus of plum (Plum pox potyvirus). In the Krasnodar region and in the Russian Federation for the first time, Sharkey's virus of plum was discovered in the end of the 1980th, after which it widely extended into other regions of the country. In the complex of the methods of sanitation from Sharkey's virus of plum we successfully use thermo- and chemotherapy in combination with the method of apical meristem. The mechanism of the formation of virus-free meristem consists of the delay of the process of the replication of virus particles from the rapid, anticipating increase in the rudimentary cloths and organs, especially, if plant undergoes by thermo- or chemotherapy. As virucide there are used the preparations neo -DHt (85 mG/l), and also salycilic acid in the concentration of 3kh10-4 M with the simultaneous magnetic-pulse working of mericlons. As the most suitable nutrient medium for the micro-multiplication of plum we considered Murasige- Skoog medium, on basis of which we have prepared different modifications. As the growth factors, which increase the effectiveness of multiplication, we used 6-BAP in the concentration 0,5-1 mG/l (in the stage of introduction into the culture and the stage of animated cartoon). For the improvement in the quality of the micro-shoots of plum, additionally to the growth factors, one should apply succinic acid, succinates of potassium and sodium in the concentration 4 mG/l. Obtained in the course of clonal micro-multiplication and adapted mericlons will be tested to the virus carrying ability and will be approved according to the quality signs. The ovaries of initial plants are embedded by healthy quality seedlings
125 kb

INHERITANCE OF PRODUCTIVITY TRAITS IN RICE HYBRIDS

abstract 1431809014 issue 143 pp. 41 – 48 30.11.2018 ru 22
Great success in increasing rice production, and it has more than doubled, has occurred worldwide thanks to the use of modern high-yielding rice varieties developed by conventional breeding methods. In order to develop a new variety, it is important for the breeder to study the genetic and breeding value of various cultural and wild species - carriers of economically valuable traits, the identification of genes and groups of genes controlling the economically valuable traits, to study the patterns of their inheritance, to establish patterns of interaction between the genotype and the environment, explore the genetic and physiological-biochemical basis of the phenomenon of heterosis, improve methods of intraspecific, complex, stepwise and distant hybridization, to study a phenomenon of a sharp increase in the quantitative characteristics of crop plants, a more powerful growth of hybrids of the first generation compared with the parent individuals. Scientists of the past centuries, such as A.F. Wigman, W.Noden, V.Foke, and many others have been studying the phenomenon of hybrid power, which was first named “heterosis” in 1908 by J. Schell. At present, heterosis is understood as the phenomenon when hybrids of the first generation exceed their parental forms in terms of their biological values and economically valuable traits. The magnitude of heterosis of the first generation hybrids is determined by several methods in terms of percentages to the paternal, to the maternal form, to the average of both parents, and to a better or regionalized standard. By the magnitude of the dominance coefficient, researchers often determine the inheritance of a trait
112 kb

NEGATIVE RESULTS OF THE INTRODUCTION EXPERIMENT IN THE ARBORETUM OF GORNOTAYEZHNAYA STATION OF THE FEB RAS

abstract 1421808011 issue 142 pp. 18 – 25 31.10.2018 ru 17
In the article, we discuss some of the causes of plant death during the introduction in the south of Primorsky Krai. Introduction studies involving a large number of plant species always have not only positive, but also negative results. According to the results of long-term observations, factors affecting the longevity of plants in the arboretum collection of Gornotayezhnaya station of the FEB RAS are indicated. Regular inventories and annual observations of introduced species in the arboretum of Gornotayezhnaya station of the FEB RAS allowed us to identify the reasons of the decline of introduced species from the arboretum collection: low winter hardiness, fragility, inhibition of plants in thickened planting and due to shading, mismatch of environmental factors, insufficient care, damage to animals. It has been established that for the purpose of the initial selection of new species for introduction research, it is possible to use climatic zoning according to Reder. Analyzing the species belonging to a certain temperature zone and the reason of the decline, it can be conclude that the species belonging to I-III zones in the conditions of the southern Primorye acclimatize quite successfully with good care and a properly selected landing site. Plant species belonging to the IV-V zones need protection from low temperatures at a young age, and some in adulthood. The temperature zones VI and VII are critical for successful acclimatization, so the species belonging to these zones require special attention and careful selection of the place of growth
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