Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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188 kb

SEED PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGICAL METHODS OF PRODUCTION OF SUGAR BEET SEEDS IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1431809011 issue 143 pp. 1 – 15 30.11.2018 ru 2
The article discusses the organizational scheme of sugar beet seed production, as well as technological methods of seed production using the stick method and the cultivation of basic seeds in NRU. We substantiate the key elements of the cultivation of uterine sugar beet of summer sowing season
429 kb

A MODIFIED PROTOCOL OF RNA ISOLATION FROM MATURE LEAVES OF GRAPES FOR RT-PCR

abstract 1431809012 issue 143 pp. 16 – 30 30.11.2018 ru 3
Isolation of high-quality RNA from the tissues of perennial woody plants, including woody grape vines, is very difficult due to the high content of phenolic compounds, secondary metabolites and polysaccharides and the ribonuclease activity of destroyed tissues. Most of the existing methods require either large time or financial costs, or do not give reproducible results in the case of RNA extraction from mature grape tissues. The modified isolation protocol is based on a combination and modification of the known RNA extraction methods, taking into account the characteristics of mature grape tissues. Existing commercial kits for the isolation of RNA from plant tissues showed a low efficiency of RNA extraction from mature grape tissues, primarily associated with "varietal specificity". Reproducible results in the extraction of RNA showed CTAB-method, however, it has several significant drawbacks associated with the duration of the extraction and the complexity of the processing of an RNA preparation with a DNAase. The developed method is based on increasing the concentration of mercaptoethanol and polyvinylpyrrolidone in the extraction buffer, eliminating the stage of RNA selective precipitation via LiCl, and replacing it with deposition on a silica-based membrane (SiO2) followed by processing with DNA-ase. and increase the purity of the preparation of RNA from genomic DNA in comparison with the original method. A modified isolation protocol was developed based on a combination and modification of known RNA extraction methods, taking into account the characteristics of mature grape tissues. This solution allows to obtain reproducible quantity and quality of RNA for the subsequent synthesis of cDNA and RT-PCR
162 kb

CLONALE MICROPROPOGATION AND SANITATION OF PRUNUS DOMESTICA FROM THE PLUM POX POTYVIRUS (PPV)

abstract 1431809013 issue 143 pp. 31 – 40 30.11.2018 ru 2
In the article we present the analysis of the results of studies of russian, foreign scientists, as well as our own data, obtained in the clonal micro-multiplication and sanitation of the plum domestic from Sharkey's virus (PPV). The urgency of work is determined by the fact that the plum is the second on the significance culture in horticulture of the south of Russia. One of the most economically significant objects of virus etiology on the discharge of relative is considered to be Sharkey's virus of plum (Plum pox potyvirus). In the Krasnodar region and in the Russian Federation for the first time, Sharkey's virus of plum was discovered in the end of the 1980th, after which it widely extended into other regions of the country. In the complex of the methods of sanitation from Sharkey's virus of plum we successfully use thermo- and chemotherapy in combination with the method of apical meristem. The mechanism of the formation of virus-free meristem consists of the delay of the process of the replication of virus particles from the rapid, anticipating increase in the rudimentary cloths and organs, especially, if plant undergoes by thermo- or chemotherapy. As virucide there are used the preparations neo -DHt (85 mG/l), and also salycilic acid in the concentration of 3kh10-4 M with the simultaneous magnetic-pulse working of mericlons. As the most suitable nutrient medium for the micro-multiplication of plum we considered Murasige- Skoog medium, on basis of which we have prepared different modifications. As the growth factors, which increase the effectiveness of multiplication, we used 6-BAP in the concentration 0,5-1 mG/l (in the stage of introduction into the culture and the stage of animated cartoon). For the improvement in the quality of the micro-shoots of plum, additionally to the growth factors, one should apply succinic acid, succinates of potassium and sodium in the concentration 4 mG/l. Obtained in the course of clonal micro-multiplication and adapted mericlons will be tested to the virus carrying ability and will be approved according to the quality signs. The ovaries of initial plants are embedded by healthy quality seedlings
125 kb

INHERITANCE OF PRODUCTIVITY TRAITS IN RICE HYBRIDS

abstract 1431809014 issue 143 pp. 41 – 48 30.11.2018 ru 0
Great success in increasing rice production, and it has more than doubled, has occurred worldwide thanks to the use of modern high-yielding rice varieties developed by conventional breeding methods. In order to develop a new variety, it is important for the breeder to study the genetic and breeding value of various cultural and wild species - carriers of economically valuable traits, the identification of genes and groups of genes controlling the economically valuable traits, to study the patterns of their inheritance, to establish patterns of interaction between the genotype and the environment, explore the genetic and physiological-biochemical basis of the phenomenon of heterosis, improve methods of intraspecific, complex, stepwise and distant hybridization, to study a phenomenon of a sharp increase in the quantitative characteristics of crop plants, a more powerful growth of hybrids of the first generation compared with the parent individuals. Scientists of the past centuries, such as A.F. Wigman, W.Noden, V.Foke, and many others have been studying the phenomenon of hybrid power, which was first named “heterosis” in 1908 by J. Schell. At present, heterosis is understood as the phenomenon when hybrids of the first generation exceed their parental forms in terms of their biological values and economically valuable traits. The magnitude of heterosis of the first generation hybrids is determined by several methods in terms of percentages to the paternal, to the maternal form, to the average of both parents, and to a better or regionalized standard. By the magnitude of the dominance coefficient, researchers often determine the inheritance of a trait
112 kb

NEGATIVE RESULTS OF THE INTRODUCTION EXPERIMENT IN THE ARBORETUM OF GORNOTAYEZHNAYA STATION OF THE FEB RAS

abstract 1421808011 issue 142 pp. 18 – 25 31.10.2018 ru 1
In the article, we discuss some of the causes of plant death during the introduction in the south of Primorsky Krai. Introduction studies involving a large number of plant species always have not only positive, but also negative results. According to the results of long-term observations, factors affecting the longevity of plants in the arboretum collection of Gornotayezhnaya station of the FEB RAS are indicated. Regular inventories and annual observations of introduced species in the arboretum of Gornotayezhnaya station of the FEB RAS allowed us to identify the reasons of the decline of introduced species from the arboretum collection: low winter hardiness, fragility, inhibition of plants in thickened planting and due to shading, mismatch of environmental factors, insufficient care, damage to animals. It has been established that for the purpose of the initial selection of new species for introduction research, it is possible to use climatic zoning according to Reder. Analyzing the species belonging to a certain temperature zone and the reason of the decline, it can be conclude that the species belonging to I-III zones in the conditions of the southern Primorye acclimatize quite successfully with good care and a properly selected landing site. Plant species belonging to the IV-V zones need protection from low temperatures at a young age, and some in adulthood. The temperature zones VI and VII are critical for successful acclimatization, so the species belonging to these zones require special attention and careful selection of the place of growth
1294 kb

GIANT FRUIT – THE ICONOGRAPHY AND THE HISTORY OF THE ISSUE

abstract 1421808015 issue 142 pp. 26 – 40 31.10.2018 ru 2
The article considers the phenomenon of the formation of giant fruits in higher plants. As for the size of plants, several positions are distinguished such as giant fruit, a common habit, i.e. the size of the whole plant; or the harvest. Examples of different types of gigantism in plants are given. It is shown that since the ancient times the phenomenon of gigantism has been widespread. Various reasons for the appearance of abnormally large plants and fruits are considered, growth genes regulating the process of cell division and formation are given. The study of the connections between plant organs that conduct and consume the assimilant, redistribute and use carbon is easy in the concept of donor-acceptor relationships. As a model object for studying the growth of giant fruits, we have examined varieties of pumpkin called Cucurbita maxima. Thus, in a short period, a paradigm shift occurred. From surprise and enthusiasm for the gigantism of plants, the issue of cellular growth regulation, the criteria for evaluating the reproduction process, the search for links with the size, number of cells and their properties is become. New model objects have appeared, the analysis of images of plant giants has shown a unique visual resource on various objects. New knowledge about the growth of plants and the ability to regulate the process formed the basis for selection programs for obtaining vegetables with specified fruit parameters, which makes them competitive in the market today
197 kb

THE DYNAMICS OF AGROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BLACK SOIL DURING LONG-TERM AGRICULTURAL USE AND THE WAYS OF THEIR OPTIMIZATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1421808020 issue 142 pp. 41 – 56 31.10.2018 ru 2
The article describes experimental material obtained in two long-term experiments of Kubsau on the impact of certain agricultural practices on the basic agrophysical and water indicators of leached black humus, heavy duty. The study was conducted in two agricultural landscapes of lowland rainfed and irrigated lowland-basin. The state of the agrophysical properties of the arable land in two districts of the region was given by Institute "Kuban Niigiprozems". We have established that during prolonged agricultural use, the biggest change of the parameters of the agrophysical properties occurred in the arable layer 0-20 cm. Particularly noticeable compaction was observed on meadow-black soils of lowland-basin agricultural landscapes. The condition of soil structure and the density of the composition influence of level of soil fertility and the system of primary tillage. With the increase in the level of fertility, the coefficient of structure increases. The density of the composition of the studied cultures are much more dependent on tillage to the end of vegetation, especially high is 1,31-1,36 g/cm, it was given by direct sowing. The most destructive effect on soil structure was made by a surface treatment system. Organic fertilizers encourage soil compaction. Manure has a positive impact on the stock of productive moisture in two-meter layer on the background of deep processing
288 kb

MOLECULAR MARKERS OF THE EFFECT OF INTERACTION "GENOTYPE-ENVIRONMENT" IN PLANTS ON THE BASIS OF THE DECAY OF mRNA IN VIVO (RNAi) AND IN VITRO (OMMP-SYSTEM)

abstract 1411807012 issue 141 pp. 41 – 64 28.09.2018 ru 2
This overview and theoretical article deals with the consideration of hypothetical possibilities for the development of molecular-kinetic markers of agricultural plants allowing to quantify the effect of genotype-environment interaction on the basis of stability studies of mRNA. The development in view is based on the results of studies of the mRNA decay identity in vivo and in vitro (the ommp system), as well as the phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi), widely studied in plants. The ommp system has allowed to establish the relationship of the cultivar-specific growth reaction to the effects of low positive temperatures, dehydration, salinity, illumination and biologically active substances with the stability of the total and a number of gene-specific mRNAs of green and etiolated seedlings of winter soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Similar studies of mRNA stability have been conducted on ripening grains of maize (Zea mays L.), with a particular result of the in vivo and in vitro decay identity confirmed for major mRNAs of stored proteins, 19 and 22 kDa zeins, of normal maize and mutant according to the regulatory gene opaque-2, changing the amount and stability of zein mRNA in the maturing grain of high-lysine maize. Regulatory response of the organism through RNAi is also multiple and includes neutralization of viral and bacterial infections, reaction to pathogens and biologically active substances, circadian rhythms, water stress, hypoxia, mechanical stress, mineral nutrition, salt stress and temperature changes. Unfavorable environmental influences result in an increase or decrease in the expression of certain microRNAs (miRNAs). The change in mRNA stability is an important component of the gene expression regulation system in eukaryotic cells. The main determinants of mRNA stability are in the 3'-untranslated region. It is the It is the (U)nА sequence and the degree of polyadenylation of mRNA, i.e. length of its terminal homonucleotide chain. It is to this region that mRNA molecules are complementary to miRNA. The most important component, which largely determines the regularity of the genotype-environment interaction, is the polyadenyl sequence at the 3 'end of the mRNA. Its length depends both on the genotype and on the environmental conditions. There is evidence that polyadenylation degree of mRNA determines the secondary structure of the molecule. As is known, deadenylation of mRNA reduces its lifetime, and when the poly-A-tail reaches several dozens of nucleotides, an explosive disintegration of the mRNA molecule occurs. Consequently, in a living cell the following mRNA decomposition scheme appears to be logical: shortening the poly-A-tail of the mRNA opens the sites of miRNA interaction with the 3'-non-coding region of the mRNA molecule, which causes its degradation. Thus, it is safe to assume that the interaction of mRNA and miRNA in the ommp system is the underlying process for molecular-kinetic markers under development
629 kb

GIANT FRUITS OF PLANTS AS MODEL OBJECTS IN BREEDING RESEARCHES

abstract 1411807014 issue 141 pp. 65 – 76 28.09.2018 ru 1
The article considers phenomenon of the formation of giant fruits in higher plants. As regards the size of plants, several positions are distinguished such as giant fruit, in a common habit, i.e. the size of the whole plant; depending on the harvest. Examples of different types of gigantism in plants are given. It is shown that since the ancient times the phenomenon of gigantism has been widespread. Various reasons for the appearance of abnormally large plants and fruits are considered, growth genes regulating the process of cell division and formation are given. The study of the connections between plant organs that conduct and consume the assimilant, redistribute and use carbon is easy in the concept of donor-acceptor relationships. As a model object for studying the growth of giant fruits, we have examined varieties of pumpkin called Cucurbita maxima. Thus, in a short period, a paradigm shift occurred. From surprise and enthusiasm for the gigantism of plants, the issue of cellular growth regulation, the criteria for evaluating the reproduction process, the search for links with the size, number of cells and their properties is become. New model objects have appeared, the analysis of images of plant giants has shown a unique visual resource on various objects. New knowledge about the growth of plants and the ability to regulate the process formed the basis for selection programs for obtaining vegetables with specified fruit parameters, which makes them competitive in the market nowadays
236 kb

CROP PRODUCTIVITY IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE DEPENDING ON THE SYSTEM OF PRIMARY TILLAGE AND FERTILIZERS

abstract 1411807019 issue 141 pp. 77 – 96 28.09.2018 ru 1
The article considers data obtained in long-term stationary experiment in Kuban state agrarian University, which was started in 1991 for old irrigated leached black soil of the central zone of the Krasnodar region. Studies were conducted in two rotations of seven-field grassy-grain-row crop rotation. The duration of irrigation - more than 30 years. It is established that long-term irrigation by sprinkling led to the soil over-compaction in both arable and subsurface layers. In the arable layer of 0-30 cm density of 0.14-0.17 g/cm3 exceeds the maximum allowable. We have noticed a sharp decrease in humus in the arable layer to 2.46-2.67 per cent. The weak acidification of the active root layer was noted, salt PH 5.0-5.3. In the soil-absorbing complex, the content of calcium decreases. It was found that the productivity of crops cultivated in the rotation of two rotations was greatly influenced by the system of basic soil treatment. In the first rotation, the decrease in productivity of cultivated crops against the background of the surface treatment system amounted to an average of 4.2% compared with deep: subsurface tillage and moldboard. In the second rotation after 14 years against the background of shallow surface treatment crop rotation productivity decreased by 11.2 %. The dependence of the fertilizer system and crop yield on the background of different main soil tillage is established. When using the mineral fertilizer system, the decrease in crop productivity, while minimizing the main tillage in the second rotation was 15.2%, and against the background of the organic fertilizer system by 12.7%. The deep sub-soil treatment provided an increase in the productivity of old irrigated leached black soil in the second rotation against organic fertilizers by 3.6%. Thus, the organic system of fertilizers on the background of deep main soil tillage allows to obtain crop yields in the framework of grassy-grain-row crop rotation on wetlands degraded old-irrigated lands is not lower than using high doses of mineral fertilizers
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