Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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INFLUENCE OF TILLAGE TECHNIQUES ON THE AGROPHYSICAL STATE

abstract 1501906004 issue 150 pp. 0 – 0 28.06.2019 ru
This article discusses some elements of the Brigade cultivating winter wheat varieties using different doses of fertilizers (N50P50K120 and N100P100K240) in four tillage options (plowing, chisel loosening, disc chopping and zero treatment). The experiment was conducted in a multifactorial stationary conditions. The considered agrotechnical techniques have led to a change in the density, hardness and structural composition of the soil. The most optimal values of these parameters have been obtained by using plowing and chiseling
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MAGNETIC PROFILES OF KUBAN SOILS OF VARIOUS AGRICULTURAL USE

abstract 1471903013 issue 147 pp. 0 – 0 29.03.2019 ru 14
The article discusses the change in the magnetic properties of soils of different agricultural use, depending on the conditions of soil formation. The objects of study are leached chernozem of Western Ciscaucasia, meadow chernozem and meadow bog soils of rice agrolandscapes. The results showed that with an increase in the degree of hydromorphism, the magnitude of the magnetic susceptibility of the soil decreases. The leached chernozem has the highest magnetization of the profile. In soils formed under the influence of hydromorphic soil formation, magnetic susceptibility is reduced by 3.0-3.5 times in rainfed conditions and deposits, and by 6.0-12.0 times in soils of rice agrocenoses
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RESOURCE CONSERVATION IN THE PRODUCTION OF SPRING BARLEY

abstract 1481904012 issue 148 pp. 0 – 0 30.04.2019 ru 14
The article discusses the possibilities and presents the results of research on the cultivation of spring barley with different production technologies in conditions of insufficient and unstable wetting of the south of Russia. Experimental studies were carried out in a stationary experiment with a four-field crop rotation with different variants of tillage (dump, flat-cut, layered, without tillage – no-till). It is established that the most expensive is the waste treatment of the soil (PN-5-35), and the least expensive is the technology excluding the impact on the soil. At the same time, the operating costs of labor and fuel consumption at no-till are lower, respectively, by 82-107, 23-48, 131-188% in comparison with traditional types of technology. Hectare fuel consumption with zero technology is 131-188% less than with traditional technologies and amounted to 22.8 kg / ha. The cost of production of spring barley using no-till is 8-41% lower compared to flat-cut, layer-by-layer, and dump technology and amounts to 285 rubles per cent. Calculated per 1 hectare, labor costs, fuel consumption, wages, fuel costs, deductions for renovation and repairs, as well as total operating costs for traditional basic tillage technologies increase, respectively, 1,23-1,48; 2,31-2,88; 1,30-1,56; 3,1-3,81; 1,65-1,85; 1,81-1,96; 1,83-2,09 times compared with no-till. The use of spring barley cultivation technology that excludes impact on the soil provides a fairly high efficiency even at lower yields
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ASSESSMENT OF THREATS TO THE VASCULAR PLANT DIVERSITY OF NATURAL COMMUNITIES AND OF REINEKE ISLAND FROM THE ALIEN SPECIES CENTAUREA JACEA L. (ASTERAСЕАЕ) (VLADIVOSTOK, PRIMORSKII KRAI, PETER THE GREAT BAY, SEA OF JAPAN)

abstract 1471903011 issue 147 pp. 0 – 0 29.03.2019 ru 15
In Reineke Island (Primorskii Krai, Vladivostok, Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan) alien species for Russia’s Far East Centaurea jacea L. (Asteraсеае) were first discovered in the 1980th in a small amount. Now, 40 years later distribution of C. jacea is limited to small sites of secondary grass meadows and disturbed habitats of roadsides unpaved roads for approximately 0.03% of the island; the level of its invasive activity is low; C. jacea threats currently is not for the biodiversity of plant community and forage value of meadows
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ASSESSMENT OF WEATHER CHANGES EFFECT ON PEACH CROP IN HUMID SUBTROPICS OF RUSSIA

abstract 1481904014 issue 148 pp. 0 – 0 30.04.2019 ru 16
The close dependence of peach yield on the weather factors in the humid subtropical zone has been established. The observed climate changes in recent years (2000–2018) significantly affected the production potential of peach cultivars. An increase in temperature and precipitation in February-March negatively affected morphogenesis of the flower buds, which reduces the yield of most cultivars. The significant variability of precipitation (the main constraint of peach production) in the winter and early spring, the low weather predictability, characterize the onset of flowering by the “critical” phase. Weather conditions were changed during ripening. In July and August, the amount of precipitation decreased, the temperature increased, which led to moisture deficit and fruits quality deterioration. Local climate change in humid subtropics actualizes the development of adaptive cultivars with a high ecological and adaptive plasticity. Selected clones of the Red Heaven, Krasnaya Zarya and Larisa are the most adapted to the local conditions and can be successfully used in the low mountain area of the subtropics
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PLANNING AND CALCULATION OF ORGANIC MINERAL FERTILIZERS DOSAGES IN FIELD CROP ROTATIONS WITH THE USE OF AUTOMATED INFORMATION SUBSYSTEM (BASED ON THE MATERIALS OF THE AGROINDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF THE KRASNODAR REGION)

abstract 1461902013 issue 146 pp. 0 – 0 28.02.2019 ru 17
The problems of crop management and management decision support are still relevant at the moment. Crop production is of strategic importance and is the basis of our country's food security. The use of information technology in agriculture was limited to the use of computers and software, mainly for managing financial transactions and maintaining accounting and operational accounting. It should be noted that the measures taken to increase labor productivity and automate technological processes in the agro-industrial complex did not have an integrated nature; therefore, they slightly influenced the efficiency of the industry and, as a result, the competitiveness of products. Thus, the development and implementation of a computerized decision support system in crop management based on mathematical models for analyzing and evaluating the economic efficiency of crop cultivation technologies, crop rotation rationalization models, data analysis models of the book on crop field history, optimal selection of plant protection products and fertilizers highly relevant. This scientific project can be considered a priority and highly demanded, as contributing to the implementation of one of the requirements of the State program for the development of agriculture and regulation of the markets of agricultural products, raw materials and food of the Russian Federation for 2013-2020. The aim of the project is to improve the mathematical models and methods for managing technological processes at agricultural enterprises through the development and implementation of an integrated automated information system for crop management. The article is devoted to the theoretical substantiation and expediency of the practical implementation of the program module for solving the problem of planning and calculating the dosages of organic and mineral fertilizers in the field crop rotation of farms of the Krasnodar region, which is a part of the developed integrated automated plant management information system at agricultural enterprises
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SYSTEMIC COGNITIVE MODELING OF THE INFLUENCE OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF WHEAT AND THE SOLUTION OF TASKS OF FORECASTING, DECISION SUPPORT AND RESEARCH OF THE SUBJECT AREA

abstract 1471903015 issue 147 pp. 0 – 0 29.03.2019 ru 17
The purpose of the article is to use automated system-cognitive analysis (ASC-analysis) to study the impact of agrotechnological factors on the yield and quality of wheat and the use of the created models to solve the problems of forecasting, decision support and research of the simulated domain through the study of its model. To achieve this goal, the following tasks are set and solved, obtained by decomposition of the goal and are the stages of its achievement: Task 1: to formulate the idea and concept of solving the problem; Task 2: to justify the choice of method and tool for solving the problem; Task 3: to apply the selected method and tool to achieve this goal: cognitive structuring of the subject area; formalization of the subject area; synthesis and verification of the model; improving the quality of the model and the choice of the most reliable model; solution in the most reliable model of diagnostic problems (classification, recognition, identification), decision support and research of the simulated subject area by studying its model. Task 4: describe the effectiveness of the proposed solution. Task 5: to consider the limitations and shortcomings of the proposed solution to the problem and the prospects for its development by overcoming these limitations and shortcomings. A detailed numerical example of solving the problems based on 217 real examples of wheat cultivation in the fields of the Krasnodar region is given. For readers, it is possible to download this numerical example and install it on your computer to study
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PRODUCTIVITY AND UNDERGROUND MASS OF MEADOW PLANTS IN CONDITIONS OF THE INDIGIRKA RIVER BASIN

abstract 1481904018 issue 148 pp. 0 – 0 30.04.2019 ru 17
For the first time results of researches on potential productivity and environmental role of hayfields in the Indigirka river basin (Momskiy district) are presented. Researches proved that feeding meadow plants in conditions of the Indigirka river basin, depending on the type of vegetation, location and features of root systems, provide maximum crop productivity – up to 18,5 dt/ha of hay with productivity of 1 ha for harvesting exchange energy up to 16,1 gigajoule, fodder units 1130 and crude protein up to 209 kg maximal underground mass accumulation of meadow plants was formatted in the region of Indigirka and Khonuu – mixed and squirreltail barley (hordeum jubatum) hayfield up to 193,6 dt/ha, dry matter and carex duriuscula and squirreltail barley hayfield up to 252,2 dt/ha with the majority of roots in layer 0-10 cm. up to 76-88%. Field of Khonuu, with mixed and squirreltail barley hayfield, contained underground nitrogen – up to 33 kg/ha and labile phosphorus – up to 71 kg/ha. Increased accumulation of labile phosphorus root mass provides enhancement of cold resistance ability in conditions of the subarctic zones of Yakutia
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EFFICIENCY OF APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT AGRO-METHODS TO THE YIELD OF WINTER WHEAT OF THE BRIGADA VARIETY IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE WESTERN PRE-CAUCASUS REGION

abstract 1501906027 issue 150 pp. 0 – 0 28.06.2019 ru 17
The experiment has examined the effect of various agricultural technologies on the yield of winter wheat, depending on the factors studied. The studies were conducted at the experimental station of the Kuban State Agrarian University under the conditions of multifactor multi-year monitoring. The experiment was carried out in a typical for the zone 11-field grain-grass-tilled crop rotation. In this paper, we considered some of the elements of the winter wheat cultivation technology, the Brigade variety using different doses of fertilizers (N50P50K120 and N100P100K240) on four tillage options (plowing, chisel loosening, disc peeling and zero tillage). On the basis of the conducted research, it has been established that in order to obtain a stable harvest of winter wheat grain, higher doses of mineral fertilizers should be applied, which also ensures high indicators of grain quality. The considered agrotechnical methods led to a positive change in crop structure and grain quality
125 kb

INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZERS ON QUALITY OF CHARDONNAY GRAPES AND WINE MATERIALS

abstract 1471903014 issue 147 pp. 0 – 0 29.03.2019 ru 18
The article presents the results of the fertilizers use effect on dry wine materials produced from the Chardonnay variety, grown in the Anapo-Taman soil and climatic zone of the Krasnodar region, Russia. As a result of wine materials analysis, increase of tartaric acid was noted, with the autumn application of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers and the spring application of ammonium nitrate. At the same time, its optimum content was noted with nitroammophos. Also, the minimum concentration of malic acids was detected by the application of nitroammophos with potassium fertilizers. In its turn, early spring application of ammonium nitrate reduced the concentration of malic acid below the control sample (without fertilizers). It was revealed that the use of mineral fertilizers in this winemaking zone also contributed to a reduction of lactic acid in the must. At the same time, the application of nitroammophos (especially together with other mineral fertilizers), contributed to the accumulation of citric and succinic acids, as well as phenolic compounds. Moreover, the application of phosphate-potassium fertilizers in the autumn contributed to the accumulation, and, consequently, also to the increase in the content of phenolic compounds in the resulting must. In addition, the studied samples of wine materials contained high alcohol concentrations and low concentrations of sugars with volatile acids. At the same time, the maximum amount of alcohol exceeding its content in the control sample was revealed when phosphorus-potassium fertilizers were used together with nitroammophos fertilizers. It is also noted that the application of ammonium nitrate did not affect this indicator. As a result, the use of mineral fertilizers in the studied concentrations made it possible to prepare wine materials that contained a low concentration of sulfur dioxide, which is substantially lower than the harmful concentration for humans. In addition, increased concentrations of hydrogen ions in variants with the application of phosphate-potassium fertilizers have made it possible to reduce the number of iron tanates and the intensity of oxidation-reduction processes
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