Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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177 kb

ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF MAN-MADE OBJECTS ON THE SPECIFIC OF HEAVY METALS ACCUMULATION IN THE AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE

abstract 1471903017 issue 147 pp. 0 – 0 29.03.2019 ru 30
As a result of the researching of anthropogenic influence on the agricultural landscape of Public Corporation "Agrofirma "Niva" from human economic activities with are related to: the pesticides and mineral fertilizers using; the work of agricultural machinery, and the movement of vehicles on the highway. The experimental material on the formation of dust masses and the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil. On the researching territory was found out three times excess of zinc MPC* (23 mg/kg, including background) and four times more of lead MPC (6,0 mg/kg, including background) *maximum permissible concentration
314 kb

INFLUENCE OF PREDECESSORS AND TECH-NOLOGIES OF PROCESSING ON DEVELOP-MENT OF WEEDS

abstract 1471903018 issue 147 pp. 0 – 0 29.03.2019 ru 18
Issues related to the contamination of crops are topical and very relevant. All this fully applies to the main crop produced in the South of Russia – winter wheat. In this regard, the presented results of studies of the influence of predecessors and tillage technologies on the development of weeds in the cultivation of winter wheat are relevant. Experimental studies were carried out in conditions of many years of experience located in the FEDERAL state scientific institution «ANTS «Donskoy». The influence of different methods of sowing (ordinary, scattered, belt) and technologies of tillage (dumping, non-dumping, surface, small) on infestation of winter wheat is considered. It is established that the least amount of weed plants is provided at scattered sowing on the background of deep tillage. The main treatment at a depth of 18-20 cm reduces the number of weeds by 47% in comparison with the surface (8-10 cm), and the scattered sowing reduces their number by 80%, since weeds are in more severe conditions compared to winter wheat, the rapid development of which contributes to the optimal nutrition area. Of the predecessors, the most acceptable is the steam with the number of weeds 7-25 PCs / m2, which is several times less than after peas, or corn after silage
1107 kb

RICE VARIETY CALLED LEADER: BIOLOGI-CAL BASIS OF AGROTECHNICAL ELEMENTS

abstract 1471903019 issue 147 pp. 0 – 0 29.03.2019 ru 18
Russian rice variety called Leader is widely cultivated in the Kyzylorda region of Kazakhstan. Elite seeds of the variety are produced in the Krasnodar region. Leader possesses field resistance to blast disease. One of the mechanisms for the formation of rice plant resistance to the causative agent of the fungus Pyricularia oryzae Cav is an increased accumulation of silicon (SiO2). Biochemistry studies have shown that pathogen-resistant varieties accumulate up to 19% silicon in flowering scales, and susceptible - less than 14%. The article presents the study materials of rice plants of the rice variety Leader with sowing rates of 700 and 350 seeds per m2 in the field trials. As a result, a correlation has been established between the plant density of the rice variety Leader, the silica content in the flowering scales of the kernels and the damage to the plants by blast disease. Shoots of rice were obtained when wet, so field germination reached 69-70%. In the first variant, the number of sprouting exceeded 490 pcs/m2 with single-stem plants having poorly developed panicles and partially infected by P. oryzae. The yield of rice was 5.75 t/ha. In the second variant, the density of seedlings was 244 pcs/m2. The plants were well developed, they formed 2 and more shoots at tillering and had large panicles without signs of disease. The yield was 8.10 t/ha. Biochemical analysis showed that in the first variant, the flower scales of single-stem plants contained 13.8% SiO2, and in the second 19.5%. The conclusion was made that for such varieties as Leader, the high density of plant stand is unacceptable. Under conditions of increased competition, rice plants form a weak root system, accumulate little silicon, and therefore can be affected by blast disease. When studying the reaction of the plants of rice variety Leader to different levels of mineral nutrition, it has been defined that the optimal development of plants occurs at the plant density of 240-250 pcs/m2 and the level of mineral nutrition N120P100K50
155 kb

THE STUDY OF THE RANGE OF TECHNICAL GRADES OF GRAPES IN THE ALUSHTA VALLEY

abstract 1461902011 issue 146 pp. 0 – 0 28.02.2019 ru 25
The analysis of varietal and age structure of vineyards occupied by 29 varieties and clones of the technical direction of use in the "Alushta" branch of FSUE "PJSC "Massandra". Taking into account the ecological and climatic conditions of the Alushta valley and the specialization of the economy, the largest share in the assortment of technical varieties is occupied by red grape varieties: Cabernet Sauvignon and clones of Cabernet Sauvignon R5, R8, VCR8, No. 169 including (26.68%), Bastardo Magarachsky and Bastardo clone VCR1 (12.06%), Saperavi (7.33%), Krasnostop zolotovsky (5.69%), Merlot and clone Merlot R3 (4.62 %). White varieties are in a smaller percentage: white Muscat and white Muscat clone R3 (8.47 %), white Kokur (7.1%), Aligote (3.82%), Semillon and clones Semillon № 173 and № 299 (3.68%), Gars level (2.99%). Plantings in the most productive age of 6-10 and 11-15 years are 57.5 % of the total area. At the same time, the share of introduced clones of varieties accounts for 26.65 %. In general, the age structure of the vineyards is favorable. The company produces high quality wine materials for production of traditional Federal state unitary enterprise "PJSC "Massandra" wines: white Port Alushta, Alushta red Port, pink Port Alushta, Alushta red Table, Pinot Gris, Massandra, Madera Crimean Alushta Tokay, white Muscat, Massandra Kokur, Semillon Alushta and sherry wine. In addition, there are new brands of semi-sweet white and red wines Pearl Massandra, as well as varietal wine materials Aligote, Cabernet, Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi, Chardonnay, Bastardo and Semillon. Analysis of the assortment shows that in the production plantings of "Alushta" branch of FSUE "PJSC "Massandra" there are varieties of medium and late ripening, which does not create peaks during harvesting and processing, ensuring uniform flow of raw materials for winemaking. It is necessary to expand the assortment of the economy due to a number of promising varieties of Syrah, Petit Verdot, Malbec, Sangiovese and others with a complex of economically valuable properties introduced from other regions
244 kb

TEMPERATURE REGIME OF THE TREATED SOIL LAYER

abstract 1461902012 issue 146 pp. 0 – 0 28.02.2019 ru 26
The article discusses the influence on the thermal regime of soil by agricultural activities, as well as the results of studies on determination of temperature in different soil layers under conditions of insufficient and unstable moistening of southern Russia. Experiments were performed in the experimental field in FSRI of the «ASC «Donskoy» (Zernograd, Rostov oblast) in terms of long-term stationary experience in the cultivation of soybeans with different technologies (traditional, zero). We performed the soil temperature checking at a depth of 30 and 60 cm using the temperature sensors with a measurement range from -40S to + 85S with a measuring accuracy of ±0,6S. For accumulation of data were used in the logger (weather station) Watch Dog 1400 series Micro. The purpose of the research was to determine and compare the influence of technologies of processing of soil on the temperature of the soil at different levels. On the basis of the conducted researches it is established that the average value of the ambient temperature stood at 23,8S a standard deviation of 3,1S. These figures are higher than the temperature of the soil at the background processed by traditional technology, and the raw background. The lowest average soil temperature at a depth of 30 cm (21,2S) recorded at zero background, obviously due to the presence on the soil surface of plant residues that protect the soil from solar radiation. Thus, the soil as a dynamic system converts the input signal (the ambient temperature) so that it is reduced in size and the rate of change (dynamic). These soil characteristics are determined by the technologies of soil processing
236 kb

PLANNING AND CALCULATION OF ORGANIC MINERAL FERTILIZERS DOSAGES IN FIELD CROP ROTATIONS WITH THE USE OF AUTOMATED INFORMATION SUBSYSTEM (BASED ON THE MATERIALS OF THE AGROINDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF THE KRASNODAR REGION)

abstract 1461902013 issue 146 pp. 0 – 0 28.02.2019 ru 17
The problems of crop management and management decision support are still relevant at the moment. Crop production is of strategic importance and is the basis of our country's food security. The use of information technology in agriculture was limited to the use of computers and software, mainly for managing financial transactions and maintaining accounting and operational accounting. It should be noted that the measures taken to increase labor productivity and automate technological processes in the agro-industrial complex did not have an integrated nature; therefore, they slightly influenced the efficiency of the industry and, as a result, the competitiveness of products. Thus, the development and implementation of a computerized decision support system in crop management based on mathematical models for analyzing and evaluating the economic efficiency of crop cultivation technologies, crop rotation rationalization models, data analysis models of the book on crop field history, optimal selection of plant protection products and fertilizers highly relevant. This scientific project can be considered a priority and highly demanded, as contributing to the implementation of one of the requirements of the State program for the development of agriculture and regulation of the markets of agricultural products, raw materials and food of the Russian Federation for 2013-2020. The aim of the project is to improve the mathematical models and methods for managing technological processes at agricultural enterprises through the development and implementation of an integrated automated information system for crop management. The article is devoted to the theoretical substantiation and expediency of the practical implementation of the program module for solving the problem of planning and calculating the dosages of organic and mineral fertilizers in the field crop rotation of farms of the Krasnodar region, which is a part of the developed integrated automated plant management information system at agricultural enterprises
104 kb

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE INSTALLATION OF PROTECTIVE PLANTINGS ALONG ROADS (SNOW BREAKAGE)

abstract 1451901011 issue 145 pp. 1 – 6 31.01.2019 ru 91
The significant part of our country's roads is subject to snowdrifts in winter. To ensure smooth and uninterrupted traffic in road transport during winter time, road facilities have to use vast amounts of mechanized and manual labor, as well as spend large sums of money. There are cases of snowdrifts on roads and interruptions in the traffic of road transport causing serious damage to the national economy of the country. Road workers face an important task of ensuring uninterrupted traffic in road transport in winter and reduce the cost of the road maintenance. In this regard, road facilities use a variety of means in order to protect motor roads from snow drifts: installation of portable shields, permanent fences, snow-protective plantings of various widths and structures. The evidence from practice shows that forest stand is the most durable, reliable and economical means of protecting roads from snowdrifts (snow breaking tree belts)
258 kb

HYGROSCOPICITY OF MATURE GRAIN AS A MARKER OF WINTER BARLEY AND SUNFLOWER FROST RESISTANCE

abstract 1451901012 issue 145 pp. 7 – 30 31.01.2019 ru 121
In the review article we present a comparative analysis of frost resistance of varieties of winter barley and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by the results of freezing in the refrigerating chambers and by the hygroscopicity of mature grain. On the example of a number of varieties of both cultures, it is shown that the higher the frost resistance of the variety, the smaller the volume of the supernatant can be obtained by extracting the press cake with a solution containing magnesium cations. It is assumed that increased hygroscopicity of winter barley and sunflower press cake is associated with a relatively high content of so - called "water-soluble starch" - β-glucan polysaccharides in its grain. The possibility of regulation of the degree of hygroscopicity under the influence of potassium (KNO3), zinc (ZnSO4) and gibberellic acid (GA3) was studied on a number of sunflower varieties. It was shown that treatment with a solution of potassium (a concentration of 50 ppm KNO3) of sunflower plants at the stage of 4 leaves leads to a significant increase in hygroscopicity of grain and hardiness of plants, little effect was given treatment with zinc (30 ppm ZnSO4) and a lesser effect was observed when treating plants gibberellovaja acid (20 ppm). Potassium treatment significantly intensified the biosynthesis of free Proline, phenolic compounds and soluble proteins. When processing zinc significantly increased the content of carbohydrates in sunflower plants. Hygroscopicity showed a significant correlation with the content of free Proline (R2=0.621), phenolic compounds (R2=0.907), total carbohydrates (R2=0.673) and soluble proteins (R2=0.708). It is assumed that the treatment of plants with potassium and zinc plays a key role in increasing the hygroscopicity of grain. The results of comparative studies of frost resistance on the degree of survival of plants during freezing in cold rooms and the degree of hygroscopicity of mature grain showed that these two methods of assessing frost resistance give very close data. At the same time, in terms of simplicity and low economic costs, the proposed method of assessing frost resistance is many times superior to the method of direct freezing of plants
426 kb

CHANGE OF INDICATORS OF FERTILITY OF BLACK SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES OF CULTIVATION OF MAIZE IN TERMS OF SEED FARMING

abstract 1441810011 issue 144 pp. 1 – 18 28.12.2018 ru 92
The article presents the results of a study to determine the changes in fertility in the typical black soil of the Belgorod region with different technologies of maize cultivation in seed farming
157 kb

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE APPLE MOTH NUMBER BASED ON ENTOMOPATHOGENIC VIRUSES (REVIEW)

abstract 1441810012 issue 144 pp. 19 – 31 28.12.2018 ru 40
The article considers the data on the applicability of bioinsecticides based on the granulovirus as an active ingredient against the apple moth. The methods for producing strains of the Cydia pomonella granulovirus to develop bioinsecticides are explained. The methods for the reproduction of laboratory populations of insects, the method of their infection and isolation of viral onset are described. The stages of obtaining bioinsecticides in vitro, as well as methods for their storage are provided
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