Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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149 kb

CONTENTS AND FORMS OF CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS IN THE WEST FOOT CAUCASUS LEACHED CHERNOZEM IN CONDITIONS OF AGRICULTURAL SOIL GENESIS

abstract 1401806028 issue 140 pp. 123 – 133 29.06.2018 ru 45
Chromium in soils is represented by the following forms of connections: 1) stationary; 2) strongly bound in the composition of primary and partially secondary clay minerals, with one and a half aluminum and iron hydroxides; 3) exchange bound on the surface of one-and-a-half oxides and clay minerals; 4) associated with organic matter of soils; 5) water-soluble compounds. The gross chromium content (70.1-78.3 mg/kg) in leached chernozem is well below clark soils of the world (100 mg/kg). The share of mobile, acid-soluble and acid-insoluble forms of the element compounds is 0.01, respectively; 7.09 and 92.9 % of its gross content. After three rotations of 11-full grain-grass-tillage crop rotation without mineral fertilizers, the chromium content in leached chernozem has not undergone significant changes, even to some extent there is a tendency of its reduction. This indicates the absence of serious natural sources of chromium in the soil. Scientifically-based system of fertilizers for agricultural crops does not lead to anthropogenic pollution of leached chernozem with chromium. The removal of this element with crop yields is compensated by its receipt in the form of ballast with mineral fertilizers
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MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES AND SOWING QUALITIES OF SILYBUM MARIANUM (L.) GAERTN. VARIETY

abstract 1401806029 issue 140 pp. 134 – 142 29.06.2018 ru 27
Distinctive features of seeds of Silybum marianum two varieties – the ‘Start’ and the ‘Debut’ on morphology are presented in the article and also data on influence of storage conditions on sowing qualities of seeds are submitted. Seeds of two varieties differ among themselves on coloring, a form and mass of 1000 seeds. The ‘Debut’ is characteristic sign of a variety existence of dark strips on a surface of seeds. Results of two years of tests have shown that during 1 year from the moment of collecting seeds energy of germination and viability gradually increases and reaches the maximum values in 12 months independently of storage conditions. The viability of seeds of the Silybum stored at the room temperature within 18 months decreases by 8,5-12,5%. As a result of an experiment it has been established that in the conditions of not heated room successful storage of seeds is possible not longer than one year, after that sowing qualities of seeds sharply decrease
209 kb

INFLUENCE OF SOIL MELIORANT ON WATER - PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURAL STATE OF SOILS OF THE KUBAN REGION

abstract 1401806030 issue 140 pp. 143 – 162 29.06.2018 ru 25
In the conditions of the Northern and Southern foothill zones of the Krasnodar Territory, the soil preparation Reasil® Soil conditioner was tested to study its effect on the water – physical properties and structural state of the chernozem of ordinary and alluvial meadow soils. Field and field experiments were conducted in the Northern Zone when maize was cultivated in irrigation. The preparation was applied before sowing by the spreader "Amazone" under pre-sowing cultivation (to a depth of 12 cm) at a dose of 400 kg / ha. In the South foothill zone, the experiment was conducted on a crop – a seedling tomato. The preparation was applied before planting seedlings in a dose of 200 kg / ha. It was established that the application of meliorant did not significantly change the density and total porosity in the arable and subsoil layers of alluvial meadow soil, which was 1,46–1,47 g / cm3 and 44,3–44,5 %, respectively, with practically no pores occupied air (porosity of aeration). However, the use of ameliorant on this soil contributed to an increase in the content of agronomically valuable aggregates in the arable and subsoil horizons, respectively, by 15,9 and 22 %, and the sum of waterproof aggregates by 8,4 and 1,5 %. In the northern zone, when maize was grown, it was established that the application of meliorant did not significantly change the soil density and total porosity in the arable and subsoil layers of the chernozem plain, where it amounted to 1,29–1,32 g/cm3 and 51,6–51,5 % at rather high aeration porosity. The meliorative method reduced the content of agronomically valuable aggregates in the arable layer of chernozem by 15,4 % and increased their quantity in the subsoil horizon (1,4 %). The number of waterproof aggregates increased on the variant with the use of ameliorant, respectively, by 19,9 and 2,8 %
476 kb

THE IMPROVEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY OF THE WINTER RAPESEED (Brassica napus L.) AND CAMELINA (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) IN THE PRODUCTION OF SEED AT THE PRIAZOVSKY ZONE OF ROSTOV REGION

abstract 1391805011 issue 139 pp. 17 – 37 31.05.2018 ru 30
The article are present the planting dates influence on the onset dates of main development phases and seed yields of the winter rapeseed and camelina. The investigations were carried out in conditions of insufficient and unstable moistening on normal black earth in the Priazovsky zone of the Azov district of the Rostov region from 2013 to 2017 years. The rapeseed variety Loris, the rapeseed hybrid ES Neptune and the camelina variety Penzyak were selected for research in two-factor field experiments. It has been established that the guaranteed yield of winter cabbage oilseeds depends on the timing of the emergence phase and the autumn's weather conditions (the sum of the effective temperatures, humidification conditions) that affect the development of the root leaf rosette. The maximum seed yield was registered in the winter rapeseed variety Loris (4.33 t/ha) in the favorable season 2013-2014 years when was sowing in the second decade of September with an autumn vegetation period of 59 days and the sum of effective temperatures about 320° C. The optimal time for sowing of winter camelina variety Penzyak is first or second decade of September. The maximum seed yield (2.04 t / ha) was obtained in 2013-2014. when was sowing in the first ten days of September with an autumn vegetation period of 70 days and a sum of effective temperatures of 417° C. It was revealed that the seeds of this plant are capable of wintering in the soil and the renewal of vegetation in the spring. The loss of harvest is up to 50 % of the overwintered plants yield that have risen in autumn under unfavorable conditions. The optimum period of autumn vegetation that allows forming the potential productivity of winter rapeseed plants can be considered 60-75 days with sufficient moisture supply and the sum of effective temperatures of 250-400° С. At the winter camelina it was 50-70 days with the sum of effective temperatures not less than 200° С
151 kb

CHANGE IN THE STRUCTURE OF BLACK LEACHED SOIL IN THE LOW-WEST AGRO LANDSCAPE DEPENDING ON THE TECHNOLOGY OF CULTIVATION OF FIELD CROPS

abstract 1391805014 issue 139 pp. 38 – 47 31.05.2018 ru 28
The article examines the results of studies on the study of changes in the structure of leached chernozem in the low-west agro landscape, depending on the technology of cultivation of field crops. The research task was to determine the effect of basic tillage (dumping plowing, non-loosening loosening and surface treatment) and fertilizer systems (mineral and organic in crop rotation) on the structure (aggregate composition of the soil) of the old irrigated leached chernozem. It was established that the aggregate composition of the arable layer when cultivating tilled crops (sugar beet, soybean and corn) was noticeably inferior to the structure of the treated layer under crops of solid crops (winter wheat, alfalfa). The content of agronomically valuable soil aggregates for roaches varied from 39.8% in corn to 53.4% in soybean. At the same time, the structural coefficient was 0.7-1.1. Cultures of continuous sowing increased the content of agronomically valuable soil aggregates of the arable layer by an average of 12.2%, and the structural coefficient by 0.6. The replacement of plowing with non-loosening loosening and surface treatment in crop rotation showed that in the arable layer of the aggregated soil particles under the tilled crops practically did not change. This figure was 47.3 and 48.5%, while in plowing it occupied an intermediate position - 48.3%. Under the crops of continuous sowing a tendency to increase agronomically valuable aggregates was noted. The mineral fertilizer system fully worked to preserve the structure of the soil when it was used for plowing. The remaining methods of basic processing against the background of the mineral fertilizer system are less effective. According to the arable crops there was a tendency to increase aggregates of 10-0.25 mm in size. Winter wheat (according to its predecessor - corn and alfalfa), alfalfa of different years of life increased the austerity of the arable layer by 9.0%. Organic fertilizers, introduced twice in the rotation, significantly improve the soil structure in the plow layer. The organic system used for tilled crops in comparison with unmanned crops for plowing, non-rooting and surface loosening increased the number of aggregates measuring 10-0.25 mm on average by a rotation of 10.4. Organic fertilizers in the link of the crops of continuous sowing improved the aggregate composition by an average of 4.3%. Optimal organic fertilizers worked against the backdrop of non-loosening loosening
139 kb

USING MICRONUTRIENTS AND GROWTH REGULATORS IN THE CULTIVATION OF WINTER WHEAT

abstract 1391805015 issue 139 pp. 48 – 55 31.05.2018 ru 30
The introduction of innovative technologies of cultivation of priority crops is not possible without the use of biologics. Their incorporation into the soil or on the leaf surface allows achieving a significant increase in productivity and production quality. Currently, on the market of agrochemical products, micronutrient fertilizers offer a wide and varied range of products, both foreign and domestic production. To select the most appropriate preparations or their combinations in price and the resulting effect is a complex task. Therefore, the aim of this study was the study of living forms of microorganisms and growth regulators on development and productivity of soft winter wheat called Yuka. The research was carried out in 2013-2015 in the fields of training and demonstration center for sustainable technologies in FSRI of the «ASC «Donskoy». As the test drugs we used Extresol 1/t seeds and vegetation 1l/ha; Agrophone KU-8 seeds 2 l/t of the growing season is 2 l/ha; seed Vigor forte of 0,50 g/t on vegetation of 0,25 g/ha; Flavobacterium 1,2 l/t seeds and 0,3 l/ha during growing season; Rostock 0,3 l/t and 0,2 l/ha during growing season; Risotorphine 1,2 l/t and 0,4 l/ha during growing season. As a result of researches it is established that living forms of bacteria preparation «Extrasol» and the growth regulators affected the productivity of winter wheat. The yield increase was from 0,53 t/ha to 0,66 t/ha. Huge positive role was played by biological technology of utilization of plant residues with the use of biological products and growth regulators. The introduction of this technology in the training and demonstration center for the production of winter wheat allowed to get 4056 Rub income from 1 ha, at the level of profitability 158%
144 kb

PRIMARY ASSESSMENT OF COMBINATION ABILITY FOR LINES OF CORN CARRYING TWO SIGNS OF GRAIN QUALITY

abstract 1391805016 issue 139 pp. 56 – 64 31.05.2018 ru 31
Creation is high - olive hybrids of corn is very relevant in modern conditions as these hybrids give 2-3% of oil more than the hybrids used in production. What the mutation Opeik-2 brings if combined with selection on the high content of oil, having created initial material with two qualitative signs? The similar material received in KNIISH in previous years on the basis of lines and hybrids is presented in this article in the context of productivity and the content of signs of quality of grain
208 kb

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL PRODUCTIVITY OF THE WINTER SOFT WHEAT VARIETIES, RECOMMENDED FOR CULTIVATION IN DIFFERENT YEARS, ON THE PARAMETERS OF PLASTICITY AND YIELD STABILITY

abstract 1391805020 issue 139 pp. 65 – 82 31.05.2018 ru 28
The article discusses the results of the research on winter soft wheat which is connected with the studies of yield variability, depending on the year conditions and the variety, conducted in 2003-2014. The objects of the research were 34 varieties included in different years into the State register of breeding achievements and recommended for cultivation. The experiment was carried out by the predecessor of soybean on the medium background of soil fertility. The varieties were being cultivated both with the protection against fungal diseases and without it. The method of dispersive and variance analysis was used in mathematical processing of the yield data. The parameters of ecological plasticity (bi) and yield stability (S2) have been calculated according to the methodology of E.A. Eberhardt and U. A. Russell (1984). The range of variability has been defined according to V.A. Zykin (2000), the fulfillment of the yield potential has been set according to E. D. Nettevitch (2001). The research revealed that the new winter soft wheat varieties included into the State register of breeding achievements are mostly productive and adaptive. Their yield increases mainly due to the upper threshold. The new varieties differ in yield stability but we have not found out a certain pattern. In conclusion it must be mentioned that the implementation of Eberhardt and Russell model in analyzing yield data allows us to estimate general tendencies in its variation when the conditions of the environment change and to identify the most valuable genotypes. In order to rank genotypes according to the characteristics which are being studied we have to choose an agricultural background on which their maximum potential is realized
369 kb

RESOURCE - SAVING TECHNOLOGIES OF GROWING CORN IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE WESTERN CISCAUCASIA

abstract 1381804011 issue 138 pp. 37 – 59 30.04.2018 ru 221
In the article we consider various technologies of growing corn for grain with application of various backgrounds of soil fertility, fertilizer norms, system of plant protection from weeds, pests and diseases with the recommended soil cultivation
420 kb

ECONOMIC AND BIOENERGY ASSESSMENT OF ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES OF WINTER WHEAT CULTIVATION IN THE CENTRAL ZONE OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1381804012 issue 138 pp. 60 – 77 30.04.2018 ru 359
The article presents the results of bio-energetic and economic evaluation of alternative technologies for cultivation of winter wheat, developed in long-term stationary experiments at Kuban State Agrarian University. We study the effect of four factors on the productivity of winter wheat, quality of soil, fertilizers system, systems of soil tillage and systems of protection. We have processed the data for 7 technologies in two rotations of 11 fields grain-grass crop rotation in the Central part of the Krasnodar region on leached black soil of plains of the agricultural landscape. We have established, in the first crop rotation, on the example of varieties of Batyka and Krasnodarskaya 99, that there were changes in costs of production, net profit and the cost of 1 centner of grain, depending on the technology, and the comparative evaluation of bioenergy impact of alternative technologies of winter wheat cultivation to consumption energy costs total energy. We have calculated ratio net of efficiency depending on the technology of cultivation of winter wheat. On the basis of economic and bioenergetic calculations for farms with different level of economy we have proposed an alternative technology: for economically strong, economically average, economically weak farms and for farms located in protected areas where is prohibited the use of chemicals. Thus, producers have a choice of alternative technologies of winter wheat, which will contribute to maximizing profits and obtaining competitive products
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