Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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357 kb


abstract 1592005007 issue 159 pp. 110 – 121 29.05.2020 ru 188
The article introduces a study on the creation of a simulated physical and mathematical model of the working process of a strip thrower, throwing soil in a directed flow. The problem solved with the help of this work is aimed at optimizing the cutting and ejection process in a given direction of the soil with minimal energy consumption with a maximum emission range. The article describes a methodology for calculating the milling thrower, which is oriented to the formation of the required amount of soil to create a mineralized strip at the edge of a forest bottom fire. Improving and realizing the full reproduction of physical and mathematical models using process simulations, you can save resources on the development of forestry aggregates. The study presents a productive method of processing soil with milling cutters, which helps to reduce energy consumption due to the formation of oriented mineralized flows of soil. For a physical and mathematical description of the process, a simulation program has been compiled that allows you to test the specific task of minimizing energy consumption at a maximum distance of soil discharge with a constant flow density to the rotational speed of the milling throwers
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abstract 1592005008 issue 159 pp. 122 – 132 29.05.2020 ru 144
The article presents a methodological approach to the rational selection of the optimal working width by the example of a combined tillage unit using original software. To select the optimal working width of a combined soil cultivating unit, the initial data are: make (type) of the tractor (power tool), unit cost of the machine and tractor unit in comparable prices, production time of the machine and tractor unit to perform the technological operation at a given operating speed with a clear compliance with agrotechnical requirements, both to the technological operation itself, and, directly, to the agricultural machine. As an example, we consider a combined semi-mounted modular tillage and sowing unit for grain crops and the MTZ-82.1 tractor. In this unit, the main working bodies are S-shaped spring teeth and rollers. Based on the performed analytical studies of the pre-sowing (surface) tillage process and the application of theoretical modeling methods, mathematical dependencies have been developed to determine and further analyze the energy-technological parameters of combined tillage units with dynamic working bodies. The performed calculations according to the developed method allow us to choose the optimal working width of the combined soil cultivating unit
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abstract 1592005009 issue 159 pp. 133 – 146 29.05.2020 ru 170
Large areas under commercial rice in many countries of the world including Russia are infested with weed-field red grain forms of rice. In the nineties of the XX century new red grain forms of rice appeared in the rice commercial fields of the Krasnodar region; these plants differed little from the morphotype of the variety in morphological characteristics. Such plants were difficult to distinguish and remove during varietal weeding. The increased content of red rice grains among the elite seeds leads to the rejection of such crops, thus reducing the economic efficiency of the seed production. Researchers do not have a single opinion on the origin of the new forms of the red grain rice. Various assumptions are made on mutations, unlocking of epigene of the pericarp coloration of the caryopsis to return to the ancestral red grain forms, and cross-pollination between cultivated and red grain rice. In 2014-2018 a methodological experiment on artificial hybridization between the white grain variety and rice varieties with colored pericarp of the grains (Mars and Yuzhnaya Noch) was carried out to discover the origin of these new forms of the red grain rice. The article presents an analysis of hybrids of direct and reverse crosses between the white grain variety Snezhinka, having an amylose long grain, and the black grain variety Yuzhnaya Noch with a glutinous short grain. As a result of artificial hybridization, a new initial material was received with a different type of grain in shape, color and consistency of the endosperm. This material is of significant interest for further breeding and genetic research. When evaluating hybrid plants obtained by direct crossing Snezhinka / Yuzhnaya Noch and reverse crossing Yuzhnaya Noch / Snezhinka, a significant influence of the maternal cytoplasm on the formation of quality signs of endosperm has been revealed. This must be considered when planning such studies. An analysis of the economically valuable traits of the received hybrid material brings a conclusion that the new red grain forms in the commercial rice varieties may appear as a result of spontaneous hybridization between red grain and white grain rice
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abstract 1592005010 issue 159 pp. 147 – 164 29.05.2020 ru 177
Progress in crop production depends on many factors; including the important measure is the protection from pathogenic microorganisms. Various chemicals are used to control phytopathogens, such as natural and artificially synthesized ones. Natural compounds are more environmentally friendly, in most cases less toxic and quickly destroyed. The purpose of this work was to find strains of actinobacteria that have antifungal activity and are considered by us as possible sources of antifungal compounds for agricultural purposes. We selected 10 strains of actinobacteria that were isolated from typical regions of Russia. These strains were active against the fungal test strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae RIA 259 and Aspergillus niger INA 00760 when deep cultured. To determine the activity of selected actinobacteria against phytopathogenic fungi, 6 strains isolated from affected plants were used as tests. Morphological and genetic analysis methods have shown that the selected actinobacteria strains belong to two genera and are represented by the following species: Nocardia soli, Streptomyces antibioticus, S. bottropensis, S. chartreusis, S. chromofuscus, S. hydrogenans (2 isolates), S. lusitanus, S. netropsis, S. peucetius. Phytopathogenic fungi are represented by the following species: Fusarium armeniacum (2 isolates), Fusarium culmorum, Alternaria tenuissima (2 isolates), Bipolaris sorokiniana. As a result, it was found that under conditions of submerged cultivation on nutrient media, actibacteria form substances that inhibit the growth of all phytopathogenic tests used in the experiment. The representatives of species N. soli INA 01217, S.chromofuscus INA 01211, S. lusitanus INA 01218, S. netropsis INA 01190 and S. peucetius INA 01255 have not been described as having antifungal activity previously, so we consider them to be the most promising for chemical research to identify new antifungal antibiotics
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abstract 1592005011 issue 159 pp. 165 – 174 29.05.2020 ru 159
The article studies the influence of the plant growth regulator of the retardant type called HEFK (AS 480 g/l of etephone) on the yield and structural elements of winter wheat of Moskovskaya 39 variety under the conditions of the OAO Veryakushi Agricultural Entreprise, located in the north-eastern part of Diveyevo region on gray forest medium loamy soil. Field studies were being carried out for three years: from 2016 to 2019. We studied different application rates of HEFK: 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; and 2.0 l / ha. The processing of winter wheat crops was performed in the phase of the beginning of exit into the tube. On average, over 3 years, the indicators of field germination of seeds and the survival rate of plants at harvest were good and amounted to 88.4-89.2% and 80.1 - 81.3%, respectively. The processing crops by HEFK in doses of 0.5 and 1.0 l / ha, showed the highest crop yield of - 4.07 and 4.12 t / ha, which exceeded the control rate by 0.29 and 0.34 t / ha, respectively. The growth regulator did not showed a significant effect on the density of the productive stem. At the same time, the treatment of HEFK crops in doses of 0.5 and 1.0 l / ha showed an increase in the spike productivity by 0.121-0.133 g due to an increase in spike grains by 3 pcs. In the variant with a HEFK use rate of 1.0 l / ha, the weight of 1000 grains increased by 0.6 g compared to the control rate. An increase in the dose of the growth regulator significantly reduced the height of wheat plants from 72.1 cm in the control group to 48.0 cm in the variant with a product application rate of 2.0 l / ha. The spike length in the variants with the application rate of HEFK of 0.5 and 1.0 l / ha was at the control level - 7.0-7.1 cm, whereas an increase in the dose of the growth regulator to 1.5-2.0 l / ha showed the decrease in the length of the spike by 0.5-0.8 cm. When using growth regulator HEFK resistance of crops to lodging varied from 4.7 till 5.0 points
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abstract 1592005012 issue 159 pp. 175 – 182 29.05.2020 ru 144
In veterinary practice, feed biologically active additives of plant and animal origin are widely used to improve digestion and absorption of nutrients, as well as to correct the normalization of metabolism. One of these biologically active drugs is denatured emulsified placenta (DEP) which has antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulating properties. Therefore, the purpose of our research was to study the effect of DEP on the morphological composition of dog blood. During the research, it was found that the number of red blood cells in dogs of the control group was 1.57% or 0.12 x 1012/l more than in the experimental group. Erythrocytes of dogs in the control group had 0.37% more volume than the same indicator in the experimental group. However, each red blood cell of animals in the experimental groups was characterized by a high content of hemoglobin in it by 1.6%. Before the start of the experiment, the number of lymphocytes in the blood of dogs in the control and experimental groups was 4.07 and 2.34%, respectively, below the minimum reference value. The number of monocytes and granulocytes in the peripheral blood of dogs in the control group was 0.23 and 1.49% higher, respectively, than in the control group. The platelet content was higher in the control group than in the experimental group by 49.38 x 109/l or 27.3%. Changes that occur in the body of dogs under the action of a biostimulator indicate an increase in the production of antibodies to protect the body from infections and ensure the animal's immunity. They completely regulate the immune system
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abstract 1592005013 issue 159 pp. 183 – 194 29.05.2020 ru 195
The article presents a comparative assessment of the meat productivity of young cattle of the two most common intensive meat breeds in the Russian Federation (Aberdeen Angus and Hereford) in comparison with the most numerous native in the South of the country domestic breed, which is Kalmyk. Intensive rearing from 9 to 18 months of age was carried out in the conditions of industrial fattening complex on rations not containing juicy forages. In the process of 273-day intensive rearing, in bulls of the tested breeds average daily live weight gains from 1455 to 1526 grams were achieved. During this period, an absolute increase was obtained in Aberdeen-Angus bulls-416.6 kg, in peers of Hereford and Kalmyk breeds-413.6 and 397.2 kg. The highest pre-slaughter live weight and slaughter rates were noted in Aberdeen-Angus bulls, having a yield of a pair carcass of 59.4 % and a slaughter yield of 62.8 %. The meat of Aberdeen-Angus bulls has the highest content of fat and dry matter, but they have less protein, lower pH and moisture binding capacity and a higher loss of meat juice during cooking, compared with the bulls of the Kalmyk breed. It was confirmed that the coefficients of transformation of protein and energy into products are closely related to the intensity of growth and weight of the carcass. The most effective of these indicators were in bulls of Aberdeen-Angus, then Hereford and Kalmyk breeds. A similar pattern between the breeds was manifested in terms of profitability and cost recovery
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abstract 1592005014 issue 159 pp. 195 – 211 29.05.2020 ru 159
The article considers the types of functional stability of reproduction processes in industrial fruit growing. We have substantiated the necessity of developing methodological bases for ensuring and managing the stability of reproduction processes. Methodological bases for managing the stability of reproduction processes have been developed, taking into account the specifics of industrial fruit growing as a complex organized system, consisting of biological, technogenic and economic subsystems. We have also proposed an algorithm for ensuring and managing the sustainability of reproduction processes, which is the basis for the development of digital technologies for managing the sustainability and efficiency of industrial production. The work reveals and defines factors influencing the level of sustainability and efficiency of reproductive processes, the relationship and interaction between result indicators and factor variables; it identifies emerging imbalances in the organization of reproduction processes in industrial fruit growing. Using methods of mathematical statistics, we calculated an integral indicator of the functional stability of reproductive processes and gave its semantic interpretation. It was found that the structural elements of reproduction processes are inconsistent with the actual indicators that characterize functional stability, with the normative parameters. This trend makes it necessary to develop a mechanism for managing sustainability and tools for influencing functional zones in order to bring actual indicators to the standard level. When developing tools for sustainability management, the following were clarified: management methods, process goal setting, functional load of the management object, level of organization, various restrictions (criteria) related to the specifics of technological and economic relationships and mutual influences. We have developed a mechanism for ensuring and managing the functional stability of reproduction processes in industrial fruit growing by its types, including the following stages: automated database formation; cognitive analysis of the influence of factors on the functional areas of influence by types of stability; assessment of functional stability and justification of the integral indicator; filling in, compensating for missing information, generating information data; determining the optimal parameters of functional stability; developing regulators for leveling functional imbalances in the organization of reproduction processes that ensure effective and sustainable management of industrial production
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abstract 1592005015 issue 159 pp. 212 – 223 29.05.2020 ru 138
In the article, we have studied the influence of biological nitrogen deposition on the physical and chemical parameters of natural semi-sweet wine, on the example of two grape varieties – classic European Chardonnay and interspecific hybrid Ekaterinodar, including amino acids and aroma-forming components. It is established, that the use of the proposed technology contributes to the active consumption of amino acids by yeast in the fermentation stage. At the same time, yeast cells consumed most actively alanine, valine, phenylalanine, histidine, aspartic, aminobutyric, glutamic acids, leucine, lysine, Sirin, tyrosine, threonine. A slight increase in the concentration of amino acids was observed at the end of fermentation, when the yeast cells entered the stationary phase of development. However, the content of all amino acids, with the exception of Proline, in the wine material was less than in grapes and fermenting wort. As a result of biological nitrogen deposition in experimental versions, the concentration of nitrogen compounds (total and amine nitrogen) was three times less than in the control ones. There is a difference in the concentration of flavor-forming components in wines prepared from both grape varieties using different technologies. In experimental versions, we observed a greater accumulation of almost all components of the aroma-binding complex (especially esters, terpenes, phenylethanol, and ionone), with the exception of higher alcohols. Experimental samples of natural semi-sweet wines from the Chardonnay and Ekaterinodar grape varieties were characterized by a bright floral and fruit aroma and had a higher tasting rating in comparison with the classic technology
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abstract 1592005016 issue 159 pp. 224 – 238 29.05.2020 ru 141
In the study, there is an estimation of the biological effectiveness of the agrochemical called “L-express food L-Express-Mangamino”, based on buckwheat. As a result of the research, it was found that non-root feeding of buckwheat plants: the first - in the branching phase, the second-in the budding phase with organomineral fertilizer L-Express-Nutrition brand: l-Express-Mangamino contributed to immune modulation and increased plant adaptability to stress factors of abiotic and biotic nature. Powdery mildew, ascochitosis, false powdery mildew, gray rot spread on the experimental versions did not receive. The use of organic fertilizer L-Express-Nutrition brand: L-Express-Mangamino had a significant impact on the safety of plants. The safety of plants when using fertilizer at a dose of 1 l / ha was 72%, 1.5 l / ha-74.3%, 2 l / ha-75.2%, which is higher in comparison with the control by 0.9%, 3.2% and 4.1%, respectively. Balanced nutrition of buckwheat plants during the growing season contributed to an increase in the number of stems, inflorescences, the number of seeds per plant of buckwheat, the weight of 1000 seeds, increase productivity by 1.1-1.2 times. The positive effect of agrochemicals on the quality of buckwheat grain was established. The size increased when using increasing doses of agrochemicals by 1.0%, 3.1% and 5.2%, respectively, relative to the control