Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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abstract 1592005017 issue 159 pp. 239 – 267 29.05.2020 ru 118
There is a need to clean up the classification methods. This will increase their role in solving applied problems, in particular, in the diagnosis of materials. For this, first of all, it is necessary to develop requirements that classification methods must satisfy. The initial formulation of such requirements is the main content of this work. Mathematical classification methods are considered as part of the applied statistics methods. The natural requirements to the considered methods of data analysis and the presentation of calculation results arising from the achievements and ideas accumulated by the national probabilistic and statistical scientific school are discussed. Concrete recommendations are given on a number of issues, as well as criticism of individual errors. In particular, data analysis methods must be invariant with respect to the permissible transformations of the scales in which the data are measured, i.e. methods should be adequate in the sense of measurement theory. The basis of a specific statistical method of data analysis is always one or another probabilistic model. It should be clearly described, its premises justified - either from theoretical considerations, or experimentally. Data processing methods intended for use in real-world problems should be investigated for stability with respect to the tolerances of the initial data and model premises. The accuracy of the solutions given by the method used should be indicated. When publishing the results of statistical analysis of real data, it is necessary to indicate their accuracy (confidence intervals). As an estimate of the predictive power of the classification algorithm, it is recommended to use predictive power instead of the proportion of correct forecasts. Mathematical research methods are divided into "exploratory analysis" and "evidence-based statistics." Specific requirements for data processing methods arise in connection with their "docking" during sequential execution. The article discusses limits of applicability of probabilistic-statistical methods. Concrete statements of classification problems and typical errors when applying various methods for solving them are also considered
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abstract 1592005018 issue 159 pp. 268 – 279 29.05.2020 ru 182
Obtaining maximum productivity and reducing production costs are the main challenges facing livestock producers in modern conditions. To achieve the effectiveness of the poultry industry, we carried out a research in the utilities sector of the Rostov Region, the purpose of which was to study the effectiveness of the use of a feed additive – bento-clay in the diet of ducklings grown for meat. In the research, we study the influence of various doses of the feed on the diet and growth of ducklings. Experimental research data showed that the introduction of bento-clay into the diet of ducklings as a feed additive allowed to increase live weight, average daily gain, the safety of ducklings, the mass of half-gutted and gutted carcasses, the yield of edible parts, and meat quality compared to the control group. Thus, bento-clay influenced the increase in the water-holding ability of ducklings meat, which contributed to the improvement of its technological properties. Therefore, at three weeks of age, the live weight of ducklings was 11.5% -18.2% more than ducklings of the control group, and at seven weeks of age this difference was 8.4-12%, respectively, and the average daily increase was 7.2 -14.1% with high safety
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abstract 1592005019 issue 159 pp. 280 – 293 29.05.2020 ru 163
The article considers the possibility of using a potato harvester with an unloading device. The principle of operation of an unloading device based on a potato harvester is presented. The unloading device of the root-harvesting machine allows to prevent damage to tubers by damping the speed and lowering the height of the falling heap due to the use of the unloading gutter equipped with a lifting-lowering mechanism made of two differently inclined flat sections, on the inner surface of which, across the gutter, elastically deformable elements are fixed in the form loop absorbers. A group of authors carried out a comparative assessment of the tests of the basic model of the AVR Kolnag potato harvester Spirit 6200 and its improved experimental version with an unloading rating device. The studies were conducted on the fields of the Danko farm of the Lukhovitsky district, Moscow region in 2018 - 2019. Harvesting was carried out alternately from several fields. According to the data obtained, it was found that the level of damage to potato tubers when using the developed experimental version of the unloading device of the potato harvester is 2.1%, which is lower in comparison with the basic model of the harvester. The obtained results of field studies of the experimental unloading device confirmed the results of previous theoretical calculations and laboratory studies, including the high efficiency of the developed device compared to the serial analogue
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abstract 1592005020 issue 159 pp. 294 – 302 29.05.2020 ru 177
These studies are devoted to determining the characteristics of changes in some physiological and biochemical parameters of sweet cherry plants that arise under the influence of the main damaging factor of the spring period - frost and associated with the resistance of the plant organism to the action of stressor. The studies were carried out in 2012 and adjacent 2018-2019 in the fruiting plantations of cherries of the Kuban zone located on horticultural soils: leached chernozem and alluvial meadow. We studied sweet cherry varieties of different resistance to frost. Samples for analysis were selected according to the background of naturally prevailing positive air temperatures. The plant material was frozen in the Binder climate chamber KB 53 for 4 hours at a temperature of 2.5 ± 0.2 ° C. According to the results of the experiment, sweet cherry plants that differ in early flowering are more susceptible to the temperature stressor in the spring in comparison with late flowering plant organisms. Meanwhile, the resistance of plants to frost depends not so much on the date of differentiation of the generative buds, but on the efficiency of the physiological and biochemical activation mechanisms under the influence of an unfavorable synthesis factor in the flowers of indolylacetic acid, which is responsible for the efficiency of the onset of fruit formation, and ultimately a more complete implementation potential productivity. An important indicator of the stability of a plant organism is the degree of change in the content of this phytohormone
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abstract 1592005021 issue 159 pp. 303 – 318 29.05.2020 ru 163
The article presents the results of studying the growth and development of repair heifers of Holstein cattle belonging to the lines Vis Back Ideal and Reflection Sovering. The feeding and maintenance conditions in both groups were the same. In accordance with the generally accepted scheme of drinking during the milk period, the heifers received 180 kg of whole milk and 400 kg of its substitution. Starting from the age of 10-15 days, the heifers were grouped into groups of 15 heads each. The live weight and average daily increments of test heifers varied differently. Linear growth and average daily gains in the experimental group were higher than in the control group. Studies have found that heifers from the experimental group in all the studied periods were superior to heifers from the control group and for the entire period, the average daily increase was 16.5 g more. The average daily increments were at the level of 747.5 and 764.0 g, the live weight by the age of the first insemination was 373.5 kg in the control group and 381.8 kg in the experimental group. Linear indicators have significant differences in height at the withers at the age of 1 insemination; depth of chest behind shoulders in 6-month age and at 1-tion insemination; oblique body length (tape) in the age of the 1st insemination; the chest girth at 12 months of age and at 1-tion insemination. The results of the study show that the cultivation of repair heifers of the Vis Back Idial and Reflection Sovering lines of the Holstein breed further contributes to an increase in the growth of dairy productivity in farms and an increase in gross milk production
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abstract 1592005022 issue 159 pp. 319 – 333 29.05.2020 ru 181
The article gives a review of modern technologies of storage of grapes. The main tool for stabilizing the quality of grapes during transportation and storage is the use of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a gas that has properties that can inhibit non-enzymatic darkening, reduce the activity of enzymes, effectively control the development of Botrytis cinérea (a phytopathogen that causes gray rot) and acts as an antioxidant. Researchers pay particular attention to control the release rate of SO2, as it is important in the first stage storage to ensure supply of significant quantities of SO2 for a short period of time, which eliminates Botrytis spores that are present on the surface of berries and to stabilize the damages formed during transport and filling; the second step is to ensure a steady supply of the minimum quantity of the SO2, to ensure the control of microbiological spoilage. For a long storage time. To preserve the quality indicators of grapes during storage, it is possible to use a modified gas environment created in various ways, including through special types of packaging; forced saturation of the environment with gases such as oxygen, ozone or carbon dioxide. At the same time, to enhance the effect can additionally apply fungicides, antifungal ear Anti-mold®, etc. There are known technologies for complex processing of table grapes to combat post-harvest microbiological spoilage, which provide for the first stage of treatment with ozone or sulfur dioxide followed by spray treatment with Muscodor albus. An alternative to the use of SO2 is the use of essential oils and hypobaric treatment methods that ensure minimal environmental impact. Positive results during storage are provided by the use of medium-range ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) or short-wave radiation (UV-C), which positively affect the transcription of biosynthetic genes, providing an increase in the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of grapes, without affecting the content of dry soluble substances, the value of total titrated acidity and pH during storage. The analysis of modern technologies is of interest to practitioners and researchers who develop technologies for storing grapes
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abstract 1592005023 issue 159 pp. 334 – 347 29.05.2020 ru 184
In the production of seeds of sugar beet hybrids, based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), we use single-fruited male sterile (MS) and ungrown fertile pollinator (Fp) plants as components of the cross. Sugar beet has a two-year development cycle. In the first year, root crops intended for growing seeds are formed, in the second year, a rosette of leaves grows from the vegetative roots of the root crop, and flowering stems grow from the generative buds. The article presents the planting method for seed production of MS of sugar beet hybrids under irrigation during summer thickened sowing. This method allows you to grow root crops-plugs with a yield factor of planting material 1: 6, 1: 7. We have also considered technological methods for growing root crops-plugs of the parent components of MS sugar beet hybrids on irrigation. The features of moisture supply and mineral nutrition systems were studied. The techniques of sowing technology and the formation of density of planting, care of crops, as well as methods for the protection, harvesting and storage of mother beets, contributing to the production of high-quality planting material, have been developed
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abstract 1592005024 issue 159 pp. 348 – 356 29.05.2020 ru 208
The article presents results of theoretical and experimental studies on the justification and experimental confirmation of the influence of hydraulic seeding process modes on the parameters of row seeding technology for seedling crops. It is hypothesized that it is possible to ensure a uniform depth of seeding within 0.5...1.5 mm by feeding seeds into the soil by hydraulic means using a liquid. We have compiled a nomogram of the influence of the height of the initial level of the liquid and its density on the amount of pressure exerted by it on the soil. It was found that the pressure of the polydisperse system on the soil increases with both the density of the liquid and the height of the initial liquid level. Experimental studies have been conducted to study the effect of the pressure exerted by the liquid on the soil and the speed of the drill on the depth of furrow formation and the depth of wetting the soil. The article determines empirical dependences of furrow depth on the pressure exerted on it for different types of soils. It is found that the depth of soil wetting decreases with increasing speed of the drill
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abstract 1582004001 issue 158 pp. 1 – 12 30.04.2020 ru 200
Pneumatic grain seeders with a central dosing system have high productivity due to the presence of a large centralized hopper, as well as a large width of capture. However, they cannot always ensure an even distribution of seeds between coulters. The article performs an analysis of designs of sowing machines. The influence of the angle of rotation of the air mixture in the tap on the drop in seed speed is studied. We also obtained the equation of seed velocity at turns of pneumatic lines of pneumatic seeders. Branches were analytically studied, the outer walls of which were described by various equations in a rectangular coordinate system. Optimal are bends, the contour of the outer wall of which is outlined by the curves of the power function. Analysis of such curves indicates that the optimal curve that provides the smallest meeting angles is a cubic parabola. Based on the considered analytical materials, we found that when developing a pneumatic scheme for transporting seeds of grain crops to the distributor, it is necessary to avoid using taps with horizontal to vertical and from vertical to horizontal
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abstract 1582004002 issue 158 pp. 13 – 26 30.04.2020 ru 147
The article defines the importance of growing potatoes in the Bryansk region. We carried out spatio-temporal re-search of the condition of the industry and identified key shifts in its development over the past 10 years. The pro-portion and its shifts were showed as well. We calculated ranking of administrative areas for potato production in general and by individual categories of farms for the period from 2008 to 2018. It allowed us to find out rates of spatio-temporal movements. The analysis showed increase of concentration and differentiation of growing potatoes in the region