#### Name

Orlov Alexander Ivanovich

#### Scholastic degree

•

•

•

#### Academic rank

professor

#### Honorary rank

â€”

#### Organization, job position

Bauman Moscow State Technical University

#### Web site url

â€”

## Articles count: 150

According to measurement theory, statistical data
are measured in various scales. The most widely
used ordinal scale, scales of intervals and relations.
Statistical methods of data analysis should
correspond to the scales in which the data is
measured. The term "correspondence" is specified
with the help of the concepts of an adequate
function and an allowable scale transformation. The
main content of the article is a description of the
average values that can be used to analyze data
measured in the ordinal scale, interval and
relationship scales, and some others. The main
attention is paid to the means for Cauchy and the
means for Kolmogorov. In addition to the mean,
from this point of view, polynomials and correlation
indices are also analyzed. Detailed mathematical
proofs of characterization theorems are given for the
first time in scientific periodicals. It is shown that in
the ordinal scale there are exactly n average values,
that can be used, namely, n order statistics. The
proof is represented as a chain of 9 lemmas. In the
scale of intervals from all Kolmogorov means, only
the arithmetic mean can be used. In the scale of
relations from all the Kolmogorov means, only the
power means and the geometric mean are
permissible. The kind of adequate polynomials in
the relationship scale is indicated

Among the widely used economic-mathematical models, dynamic programming plays an important role, and among them, models with discounting. The most famous example is the model for calculating the net present value (NPV) as an estimate of the efficiency of the investment project. In the article, it is clarified which features are distinguished by models with discounting among all models of dynamic programming. In models with discounting, the comparison of plans does not change when the time of the beginning of the implementation of plans changes, ie. there is a stability of the results of comparing plans. It is proved that if the results of comparing plans for 1 and 2 steps are stable in the dynamic programming model, then this model is a model with discounting. This theorem shows that the introduction of discounted functions for the estimation of the effect is justified only in stable economic conditions in which the orderliness of managerial decisions does not change from year to year. In other words, if at the beginning of the period under consideration the first solution is better than the second, then at all other times, up to the end of the period under consideration, the first solution is better than the second. Stable economic conditions are rarely found in the modern economy with its constant changes, including those caused by innovations. Therefore, the decision to choose (to implement) an investment project from a set of possible ones can not be based solely on the calculation of discounted project performance indicators, such as net present value and internal rate of return. Such indicators can only play a supporting role. Decide on the choice of an investment project for implementation is necessary on the basis of the whole range of social, technological, environmental, economic, political factors

This article briefly reviews the classical concept of functional dependence in mathematics, determines the limitations of this concept for adequate modeling of reality and formulates the problem, consisting in search of such generalization of the concept of func-tions, which is more suitable for the adequate reflec-tion of causal relationships in the real domain. Also, it discusses theoretical and practical solving the prob-lem, consisting in: (a) we suggest the universal method of calculating the amount of information in the value of argument about the meaning of the function, i.e. cognitive functions which is independent from the subject area; b) we offer software tools: Eidos intelli-gent system, allowing in practice to carry out these calculations, i.e. to build cognitive functions based on a fragmented noisy empirical data of high dimension. We also offer the concepts of nonreducing, partially and completely reduced direct and inverse, positive and negative cognitive functions and the method of formation of reduced cognitive function, which is a generalization of known weighted least-squares meth-od on the basis of observation the amount of infor-mation in the values of the argument about the values of the functions accounting

We have analyzed the current state of the main computer-statistical methods, identified achievements and existing problems, outlined the prospects of further movement and formulated the problems to be solved. We have also discussed the Monte Carlo methods, pseudo-random numbers, simulation, bootstrap and resampling, the automated system-cognitive analysis. We have considered the applications of computer statistics in controlling and properties of statistical packages as the tools for researchers

The real facts presented in this article, demonstrate
the great importance in today's world of strategic
management, methods of analyses of innovations
and investments and the role of the theory of
decision-making in these economic disciplines. We
have given the retrospective analysis of the
development of nuclear physics research. For the
development of fundamental and applied science in
the second half of the twentieth century, we had a
very great importance of the two events: the
decision of US President Roosevelt to deploy
nuclear program (adopted in response to a letter
from Einstein) and the coincidence in time between
the completion of the construction of nuclear bomb
and the end of World War II. The nuclear bombing
of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has determined the
developments in science and technology for the
entire second half of the twentieth century. For the
first time in the entire history of the world the
leaders of the leading countries clearly seen that
fundamental research can bring great practical
benefit (from the point of view of the leaders of
countries). Namely, they can give the brand new
super-powerful weapon. The consequence was a
broad organizational and financial support of
fundamental and deriving from them applied
research. Is analyzed the influence of fundamental
and applied research on the development and
effective use of new technology and technical
progress. We consider the development of
mathematical methods of research and information
technology, in particular, the myth of "artificial
intelligence"

In accordance with the Presidential Decree of 21
August 2012 â„– 1199 one of the 11 integrated
indicators of the activity of executive authorities is
the measure "real disposable income of the
population". For its calculation it is necessary to
measure the level of consumer prices. The article
presents the minimum consumer basket of
physiologically essential food products, designed in
1993 by the Institute of High Statistical
Technologies and Econometrics (IHSTE) based on
the initial data of the Institute of Nutrition of the
Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, and the
results of measuring the cost of the consumer basket
IHSTE and inflation index in 24 years (1993 -
2017). We discuss the application of the developed
tools in Controlling of the level of consumer prices
and living wage. According to M. Orshansky, living
wage can be estimated by multiplying the cost of the
minimum food basket by a factor which is equal to
the quotient of all costs to the costs of food costs for
a poor family. This work is aimed at the elimination
of the monopoly of Rosstat in the calculation of
indices of inflation, the living wage and the real
disposable income of the population. The methods
of the measurement and the use of inflation
constitute an important part of training courses in
econometrics, which are taught in the context of the
scientific-educational complex "Engineering
Business and Management" of the Baumann
Moscow State Technical University. Nobel Laureate
in Economics Vasiliy Leontiev thought that only 1%
of economists analyze the newly collected data, 30%
use the data contained in the publications of
predecessors, and the rest did not turn in their
arguments to the real world. This work belongs to
the 1% of publications (which analyzes the newly
collected data), about which Vasiliy Leontiev wrote

Nonparametric statistics is one of the five points of growth of applied mathematical statistics. Despite the large number of publications on specific issues of nonparametric statistics, the internal structure of this research direction has remained undeveloped. The purpose of this article is to consider its division into regions based on the existing practice of scientific activity determination of nonparametric statistics and classify investigations on nonparametric statistical methods. Nonparametric statistics allows to make statistical inference, in particular, to estimate the characteristics of the distribution and testing statistical hypotheses without, as a rule, weakly proven assumptions about the distribution function of samples included in a particular parametric family. For example, the widespread belief that the statistical data are often have the normal distribution. Meanwhile, analysis of results of observations, in particular, measurement errors, always leads to the same conclusion - in most cases the actual distribution significantly different from normal. Uncritical use of the hypothesis of normality often leads to significant errors, in areas such as rejection of outlying observation results (emissions), the statistical quality control, and in other cases. Therefore, it is advisable to use nonparametric methods, in which the distribution functions of the results of observations are imposed only weak requirements. It is usually assumed only their continuity. On the basis of generalization of numerous studies it can be stated that to date, using nonparametric methods can solve almost the same number of tasks that previously used parametric methods. Certain statements in the literature are incorrect that nonparametric methods have less power, or require larger sample sizes than parametric methods. Note that in the nonparametric statistics, as in mathematical statistics in general, there remain a number of unresolved problems

Control charts are proposed to use as a tool to detect
deviations in the controlling system. This proposal is considered for monitoring flight safety. Possibility of use in practice of airlines of a new indicator of flight safety level and a new method of its monitoring is discussed. As an indicator the ERC of ARMS group,
and as a method of monthly and weekly monitoring â€“ a method of the cumulative sums are offered

We are developing a new organizational-economic
theory - solidary information economy, based on
the views of Aristotle. The name of this theory has
changed over time. Initially, we used the term
"nonformal information economy of the future",
and then began to use the term "solidary
information economy." In connection with
Biocosmology and neo-Aristotelism preferred is an
adequate term "functionalist organic information
economy". This article summarizes the first phase
of work on the solidary information economy. We
have analyzed the array of publications. The main
problems are discussed, the solution of which is
devoted to research related to the considered basic
organizational and economic theory. The founder
of the economic theory is Aristotle. We discuss
Aristotle's positions, on which the economic theory
is based, in particular, solidary information
economy. We prove that the market economy has
remained in the XIX century and the mainstream in
modern economic science - justification of
insolvency of a market economy and the need to
move to a planned system of economic
management. We examine the impact of ICT on
economic activity. We develop the approaches to
decision-making in the solidary information
economy. On the basis of modern decision theory
(especially expert procedures) and informationcommunication
technologies people can get rid of
chrematistics and will understand the term of
"economy" according to Aristotle

The core of applied statistics is statistics in spaces of arbitrary nature, based on the use of distances and optimization problems. This article discusses the various distances in spaces of statistical data, in particular, their conclusions on the basis of appropriate systems of axioms. The conditions and proofs of theorems first published in scientific periodicals