Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Garkusha Sergey Valentinovich

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All-Russian Research Institute of Rice

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Articles count: 2

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abstract 1171603088 issue 117 pp. 1341 – 1356 31.03.2016 ru 558
The article deals with the effectiveness of mineral and organic fertilizers in long-term application (for more than thirty years) according to the influence on the fertility of ordinary black soil of the Western Ciscaucasia and productivity of sugar beet. The investigations were carried out in the long-term stationary experiment laid on the experimental stationary section "Severokubanskaya agricultural experimental station" of P.P. Lukyanenko Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute. The experiment was laid simultaneously in time and space in two ten-course crop rotations and combined grain-grass tilled. In the structure of sown areas sugar beet occupied 10% of crop rotation area and was placed after the winter wheat. During three rotations it was studied: 1- control without fertilizer with natural forming level of mineral nutrition; 2- minimal dose N21P26K16 3- medium dose N43P52K33 ; 4 - N43P52K33, 5- high dose N96P104K68; 6- organo-mineral system¹ N43P52K34 + 12 t/ha of manure; 7- organo-mineral system² N20P24K34 + II-III rotations tillage of straw crop + 6 t/ha of manure; 8- medium dose P52K33; 9- medium dose N43K33; 10- medium dose N43K52. The soil which is used by organo-mineral system with increased and high standards of mineral fertilizers had higher concentration of mineral nitrogen. Long systematic application of fertilizer had more noticeable effect on soil phosphorus regime. The provision of soil by exchange potassium tended to decline from rotation to rotation. If at the completion of the first rotation the content of this battery was at the level 362,0-433,0 mg / kg of soil, in 2010, these values were 356,0-405,0 mg / kg of soil, remaining at the level of increased and high provision characterized to ordinary black-soil. Fertilizers for crop rotation provided almost equal yield increase: in the first rotation - 4,9-16,0 t / ha in the second 5,3- 17,1, the third 6,1-15,5 t / ha. In the moderate favorable for moisture and temperature conditions during the first and third rotation (hydrothermal index 0,8- 0,76), the value of sugar beet yield was 30,1-46,1 and 35,7-52,1 t / ha, in comparison with tougher conditions for the second rotation (hydrothermal index 0,41- 1,96) higher up to 2,6-6,5 9,2-16,0 t / ha. Research carried out in long-term stationary experiment showed that long-term use of fertilizers prevents to the loss of soil organic substances, supporting the humus content at the level of 3.95-3.99%, and organicsystems contribute to its reproduction to 4,01-4,21%. soil nitrogen state is stabilized. However, there is a tendency of decrease of the exchange potassium in mineral fertilizer systems. In the conditions of insufficient moisture supply of the northern zone of Krasnodar region the most applicable norm is N60P90R60, both in mineral and organic-systems, ensuring the collection of root crops within 43,0-45,2 t / ha, with an estimated amount of sugar 6,92-7, 14 t / ha. The given systems of fertilizer provide the yield of root crops 53,3-56,0 t / ha with the synthesis of sugar 8,19-8,70 t / ha. Increasing the rate of fertilizer in 2 times from medium to N120P160R120 doesn’t increase the productivity, reduce sugar content of root crop to 0.4-0.8%. It is undesirable to use fertilizer that are unbalanced in nutrition elements in which root crops yield declines from 5.4 to 19.0%, and current biological sugar from 6,1 to 25,9%
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abstract 1171603083 issue 117 pp. 1288 – 1302 31.03.2016 ru 702
This article presents the experimental material obtained from long-term stationary experiment of GNU "Severokubanskaya agricultural experimental station" in P.P. Lukyanenko Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute. Stationary experience was founded in 1978. It had two ten-course crop rotations and combined graingrass tilled. The ordinary black soil, low-humic, heavy loamy in mechanical composition. The capacity of humus horizon is 113-116 cm with a total content of humus on the date of the experience beginning is 3.88%. Arable (0-30cm) layer was characterized by the following parameters: total nitrogen content - 0.22-0.24, mineral -10,0-10,5mg / kg of soil, total phosphorus-0,16- 0,19%, labile phosphorus - 12,2-12,9mg / kg soil total potassium -1,7-2,0%, exchange potassium- 386mg / kg soil. The degree of saturation of bases is 80-90%. The amount of absorbed bases is 30-40 m ekvg/ 100 g of soil. The reaction of the soil solution is weakly alkaline (PH water 8.0-8.2). The predecessor is winter wheat. General Agrotechnics is recommended for a given soil and climate of region. Solid mineral fertilizer were applied as mineral fertilizers in combination with organic fertilizer in the form of half-decomposed cattle manure. According to agro-climatic zonation the northern zone of the Krasnodar region, where the research was conducted, is related to the zone of insufficient watering with hydrothermal coefficient 0.7-0.9 with an annual rainfall of 350.5 to 899.8 mm. During the autumn and winter period, which determines the accumulation of water in the soil, from 150.3 to 426.8 mm of rain falls or 30,4-68,9% of the annual amount. During the vegetation of sugar beet from germination to harvest -112,0- 588,9mm of rain falls, with an average daily temperature of the air 16,5-20,000С, including the period of the greatest growth of roots and accumulation of sugar from 3.2 to 557.1 of rain falls with air temperature 19,5-28,800С. Hydrothermal index is 0,01-2,83. During the years of the research 19% of years have been characterized as unfavorable (hydrothermal index 0.67), 44% of years as moderate on moisture supply and temperature conditions (hydrothermal index 0.99) and 37% of years as favorable (hydrothermal index 1.05). The generalization of the research results obtained by us in the long-term stationary experiment, allowed us to estimate the impact of different standards and systems of fertilizer on the productivity of sugar beet and sugar content in the roots. On average, during the years of research, the root harvest under the influence of fertilizer amounted to 36,7-45,6 t / ha per unit area with the addition to the control variant, that isn’t manurable, amounted from 6.6 to 15.5 t / ha. The highest yield of root is 43,0-45,6 t / ha which was obtained with systems of fertilizer with complete mineral nutrition