Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Iashenko Sergey Alexevich

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Kuban State Agrarian University
   

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INFLUENCE OF ABIOTIC FACTORS ON THE FORMATION OF COMMERCIAL APPLE CROPES AND WAYS OF ITS OPTIMIZATION IN THE SOUTH OF EUROPEAN PART OF RUSSIA

abstract 1531909029 issue 153 pp. 294 – 305 29.11.2019 ru 63
The work is devoted to studying the nature of the influence of individual abiotic factors of the southern territories of Russia on the features of the formation of an economic apple yield in adjacent years and the justification of the possibility of adjusting the course of this process in adverse environmental conditions. The studies were carried out in 2018-2019, which are distinguished by the manifestation of weather anomalies in the summer-autumn period. Field experiments were performed at the farms of the Kuban horticultural zone on soils suitable for planting fruit stands: leached and typical chernozems. The features of the development of plants of apple trees of winter varieties Kuban crimson and Fuji on the stock M9 were studied. In the experiments, an option is provided using foliar treatment of plants with Pomaset fertilizer. The effectiveness of the formation of the economic apple crop depends on the biological characteristics of the used pomological variety, as well as the temperature and moisture conditions during the growing season of the plants. Soil conditions do not significantly affect the course of this process. The probability of losing the potential apple crop at the XII stage of organogenesis (pre-harvest decay) under the influence of abiotic summer stressors: high air temperatures and water deficiency is noted. With the manifestation of extremely high air temperatures in late summer and during the autumn months, a significant increase in the duration of vegetation of various (especially strong-growing) apple varieties was recorded, causing a shift in the process of differentiation of generative buds (stages III-IV of organogenesis) to a later date, and, as a result, - decrease in potential plant productivity in the next season. With the manifestation of abnormal weather conditions, the prospects of foliar treatment of trees in the second half of the growing season with Pomaset fertilizer, which optimizes the fruiting of the apple tree in adjacent years, are shown. At the same time, the fruit yield in the current year is increasing by 9-14%, and in the next season - by 7-10% in comparison with the control values
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