Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Olhovatov Egor Anatolyevich

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Kuban State Agrarian University

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Articles count: 12

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abstract 1231609107 issue 123 pp. 1580 – 1593 30.11.2016 ru 473
Fruit shell - a waste of food and technical products. Only in rare cases they are used adequately to their rich chemical composition. Number of pectin substances in the structural components of the cell walls of fruit shells rather high. We investigated the quantity and quality of fruit shells contained soy pectin. The result of these studies was the proposed method for producing pectin extract from this kind of raw material. It describes how to work on the creation of a method for producing pectin extract from the leaf of soybeans. It's possible to extract pectin from the raw material, not previously used and pectin extract standard quality by applying advanced parameters of the process of conducting the hydrolysis-extraction. Valves soybeans washed with cold drinking water, dried and then pulverized. Then the purification is carried out by impurities. After that hydrolysis-extraction is carried out with a solution of succinic acid with heating. Separation of the liquid phase is carried out after completion of the hydrolease-extraction. We have developed and implemented as described above, the method solves the problem of soybean seed production waste
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abstract 1221608065 issue 122 pp. 940 – 951 31.10.2016 ru 380
The article describes the development of the material formulations of soft drinks based on fruit and vegetable juices and pectin extracts from of various raw materials. We have shown a possibility of designing healthy food with a creative approach to the task. The proposed products are very useful because they contain succinic acid - a natural participant in cellular respiration. Regular consumption of these drinks will help to combat fatigue and stress, and also makes it possible to cope with the socially significant illnesses - high blood pressure, diabetes. This contributes to pectin that displays the body of toxins, normalizes blood pressure. The main technological stages of the process of obtaining drinks developed by us - obtaining pectin extract; obtaining juice from fruits, berries and vegetables; preparing sugar syrup solutions and acids; mixing the components; tasting the resulting mixture; adjustment of taste and composition. We have developed beverages suitable to all categories of consumers
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abstract 1231609106 issue 123 pp. 1567 – 1579 30.11.2016 ru 465
In 2016, the game of rugby for the first time included in the program Olympic Games with a team of seven players. It is well known that achieving significant results in speed-strength sports, which include rugby, is impossible without a high physical, psychological and neuro-psychic loads, which are always subject to the athletes during training and competition. Nutrition should occupy an important place in the training of highly-skilled athletes, rugby players. It is known that the decisive factor in Rugby is an adequate supply of carbohydrates (glycogen, muscle and liver, blood glucose). Prolonged exercise leads to a depletion of glycogen, thus may slow down growth meristematic tissue and worsen the body's recovery after the event. In view of the fact that rugby belongs to the speed-strength sports mind, there are additional requirements for carbohydrates with different chain lengths, easily digestible proteins and basic micronutrients. In the daily diet can not provide the athlete a sufficient amount of protein and carbohydrates, as well as the need to sustain their relationship. To solve this problem, we have to include specialized protein-carbohydrate foods that have high nutritional and biological value in the diet of athletes, rugby players, which are able to quickly restore glycogen stores and protein to prevent loss of muscle when intensive training. Thus, the development and practical implementation of specialized technology of the protein-carbohydrate foods for athletes, rugby players is actual and up-to-date
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abstract 1291705056 issue 129 pp. 758 – 770 31.05.2017 ru 472
At present, electrochemical analysis methods are increasingly used to solve the problem of research on quantitative and qualitative indicators of organic substances. One of the most common electrochemical methods of analysis is conductometry. Along with the straight line, indirect conductometry is often used, in which the substances under analysis react with the corresponding components before the measurement, and the fixed change in electrical conductivity is determined exclusively by the presence of the products of the reaction that occurred. A necessary condition for the application of this method is the presence of ions in the reaction medium, and since the pectic substances are polyelectrolytes, this condition is met, which allows us to use the conductometric titration method to determine the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of pectic substances. The technique we propose relates to technical biochemistry, namely, to the determination of the amount of pectin substances in plant raw materials. We have prepared "standardized" solutions of fractions of pectin substances. Samples of solutions of fractions are taken. Saponification of fractions of pectin substances in the samples of the solutions under analysis is carried out with 2.5 ml of 40% NaOH solution. Fractions of the pectin substances are precipitated with 2.5 ml of concentrated HCl. The solutions to be analyzed are centrifuged in 50 ml test strips at a rotor speed of at least 5000 rpm for 5-7 min. Suspensions of pectin fractions with distilled water are suspended in a beaker for titration with a magnetic stirrer for at least 30 minutes. Conductometric titration of suspensions of precipitates of fractions of pectic substances is carried out with stirring. Based on the results of conductometric titration, graphs are plotted, according to which the volume of titrant consumed for titration of pectic acid is established. Calculation of the mass fraction of fractions of pectic substances is carried out according to the formula. The methodology is distinguished by the simplicity of implementation, which makes it possible to obtain accurate data at high convergence of parallel analyzes, and it saves labor and time costs at all stages of the process
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abstract 1281704049 issue 128 pp. 664 – 677 28.04.2017 ru 478
One of the main ways to increase the economic efficiency and environmental safety of the food industry is the introduction of low-waste and non-waste technologies. A vivid example of the technologies of this group is the production of pectin and pectin products from processing residues for food needs of plant objects - various fruits. We have developed a number of ways of obtaining pectin products from unconventional raw materials objects and on their basis we propose technologies for obtaining commodity pectin and pectin extracts from fruit shells of soya, sainfoin, castor oil, tunga and black nuts. For the purpose of operational analytical control of the pectin complex of the listed raw materials, two methods have been proposed, one of which is presented in the article. The presented technique allows determining the amount of pectin by its fractions at any company of pectin production with minimum expenditure of labor and energy. The methodology is implemented as follows. We dry paper folded filters to constant weight. Standardized solutions of protopectin and hydratopectin are prepared. Samples are taken. Then we neutralize the acid solution of protopectin solution and saponize the pectin substances in the analyzed solutions with 40% NaOH solution for 15 minutes. After that, the pectic substances are precipitated with concentrated HCl and the precipitates are filtered. Then the precipitates on the filters are repeatedly washed with cold distilled water to completely remove the chlorine ions. Filters with precipitation are dried to constant weight. The mass fraction of fractions of pectin substances is calculated by formulas for hydratopectin and protopectin alone. The method as a whole makes it possible to improve the accuracy of the results of determining the mass fraction of pectic substances in plant raw materials, to reduce labor and time costs, and to exclude the use of specific equipment
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abstract 1301706067 issue 130 pp. 922 – 933 30.06.2017 ru 515
The intense rhythm of people's lives in many countries has led to the need to develop and produce «fast food» products. They include dry breakfasts of a porous macrostructure in the form of rods, bars, and flakes, made from cereals, legumes, potatoes and dried fruits. Over the past 10 years, ready-to-eat foods that do not require heat treatment have become popular, the range of breakfast cereals has significantly increased, air grains, pads with filling, asterisks and rings have appeared. The global trend of consumption of slowly digestible carbohydrates predominates. Corn flakes and blown grain began to be used as supplements to soup instead of toast, served for tea and coffee. However, the problem of making and marketing specialized dry breakfasts has not yet been fully solved. The aim of the research is to expand the range of specialized dry breakfasts for people with high physical and mental loads. The tasks of modernizing technology and equipment for the production of dry breakfasts were solved. The methods of preparation for extrusion of easily oxidized in the air raw nuts were developed. Formulations of dry breakfasts for people with high physical and mental loads were developed. The objects of the research are analysis of existing technological schemes, grain, fruit and nut raw materials. We used classical methods of research to determine the composition of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, as well as modern instrumental methods for assessing the qualitative composition of raw materials, semi-finished products and finished products. The research results include the modernization of technology and equipment for the production of breakfast cereals. Formulations of ready-made breakfast cereals with the addition of cereals, dry fruits and nuts have been developed, in order to improve the quality characteristics and nutritional value of the extrudates. The proposed technology and developed recipes are promising for introduction into production
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abstract 1281704088 issue 128 pp. 1257 – 1267 28.04.2017 ru 494
In modern food production, extrusion is an actual and effective variant of intensification of technological processes. Its essential advantage is the possibility of correcting the content of proteins, vitamins and minerals in the finished product. The analysis of works devoted to the problems of obtaining food products of valuable food composition by extrusion technology shows the importance of further work in this direction. The purpose of the work was to analyze the technological methods of producing snacks on a nut-and-grain basis, taking into account the need to obtain a complex of substances of daily requirements with a small volume of consumed food. In accordance with the purpose, the main tasks of the work were identified. To substantiate the expediency of producing grain crips balanced and enriched composition; investigate the chemical composition and substantiate the choice of raw materials for the production of crisps of high nutritional value; to offer techniques for improving the technology of obtaining extruded snacks; to develop recipes and to test the improved technology of obtaining food snacks on a nut-and-grain basis. In the course of the work, the qualitative composition of the main grain and auxiliary plant species was investigated. We studied the optimal technological parameters of the production process of air snacks and original flavor combinations. We established expedient extrusion conditions for obtaining a product with predetermined properties. Various parameters of the final air product obtained by optimizing the formulation components were added when blending CO2-extracts and some types of CO2-meal. The composition and properties of the investigated objects were evaluated according to generally accepted procedures. When creating graphs, optimizing the formulation composition and for static processing of the results of the research, mathematical methods were used. The technological parameters of the production process of air snacks from domestic raw materials and original flavor and biologically active additives are presented. Formulations of new snack products are proposed. Ways of optimization of the applied technology in order to obtain a product of higher nutritional value are presented
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abstract 1261702034 issue 126 pp. 484 – 493 28.02.2017 ru 514
Water is the most important substance of the composition of all living organisms on our planet. Active industrialization of society has led to an increase in the amount of water consumed for the needs of the economy and to increase the volume of poorly treated sewage. In the twentieth century, during the arms race, the United States, the USSR, Britain, France, China, in the tests of nuclear weapons, the deuterium content in groundwater and surface waters has increased significantly. Formed in nuclear fission neutrons loose, falling into the nucleus of a hydrogen atom form a deuterium atom. In the last 70 years, the deuterium content of water bodies has increased by almost 30%. Natural ponds and rivers no longer cope with self-purification of polluted water. In most regions of the country there are restrictions on the use of natural sources of water for drinking and bathing. Only the rare mountain springs and meltwater mountain tops glaciers have pristine purity of water with a low content of deuterium. There is reliable information about the harmful effects of heavy water on biological objects and the possibility of reducing the deuterium content in tap water by technical means. A method of producing so-called "protium" steam distillation of water proven in practice is based on the famous kinetic isotope effect difference of light water boiling temperature (100 С) and heavy water (103 С), but this method is characterized by higher energy costs. It is not economically justified. Another method of forming the light water is electrolysis, which in spite of the considerable power consumption has prospects of implementation. Our job is to create a viable water separation technology with a different isotopic composition. The resulting improved technology for water with DDW will be widely used in the production of beverages and a variety of other foods
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abstract 1271703054 issue 127 pp. 781 – 790 31.03.2017 ru 514
It has long been known that mountain glacier water has special properties. It was found that such water contains fewer molecules with the heavy isotope of hydrogen - deuterium. On Earth, there are constant evaporation-condensation processes. The resulting protium water falls as rain. It is noted that the body of animals, as well as tropical fruits and vegetables containing water with an isotopic composition close to the composition of rainwater into these areas. When the nuclear industry began to produce heavy water, a byproduct of the production was the light water, which had a lower content of deuterium. Over a lifetime, a person drinks about 80 tons of water. As a result, the body receives 12-16 g deuterium and associated oxygen isotope 18O. This leads to damage to the genes, premature aging and the development of cancer. Numerous studies have identified a positive impact of light water on the growth of plants and living organisms. The biological effects of light water include the ability to optimize the biological reaction rate, the stimulation of cell division, radioprotective properties and antimutagenic effect. In Russia and abroad patented several methods and devices for producing light water, with severe medical and cosmetic properties. This water has become popular among the population. It has a higher value in comparison with typical drinking water. The article describes one of such units. In order to achieve its goals there occurs treatment of drinking water and low electromagnetic field is extremely low frequency. This plant is used to produce food protium water in the laboratory. It allows you to clean tap water from the deuterium content of tritium, salts and contaminants
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abstract 1311707114 issue 131 pp. 1389 – 1404 29.09.2017 ru 394
The market for functional food products is continuously increasing and, according to analysts, by 2020 its share will reach 40% of all food products. The development of the healthy food has been gathering momentum in recent years, the search for non-traditional types of raw materials is constantly being conducted, and new recipes for products enriched with natural food additives are being created. In this regard, special attention is paid to the production and use of powdered food additives from plant raw materials. Theoretical significance and practical applicability of powder technologies in different years was substantiated by such famous scientists as Deryagin B.V., Donchenko L.V., Zimon A.D., Zubchenko A.V., Kasyanov G.I., Magomedov G.О., Paschenko L.P., Rebinder P.A., Tilesnik M.A., Yankhin E.D. In their opinion, using natural food additives, it is possible to obtain functional food products with specified chemical composition and properties. The objects of our research were apricot, grape seeds, pumpkin flesh, black currant and seabuckthorn berries, spinach, apples and flour from lowfat barley. In the course of the study, the effect of dispersity of the obtained powders on their antioxidant activity and frictional properties was studied. The expediency of introducing powders into the composition of multicomponent food products for enriching them with carbohydrates, vitamins and microelements is shown. The organoleptic evaluation of the produced powders showed that they have high taste values. The study of organoleptic and microbiological indices of products enriched with such powders indicates prolongation of their shelf life. As the main results of the study, we note the assessment of the chemical composition of the powders from the investigated objects, as well as the improvement of the technology of drying of plant raw materials with sparing technological regimes of its implementation