Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Vasilko Valentina Pavlovna

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professor

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Kuban State Agrarian University
   

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Articles count: 5

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236 kb

CROP PRODUCTIVITY IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE DEPENDING ON THE SYSTEM OF PRIMARY TILLAGE AND FERTILIZERS

abstract 1411807019 issue 141 pp. 77 – 96 28.09.2018 ru 28
The article considers data obtained in long-term stationary experiment in Kuban state agrarian University, which was started in 1991 for old irrigated leached black soil of the central zone of the Krasnodar region. Studies were conducted in two rotations of seven-field grassy-grain-row crop rotation. The duration of irrigation - more than 30 years. It is established that long-term irrigation by sprinkling led to the soil over-compaction in both arable and subsurface layers. In the arable layer of 0-30 cm density of 0.14-0.17 g/cm3 exceeds the maximum allowable. We have noticed a sharp decrease in humus in the arable layer to 2.46-2.67 per cent. The weak acidification of the active root layer was noted, salt PH 5.0-5.3. In the soil-absorbing complex, the content of calcium decreases. It was found that the productivity of crops cultivated in the rotation of two rotations was greatly influenced by the system of basic soil treatment. In the first rotation, the decrease in productivity of cultivated crops against the background of the surface treatment system amounted to an average of 4.2% compared with deep: subsurface tillage and moldboard. In the second rotation after 14 years against the background of shallow surface treatment crop rotation productivity decreased by 11.2 %. The dependence of the fertilizer system and crop yield on the background of different main soil tillage is established. When using the mineral fertilizer system, the decrease in crop productivity, while minimizing the main tillage in the second rotation was 15.2%, and against the background of the organic fertilizer system by 12.7%. The deep sub-soil treatment provided an increase in the productivity of old irrigated leached black soil in the second rotation against organic fertilizers by 3.6%. Thus, the organic system of fertilizers on the background of deep main soil tillage allows to obtain crop yields in the framework of grassy-grain-row crop rotation on wetlands degraded old-irrigated lands is not lower than using high doses of mineral fertilizers
185 kb

PRODUCTIVITY OF GREEN MASS OF ALFALFA DIFFERENT YEARS OF LIFE ON LEACHED CHERNOZEM IN CONDITIONS OF KUBAN

abstract 0931309065 issue 93 pp. 949 – 969 30.11.2013 ru 858
The article deals with the various technologies of alfalfa 1, 2, and 3 years of life with different backgrounds soil fertility, fertilization rates, protection from weeds, pests and diseases at recommended and zero tillage
173 kb

THE BALANCE OF HUMUS WITH LONG-TERM USE OF BLACK LEACED SOIL IN THE PLAIN AGROLANDSCAPES DEPENDING ON AGROTECHNOLOGIES OF CULTIVATION OF FIELD CROPS

abstract 1371803018 issue 137 pp. 91 – 105 30.03.2018 ru 55
In the article, following the results of the first rotation of crop rotation, we consider results of researches on influence of technologies of cultivation of crops of various degree of intensification in a link of field crop rotation on change of the content in arable layer of the black leached soil of one of the main indicators of fertility of the soil – general humus. Determination of the total humus content in the soil layer 0-20 cm under winter wheat cultivated after sugar beet, corn for grain and sunflower ranged in terms of technology options from 3.02 to 3.72 %. Application of organic fertilizers for sugar beet on the variants of the studied technologies, in order to simulate soil fertility levels, from 200 to 600 t/ha and their intermediate application to this crop with a norm of 30 to 120 t/ha contributed, regardless of the method of basic tillage, to an increase in the humus content in the soil from 3.38 to 3.65 %. In the future, as crops rotate in the link of crop rotation, within five years there was a drop in the total humus content in the arable layer according to the variants of the experiment from 0.09 to 0.21 %. Intensification of technologies, increase of crop productivity in the link of crop rotation contributed to the annual loss of humus by 0.02-0.04%. When applying the same average and high standards of organic fertilizers, humus content in the arable layer did not fall below the initial levels of soil fertility and was 3.25 – 3.44 %. This contributed to the maintenance of the total humus content, and therefore, the preservation of soil fertility compared with options where organic fertilizers were not used. It is established that at cultivation of field crops on technologies with application of the non – oval system of processing of the soil, the content of the General humus in a layer of the soil of 0-20 sm averaged 3,39 %. Application in the technologies of soil plowing reduced humus content in the soil to 3.30%, which was inferior to options with non-oval tillage by 0.09%. With the alternation in the rotation surface of the main processing of the soil under cereals and moldboard tilled under (ie recommended system primary tillage) were lost to 0.012% of humus per year, while in the technologies with annual moldboard with side effects of deep loosening tillage, dehumification was of 0.027% per year. In the process of researches it is established that the cultivation of crops in crop rotation on environmentally acceptable technologies with application of the average rate of organic fertilizers on the background recommended for the Central zone of the Krasnodar region the main processing system contributes more to the preservation of humus in the soil compared to extensive technology (control) to 0.04 % and 0.06 – 0.07 percent when using this technology on the background of moldboard and subsurface tillage treatments of the soil
197 kb

THE DYNAMICS OF AGROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BLACK SOIL DURING LONG-TERM AGRICULTURAL USE AND THE WAYS OF THEIR OPTIMIZATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1421808020 issue 142 pp. 41 – 56 31.10.2018 ru 44
The article describes experimental material obtained in two long-term experiments of Kubsau on the impact of certain agricultural practices on the basic agrophysical and water indicators of leached black humus, heavy duty. The study was conducted in two agricultural landscapes of lowland rainfed and irrigated lowland-basin. The state of the agrophysical properties of the arable land in two districts of the region was given by Institute "Kuban Niigiprozems". We have established that during prolonged agricultural use, the biggest change of the parameters of the agrophysical properties occurred in the arable layer 0-20 cm. Particularly noticeable compaction was observed on meadow-black soils of lowland-basin agricultural landscapes. The condition of soil structure and the density of the composition influence of level of soil fertility and the system of primary tillage. With the increase in the level of fertility, the coefficient of structure increases. The density of the composition of the studied cultures are much more dependent on tillage to the end of vegetation, especially high is 1,31-1,36 g/cm, it was given by direct sowing. The most destructive effect on soil structure was made by a surface treatment system. Organic fertilizers encourage soil compaction. Manure has a positive impact on the stock of productive moisture in two-meter layer on the background of deep processing
878 kb

THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES ON THE CONTENT OF THE MAIN NUTRIENTS IN THE SOIL UNDER LUCERNE OF 1 YEAR OF LIFE ON THE BLACK LEACHED SOIL OF WESTERN CISCAUCASIA

abstract 0931309067 issue 93 pp. 982 – 995 30.11.2013 ru 1044
In this article, we review the influence of different production technologies for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the soil under alfalfa, and the impact of culture on the accumulation of nitrogen in the soil
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